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Through most of human history, displays of violence, either between humans or animals, have been an integral component of sport. Violent sports have been global in reach and they have extended across every social rank, though they have been largely a male domain, with many societies placing restrictions on the extent to which women might participate in sports of any kind whether as participants and spectators. Yet the period since 1800 has witnessed an unmistakable redrawing of the place of violence in sport, with many societies becoming considerably more squeamish about sports that manipulate or showcase aggression between men or animals for entertainment. The West initiated legislation prohibiting animal cruelty in the nineteenth century, and these extended, albeit in a piecemeal fashion, to other parts of the globe in the twentieth century. There has also been a global move to restrict the degree of interpersonal violence in martial arts, boxing and wrestling, and although hand-to-hand combat sports remain popular across the globe, regulation has sharply reduced the risk of death or serious during competitive events. As a result, the period 1800-2000 has witnessed new controls on the degree of violence permitted in sport.
The civil unrest that ravaged Angola for nearly 30 years took a heavy toll on the country's wildlife, and led to a lengthy absence of reliable information for many threatened species, including the cheetah Acinonyx jubatus and African wild dog Lycaon pictus. Using camera trapping we assessed the status of these two species in two areas of southern Angola, and complemented our findings by reviewing recent survey reports and observations to provide an update on the species' status. We found unequivocal evidence that African wild dogs are resident and reproducing in Bicuar National Park, where cheetahs appear to be absent. Conversely, cheetahs may be resident in western Cuando Cubango province, where African wild dogs may only be transient. Based on these and other recent records in Angola, we recommend a revision of these species' distribution ranges and note the need for monitoring of these remnant populations and for appropriate attention to any threats.
This essay analyzes the way that Edith Wharton’s writing frames the ethical and ontological relationship between human and nonhuman animals. Disputing a philosophical tradition that defines the difference between humans and animals on the basis of a capacity for language, Wharton – a committed animal lover – ambivalently suggests a less stark species boundary. The “humanimality” rendered in her work depicts human characters who are rendered animal through pain, through extreme experience, and through speechlessness. These representations are most manifest in Wharton’s wartime texts, Summer, Ethan Frome, and Fighting France. Wharton proposes that the appropriate posture toward both human and nonhuman animals is a pity based on the recognition of shared vulnerability to suffering. Yet her writing also frequently frames human–animal boundary-crossing as a mode of gothic excess, suggesting a pervasive anxiety about the very humanimaity that forms the basis of her compassionate ethics.
Human strongyloidiasis is a deleterious gastrointestinal disease mainly caused by Strongyloides stercoralis infection. We aimed to study the possible transmission of S. stercoralis between humans and pet animals. We isolated Strongyloides from humans and domestic dogs in the same rural community in north-east Thailand and compared the nucleotide sequences of derived worms using portions of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) genes. Twenty-eight sequences from the 18S rRNA gene were obtained from worms derived from humans (n = 23) and dogs (n = 5), and were identical with S. stercoralis sequences (from Thailand, Cambodia, Lao PDR and Myanmar) published in the GenBank database. The 28 cox1 sequences from humans and dogs showed high similarity to each other. The available published cox1 sequences (n = 150), in combination with our 28 sequences, represented 68 haplotypes distributed among four clusters. The 28 samples from the present study represented eight haplotypes including four new haplotypes. Dogs and humans shared the same haplotypes, suggesting the possibility of zoonotic transmission from pet dogs to humans. This is of concern since dogs and humans live in close association with each other.
The human–animal bond is beneficial for human health, but companion animals also pose a potential threat as vectors of zoonotic parasites, especially in urban areas where both human and dog densities are high. However, the knowledge about parasitic spillover in the urban environment is relatively scarce. The aim of the present study was to reveal which factors determine parasitic contamination in Estonian towns and provide up-to-date information about intestinal parasites of the Estonian dog population. In total, 657 samples of dog excrement was collected over one year of investigation from five towns in Estonia. Generalized linear mixed models were used to evaluate factors predicting infection risk in urban areas. In general, infection risk and intensity models predicted higher infection with endoparasites for small dogs in smaller towns, especially in apartment-house districts and in potential hazard zones. Helminth eggs and Giardia/Cystoisospora oocysts were detected in 64 samples, with an overall prevalence of 9.8%.
Pale swallowwort (Vincetoxicum rossicum), as well as its congener, black swallowwort (Vincetoxicum nigrum), is a European viny milkweed that has become invasive in natural areas and perennial cropping systems in the northeastern and midwestern United States and southeastern Canada. Mechanical control over 1 to 2 yr has not been effective, but studies of a longer duration are needed. We measured effects of mowing (no mowing or three or six times per growing season) on stem and root crown densities, percent cover, and follicle (seed pod) production of V. rossicum and percent cover of other vegetation over a 7-yr period. Stem density, root crown density, and percent cover of V. rossicum were reduced after 3 to 5 yr of mowing regardless of mowing frequency. Cover of other, mostly nonnative, broadleaf species increased. Follicle production was eliminated in all years of the study. In our environment, mowing three times at monthly intervals during the growing season can prevent seed production. However, mowing must occur for at least 3 yr to reduce, but not eliminate, stands of V. rossicum.
Dracunculiasis is the first parasitic disease set for eradication. However, recent events related to the Dracunculus medinensis epidemiology in certain African countries are apparently posing new challenges to its eradication. Two novel facts have emerged: the existence of animal reservoirs (mainly dogs but also cats and baboons), and possibly a new food-borne route of transmission by the ingestion of paratenic (frogs) or transport (fish) hosts. Therefore, instead of being exclusively a water-borne anthroponosis, dracunculiasis would also be a food-borne zoonosis. The existence of a large number of infected dogs, mainly in Chad, and the low number of infected humans, have given rise to this potential food-borne transmission. This novel route would concern not only reservoirs, but also humans. However, only animals seem to be affected. Dracunculus medinensis is on the verge of eradication due to the control measures which, classically, have been exclusively aimed at the water-borne route. Therefore, food-borne transmission is probably of secondary importance, at least in humans. In Chad, reservoirs would become infected through the water-borne route, mainly in the dry season when rivers recede, and smaller accessible ponds, with a lower water level containing the infected copepods, appear, whilst humans drink filtered water and, thus, avoid infection. The total absence of control measures aimed at dogs (or at other potential reservoirs) up until the last years, added to the stimulating reward in cash given to those who find parasitized dogs, have presumably given rise to the current dracunculiasis scenario in Chad.
Three states and one county now allow Emergency Medical Services (EMS) providers to transport injured law enforcement K9s (LEK9s) as long as no human needs the ambulance at the time. Several other states either have pending legislation or are in discussions about this topic. As additional states ponder these laws, it is likely that the EMS transport of LEK9s will become legal in many states. In the wake of this legislation, a significant void was created. Currently, there are no published protocols for the safe transport of LEK9s by EMS providers. Additionally, the transport destination for these LEK9s is unlikely to be programmed into vehicle Global Positioning Systems. The authors of this report convened a Joint Task Force on Working Dog Care, consisting of veterinarians, EMS directors, EMS physicians, and LEK9 handlers, who met to develop a protocol for LEK9s being transported to a veterinary facility. The protocol covers the logistics of getting the LEK9 into the ambulance (eg, when the handler is or is not available), appropriate restraint, and the importance of prior arrangements with a veterinary emergency facility. A LEK9 hand-off form and a Transport Policy Form are provided, downloadable, and customizable for each EMS provider. This protocol provides essential information on safety and transport logistics for injured LEK9s. The hope is that this protocol will assist EMS providers to streamline the transport of an injured LEK9 to an appropriate veterinary facility.
This document is a resource for Emergency Medical Services (EMS) treating an injured law enforcement K9 (LEK9) in the field and/or during transport by ambulance to a veterinary hospital. A Joint Task Force on Working Dog Care was created, which included veterinarians, EMS directors, EMS physicians, and canine handlers, who met to develop a treatment protocol for injured LEK9s. The protocol covers many major life-threatening injuries that LEK9s may sustain in the line of duty, and also discusses personnel safety and necessary equipment. This protocol may help train EMS providers to save the life of an injured LEK9.
Dog treats might be contaminated with Salmonella. In Canada and the USA, outbreaks of human salmonellosis related to exposure to animal-derived dog treats were reported. Consequently, surveillance data on Salmonella contamination of dog treats have been gathered in many countries, but not in Japan. In the current study, we investigated whether dog treats in Japan were contaminated with Salmonella. Overall, 303 dog treats (of which 255 were domestically produced) were randomly collected and the presence of Salmonella investigated. Seven samples were positive for Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica. Among these isolates, three were identified as serovar 4,5,12:i:–; two were serovar Rissen; and two were serovar Thompson. All serovar 4,5,12:i:– and Thompson isolates were resistant to one or more drugs. Two serovar Rissen isolates were fully susceptible to all tested antimicrobial agents. All Salmonella isolates were susceptible to cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid. The gene blaTEM was detected in two serovar 4,5,12:i:– isolates. The blaCTX−M and blaCMY genes were not detected in any isolates. This study demonstrated that dog treats in Japan could constitute a potential source of dog and human Salmonella infections, including multidrug-resistant Salmonella isolates.
Cystic echinococcosis caused by Echinococcus granulosus is a major zoonosis of public health significance in the Patagonian region of Argentina. This investigation sought to test the hypothesis that the persistence and dispersion of the parasite eggs can be explained by physical and meteorological parameters along with final host infection and behaviour. This observational study was carried out over a five-year period within an enclosure where two dogs harbouring a worm burden ranging from 100 to 1000 mature adult E. granulosus, as well as two uninfected dogs, had previously been kept for six months. Environmental canine faeces, topsoil, pond water, and sediment samples were examined to control for the presence of eggs and coproantigens of the parasite using microscope-based techniques and copro-ELISA plus copro-Western Blot tests. The parasite eggs were detected up to 41 months later in faeces from infected dogs, soil and sediment, and coproantigen tests remained positive for up to 70 months in faeces. Overall, parasite eggs were found within a maximum distance of 115 m from the contaminated dog faeces deposition site. Our findings indicate that under Patagonian environmental conditions, egg persistence and dispersion seem to be related to the worm burden and habits of the infected dog, to prevailing wind direction and to the existence of low bushes as well as natural bodies of water. The present study is the first to provide direct evidence of interaction between bioclimatic conditions and E. granulosus egg dispersion under Patagonian field conditions.
This first zooarchaeological analysis for the Islands of Four Mountains (IFM), Aleutian Islands, Alaska, provides data about local hunter-gatherer resource exploitation over three thousand yr. The majority of zooarchaeological material represents faunal resources that were harvested within several kilometers of villages. Our analysis shows that IFM subsistence system was shaped by the small size of these islands, which is mostly true for all of the Aleutian Islands. The archaeological middens indicate that Aleuts readily exploited new resources when they became available, expanding their dietary niche. Despite human harvesting, most faunal populations remained stable; however, Aleuts overexploited the storm-petrel colony on Carlisle Island.
This study evaluated the effect of Bacillus subtilis C-3102 (Calsporin®) addition to the diet on faecal characteristics and nutrient digestibility in healthy adult dogs. Sixteen Beagles received either a low-energy control diet (CON; 3.35 Mcal metabolisable energy (ME)/kg with 21.8, 27.9, and 50.3% ME as protein, fat, and nitrogen-free extractives (NFE), respectively) or the same diet supplemented with Bacillus subtilis at 1 × 109 CFU/kg diet as probiotic (PRO) for four weeks in a parallel design (eight dogs per diet). In the prior two weeks, all dogs received a high-energy diet (Advance Medium Adult, Affinity Petcare®, 3.81 Mcal ME/kg ME with 24.8, 41.2, and 34% ME protein, fat, and NFE, respectively). Faecal consistency, dry matter (DM), pH, and NH3 were analysed on fresh samples collected at the start and weekly throughout the study. Additional samples were collected for the determination of lactate and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) on days 0 and 21. In week four, a five–day total faecal collection was conducted in six dogs from each diet for the determination of nutrient apparent digestibility. Dogs fed the PRO diet had more firm faeces (P = 0.011) than control dogs and a higher faecal DM content in the first two weeks (P < 0.05). Feeding the PRO diet resulted in a decline in NH3 over four weeks (P = 0.05) and in faecal pH in the first two weeks (P < 0.05) alongside an increase in SCFA content (P = 0.044), mainly acetate (P = 0.024). Faecal lactate did not differ between diets (P > 0.10). Dogs fed the PRO diet showed a higher apparent digestibility of fat (P = 0.031) and NFE (P = 0.038) compared to control dogs. Dog food supplementation with Calsporin® at 1 × 109 CFU/kg improved faecal quality, enhanced fat and carbohydrate digestibility, and contributed to the gut health of dogs by reducing gut ammonia and increasing SCFA content.
The aim of this study was to compare different concentrations of soy lecithin (LEC0.01%, LEC0.05% and LEC0.1%) with egg yolk (Control) in cooling extenders during the storage of semen at 5ºC for 5 days. Twelve dogs (n = 12) were selected, and semen was cooled and assessed after 2, 24, 48, 72, 96 or 120 h. At each time point, sperm were analyzed for kinetic patterns (using computer-assisted sperm analysis), mitochondrial activity (3′3- diaminobenzidine assay), lipid peroxidation (TBARS assay), DNA fragmentation (SCSA®) and plasma and acrosome membrane integrity (eosin/nigrosin and fast green/rose Bengal stains, respectively). The Control group (1814.4 ± 197.2) presented the highest rates of lipid peroxidation at 120 h. Conversely, progressive motility (42.8 ± 4%), linearity (45.4 ± 1%), and VAP (88 ± 3%) were higher in the Control group. In addition, there was lower mitochondrial activity in the Control group at 72 h. Therefore, our data show that lecithin used at these concentrations was not able to maintain sperm viability at as high qualities as would egg yolk. Moreover, the decrease in high mitochondrial activity and the persistence of sperm motility may indicate a compensatory mechanism in canine spermatozoa (i.e., glycolytic pathway). Furthermore, these higher lipid peroxidation indexes could indicate the necessity for future therapy using extenders and antioxidants over a long cooling time for dog sperm.
Hunting is a major threat to wildlife, and the use of dogs for subsistence hunting may significantly impact wildlife. I assessed the impacts of hunting with dogs by comparing the assemblages of species hunted by the Huni Kuin with and without dogs in indigenous lands in southwestern Brazilian Amazonia. I also assessed whether Huni Kuin agreements on hunting with dogs can be effective for conservation. Huni Kuin hunters with dogs rely on a different assemblage of prey than those without dogs; the former strategy targets mainly fast-reproducing, resilient species, whereas the latter method kills several sensitive or threatened species. Hunting with dogs is also limited to disturbed mixed landscapes near villages because the dogs are used to protect crops and are not allowed into forests in order to prevent them from becoming lost. Additionally, compared to hunting without dogs, hunting with dogs results in an equivalent amount of meat with the use of less effort and ammunition. Moreover, hunting with dogs is not associated with an increase in the distance of prey from villages. Therefore, there is no conservation-related reason to prohibit hunting with mixed-breed dogs in subsistence communities. Nevertheless, community agreements mediate local conflicts caused by the social inequalities related to hunting with dogs.
This study explores the parable of the Rich Man and Lazarus, elucidating the details of Lazarus' worldly suffering – what it is that ails him, and whether the dogs are friends or fiends. Fresh evidence from the classical world is brought to bear, including medical texts, miracle stories and philosophical treatises, in addition to overlooked Jewish and Christian testimony. The results establish the plausibility of maladies unrelated to diseases or skin conditions, and reveal the dogs to be positive characters that highlight Lazarus' penury and the rich man's depravity. New avenues into several broader interpretive issues of the parable are explored.
Black swallowwort [Vincetoxicum nigrum (L.) Moench] and pale swallowwort [Vincetoxicum rossicum (Kleopow) Barb.] are perennial vines of European origin that invade natural areas and perennial cropping systems in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada. Both species reproduce via wind-dispersed seeds in the form of achenes with comas, but little is known about the extent of dispersal of these seeds. We studied the relationship of seed release height (0.75 m, 2 m), wind speed at the time of release, seed mass, and settling rate on distance traveled. Vincetoxicum nigrum and V. rossicum seeds traveled up to 72.1 and 79.6 m, respectively. Seeds of both species released from 2 m traveled greater distances than seeds released from 0.75 m, which fell within 20 m of the release point. Release height was the most important factor influencing long-distance dispersal events. Wind speed also strongly interacted with release height for long-distance dispersal of V. nigrum. Vincetoxicum nigrum seed mass was greater and settling rates faster than for V. rossicum. Increasing seed mass generally increased settling rate, which in turn decreased distance traveled, except in V. rossicum, for which longer distance–dispersing seeds had a faster settling rate. Our findings suggest that management efforts focus on reducing the presence of these two vines, especially if there is potential for them to climb up taller vegetation such as trees. Seeds released from these greater heights are more likely to travel far from source populations and initiate new populations. Preventing seed production in small, nonclimbing patches will also help suppress the expansion of these two vines, as seeds can still disperse up to 20 m away from parent plants.
The purpose of this study was to assess the pattern of adult dog bites presenting to a medium size Canadian city’s Emergency Departments.
All adult (≥16 years) patients presenting to Emergency Departments in our region during a 30-month period (January 2013 to June 2015) were identified. Demographics, injury patterns, and dog-specific characteristics were studied.
A total of 475 dog bites were identified. The greatest proportion of dog bites occurred in the summer months (140, 30%). Pit-bull type was the most frequently implicated breed (27%). The majority of patients identified were female (295, 62%). The majority of bites occurred in the hands (264 cases, 56%). Bites occurring in the head and neck accounted for 11% of all injuries. Although 50% of injuries required only washout and dressing, 15 cases (3%) required a complex primary closure. The operating room was utilized in the reconstruction of eight defects (2%). There were four (1%) tendon repairs, one (0.2%) nerve repair, and one injury requiring a skin graft (0.2%). Three patients were admitted to hospital. We identified an overall infection rate of 10%.
Dog bites most commonly occurred in the hands and upper extremities, and carried an infection risk of approximately 10%. Large, muscular breeds were the most frequently implicated. The effectiveness of breed-specific legislation remains unclear, but educational programs for dog owners, children, and health care workers may help decrease the number and severity of attacks.
Livestock guarding dogs are a valuable adjunct to the pastoral community. Having been traditionally selected for their working ability, they fulfil their function with minimal interaction or command from their human owners. In this study, the population structure and the genetic differentiation of three Italian livestock guardian breeds (Sila’s Dog, Maremma and Abruzzese Sheepdog and Mannara’s Dog) and three functionally and physically similar breeds (Cane Corso, Central Asian Shepherd Dog and Caucasian Shepherd Dog), totalling 179 dogs unrelated at the second generation, were investigated with 18 autosomal microsatellite markers. Values for the number of alleles per locus, observed and expected heterozygosity, Hardy–Weinberg Equilibrium, F stats, Nei’s and Reynold’s genetic distances, clustering and sub-population formation abilities and individual genetic structures were calculated. Our results show clear breed differentiation, whereby all the considered breeds show reasonable genetic variability despite small population sizes and variable selection schemes. These results provide meaningful data to stakeholders in specific breed and environmental conservation programmes.
Acupuncture has become increasingly popular in veterinary medicine. Within the scientific literature there is debate regarding its efficacy. Due to the complex nature of acupuncture, a scoping review was undertaken to identify and categorize the evidence related to acupuncture in companion animals (dogs, cats, and horses). Our search identified 843 relevant citations. Narrative reviews represented the largest proportion of studies (43%). We identified 179 experimental studies and 175 case reports/case series that examined the efficacy of acupuncture. Dogs were the most common subjects in the experimental trials. The most common indication for use was musculoskeletal conditions, and the most commonly evaluated outcome categories among experimental trials were pain and cardiovascular parameters. The limited number of controlled trials and the breadth of indications for use, outcome categories, and types of acupuncture evaluated present challenges for future systematic reviews or meta-analyses. There is a need for high-quality randomized controlled trials addressing the most common clinical uses of acupuncture, and using consistent and clinically relevant outcomes, to inform conclusions regarding the efficacy of acupuncture in companion animals.