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Chapter 5 examines how, via the daily parade of summonses, a variety of actors employed local courtrooms to shape the social and cultural contours of marriage and affiliation. As in other aspects of metropolitan life, the courtroom was not merely a venue for the expression of law or norms that were constituted elsewhere or a space for the enforcement of middle-class standards of morality. Legal structures originally developed to protect patriarchal privilege could, to some degree, be co-opted by women instead. Several decades before working-class women could directly shape the terrain of formal politics, they were effectively navigating the terrain of local courtrooms and influencing both their daily practices and the meanings that emerged from them. Their engagement demonstrates how crucial working-class women were to recasting the nature of the state in this period. The adaption of the state to address familial matters occurred in tandem with the adaption of women to the mechanisms of the state.
The first chapter deals with women's various roles within their families and households and covers women of all classes indiscriminately (except for the imperial family). It starts with their central positions as wives, throwing light on the traditional wifely virtues and Roman marital ideals but also on marital problems, including divorce and even murder. The first part is followed by separate parts on women's roles as mothers, daughters, grandmothers, siblings and other relations such as aunts and nieces, and on women's roles in foster families and step families, thus presenting a lively overview of women's various familial roles in the course of their lives and the expectations that went with these different roles. The inscriptions and graffiti record feelings of joy at childbirth, love and praise for a happy marriage, attachment between mothers and children and mourning and anger at bereavement. Many epitaphs express the wish to have died first or the hope to be reunited in death.
The vast majority of manumitted female palace slaves who left the imperial harem later married. Just as the Enderun prepared men to serve the dynasty outside the palace, the protocol, etiquette, and training provided to female slaves in the imperial harem prepared them for their future role in the outside world. Chapter 3 examines the women’s marriage patterns and asks the question: To what extent did palace affiliation impact their marriages? An analysis of the social and professional profile of the husbands shows that a great majority of the women married members of the askeri class, and that these marriages had strategic and symbolic importance for the imperial household. It traces the implications of their marriages for the women themselves, for their husbands, and for the imperial court in the sociopolitical context of the era. The chapter demonstrates that by way of marriage, women’s affiliation to the imperial court took on a different form, and they continued to play a role, albeit a new one, in the political structure.
Margarita de Sossa’s freedom journey was defiant and entrepreneurial. In her early twenties, still enslaved in Portugal, she took possession of her body; after refusing to endure her owner’s sexual demands, he sold her, and she was transported to Mexico. There, she purchased her freedom with money earned as a healer and then conducted an enviable business as an innkeeper. Sossa’s biography provides striking insights into how she conceptualized freedom in terms that included – but was not limited to – legal manumission. Her transatlantic biography offers a rare insight into the life of a free black woman (and former slave) in late sixteenth-century Puebla, who sought to establish various degrees of freedom for herself. Whether she was refusing to acquiesce to an abusive owner, embracing entrepreneurship, marrying, purchasing her own slave property, or later using the courts to petition for divorce. Sossa continued to advocate on her own behalf. Her biography shows that obtaining legal manumission was not always equivalent to independence and autonomy, particularly if married to an abusive husband, or if financial successes inspired the envy of neighbors.
This chapter describes the breeding cycle of kestrels from egg laying to the nestling-rearing phase. It illustrates the different reproductive strategies of males and females, the endogenous mechanisms and environmental conditions that affect the laying date and the clutch size, the adaptive meanings of egg volume and of hatching asynchrony, and the factors that affect the probability of nestlings surviving until fledging.
Chapter 6 discusses children’s relationships with their parents when a mother had migrated while a father stayed at home. This configuration was rare because it so contravened local gender norms it usually signalled inherent family vulnerabilities, typically economic hardship and a father’s physical impairment or else marital discord. In these ‘weak’ families, academically gifted children held out some hope to their parents that with support from the mother’s remittances, the family could strengthen over time. But in families where parents’ relationships were discordant, migrant mothers could be side-lined, while the parents’ divorce or a father’s death could trigger a migrant mother’s complete exit from the striving team. Men whose wives had migrated alone were at gravest risk of negative gender assessment if they earned little. They therefore tried to shore up their masculine worth by entrusting the ‘women’s work’ of childcare to the children’s grandmothers while stressing their commitments outside the home. But intimacy could still develop between the left-behind fathers and children. The family circumstances and the academic aptitude of the children of lone-migrant mothers differed but these children all had to contend with striving pressures and with managing relationships in families perceived by others to be social oddities.
Intimate relationships exist around the world, throughout the lifespan, and are influential in every domain of peoples’ lives. This chapter provides a brief review of the literature on intimate dating and marital relationships including processes such as attraction and relationship initiation, relationship maintenance, and relationship dissolution. A few theoretical perspectives (evolutionary, interdependence, attachment, self-expansion) are highlighted throughout the chapter. A main focus of this review is discussing intimate relationships in the context of gender and culture, including limitations in our current knowledge and suggestions for future research.
This chapter argues that the period is marked by creative legal solutions designed to undermine ecclesiastical control of marital dissolution. The civil courts had begun to consider marriage cases which in 1660 would have been deemed the business of the consistory courts. The canon law prohibition on remarriage after divorce was undermined by private parliamentary acts which dissolved marriages and permitted those involved to remarry. The increasing use of formal and informal private deeds of settlement in which spouses agreed to live apart also weakened strict adherence to church regulations. While these changes did not represent a complete secularisation of Irish marriage law and regulations, they do suggest that men and women were willing to be flexible in their interpretation of church guidelines, particularly when they were considering how to end a problematic union. According to canon law, which guided both the ecclesiastical and civil courts in determining marriage litigation, there were two types of divorce. The first, a vinculo matrimonii (i.e. from the chains of marriage) was, in effect, a judgment that the marriage was null and void because it had never existed in the first place. Far more common in the consistory court and its secular successor were applications for divorce a mensa et thoro or from ‘bed and board’. This was essentially a request for a judicial separation rather than a divorce. Unlike a vinculo matrimonii, a divorce a mensa et thoro did not permit either partner to remarry.
What were the laws on marriage in Ireland, and did church and state differ in their interpretation? How did men and women meet and arrange to marry? How important was patriarchy and a husband's control over his wife? And what were the options available to Irish men and women who wished to leave an unhappy marriage? This first comprehensive history of marriage in Ireland across three centuries looks below the level of elite society for a multi-faceted exploration of how marriage was perceived, negotiated and controlled by the church and state, as well as by individual men and women within Irish society. Making extensive use of new and under-utilised primary sources, Maria Luddy and Mary O'Dowd explain the laws and customs around marriage in Ireland. Revising current understandings of marital law and relations, Marriage in Ireland, 1660–1925 represents a major new contribution to Irish historical studies.
This 15-year longitudinal follow-up of a randomized controlled trial of a parenting-focused preventive intervention for divorced families examined cascade models of program effects on offsprings’ competence. It was hypothesized that intervention-induced improvements in parenting would lead to better academic, work, peer, and romantic competence in emerging adulthood through effects on behavior problems and competencies during adolescence. Families (N = 240) participated in the 11-session program or literature control condition when children were ages 9–12. Data were drawn from assessments at pretest, posttest, and follow-ups at 3 and 6 months and 6 and 15 years. Results showed that initial intervention effects of parenting on externalizing problems in adolescence cascaded to work outcomes in adulthood. Parenting effects also directly impacted work success. For work outcomes and peer competence, intervention effects were moderated by initial risk level; the program had greater effects on youths with higher risk at program entry. In addition, intervention effects on parenting led to fewer externalizing problems that in turn cascaded to better academic outcomes, which showed continuity into emerging adulthood. Results highlight the potential for intervention effects of the New Beginnings Program to cascade over time to affect adult competence in multiple domains, particularly for high-risk youths.
Parental separation is a very common childhood adversity. The association between other adverse childhood experiences and an increased risk of psychosis has been reported. However, the evidence on the risk of psychosis for children of separated parents is limited. In this systematic review, cohort, case–control, and cross-sectional studies, comparing the risk of psychotic disorders for people with and without separated parents, were searched, critically appraised, and summarized.
Studies were searched in PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and the Web of Science, from database inception to September 2019. A meta-analysis, using random-effects models, was undertaken to obtain pooled estimates of the risk of psychosis among participants with separated parents.
Twelve studies, with 305,652 participants from 22 countries, were included in the review. A significantly increased risk of psychosis for those with separated parents was observed, with a pooled odds ratio: 1.53 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.29–1.76), p < 0.001. The association remained significant when cohort, case–control, and cross-sectional studies were analyzed separately. The five cohort studies included in this review showed and increased risk of psychosis with odds ratio: 1.47 (95% CI: 1.26–1.69), p < 0.001.
Parental separation is a common childhood adversity associated with an increased risk of psychosis. Although the risk for an individual child of separated parents is still low, given the high proportion of couple that separate, the increased rates of psychosis may be substantial in the population. Further studies on the risk of psychosis in those with separated parents, and the explanatory factors for this association, are required.
Chapter 2 contends that the seemingly innocent attempt to document citizens through Operation Family (1959–1965) developed into an instrument for consolidating state power. This Ministry of Justice campaign to legalize extra-legal unions and register undocumented Cubans provoked a surge in marriage, a direct consequence – this chapter demonstrates – of fixed-term laws that concurrently restricted the power of the judiciary. The chapter also argues that Cuban leadership advanced legal matrimony in order to supplant female heads of household, whose participation in the paid-labor force could support men engaged in illegal or counterrevolutionary activities. Las Villas and Matanzas, provinces where counterrevolutionaries most threatened revolutionary government authority, had the highest rates of legal marriage during the peak years of the marriage campaign. These two provinces were also predominantly white, suggesting that MINJUS prioritized the regulation and reformation of rural, Hispanic white couples over those of Afro-Cubans. The second half of the chapter examines the inauguration of Wedding Palaces and material benefits meant to incentivize marriage. Popular discourse suggested that Cubans were marrying (and divorcing) in high numbers in order to take advantage of the increased purchasing power allocated to newlyweds. In these ways, couples showed themselves reluctant to acquiesce to the state’s marital expectations.
This study focused on the associations between parental divorce and interparental conflict with young adults’ current attachment-related anxiety and avoidance, and romantic relationship expectations. The moderating effect of attachment history was also investigated. Using a sample of 1,078 Spanish young adults (544 women, 518 men; average age 21.4 years), our results confirmed that parental divorce is not associated with young adult children’s higher attachment anxiety and avoidance nor poorer romantic relationship expectations. Moreover, interparental conflict is more strongly associated with attachment-related avoidance (p < .001) and romantic relationship expectations (p < .05) than parental divorce, yet depending on attachment history. In fact, in support of our hypothesis, a more secure attachment history with mother has a buffering effect on the association between high-unresolved interparental conflict and attachment avoidance (β = .17, p < .001). Findings add to the existing literature and promote a better understanding of the complex associations between parental divorce and conflict on adult children´s current attachment and relationship expectations.
The wellbeing of older adults is closely related to their social relationships. There is a well-documented association of widowhood with social isolation and loneliness, but less is known about the consequences of divorce. This paper focuses on the effects of divorce and widowhood on the characteristics of social networks and loneliness in the Czech Republic. Data from the Czech component of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, 2015, are used. The results show that married older adults have the lowest levels of loneliness and, together with widowed men, the largest network of confidants. However, the size of the network is not associated with loneliness (net of socio-demographic variables). The only characteristic of the close social network that has an influence on loneliness is the presence of a partner in the network. This variable explains part of the advantage of spouses. Divorce is found to have a smaller impact on loneliness than widowhood, but the size of the difference depends on the gender and timing of the event. Widowed men seem to be most vulnerable while persons who divorce at age 50 or later experience the lowest level of loneliness among the unmarried groups. The favourable effect of late divorce can be interpreted in relation to the specific nature of partnership decisions in later life.
In order to understand contemporary Saudi society, it is imperative to focus on local contexts, particularly as Saudi society is not a homogeneous entity. Local context does not necessarily refer to the Kingdom as a unitary body, but rather to specific constituencies and regional areas. This comprehension of diverse Saudi societies is more nuanced and expansive than the traditional perspective of a relatively homogeneous Saudi society as it allows for a greater variation in the study of young Saudi male perceptions of masculinity, gender relations and marriage in everyday life. This chapter discusses perceptions of masculinity, attitudes to gender relations and the vexing problems of making a ‘good’ marriage as related to accepted Saudi socio-cultural norms. In fact, many young men maintain that a Saudi ‘social dictatorship’ exists, one based on historical socio-tribal attitudes and customs rather than solely Islamic jurisprudence and religious norms. Indeed, there is widespread recognition that these socio-cultural norms frequently govern the way ‘things are supposed to be’ in the community. Failure to follow these accepted practices can lead to family conflict and, significantly, ‘loss of face’ within society.
Exposure to high levels of postdivorce interparental conflict is a well-documented risk factor for the development of psychopathology, and there is strong evidence of a subpopulation of families for which conflict persists for many years after divorce. However, existing studies have not elucidated differential trajectories of conflict within families over time, nor have they assessed the risk posed by conflict trajectories for development of psychopathology or evaluated potential protective effects of children's coping to mitigate such risk. We used growth mixture modeling to identify longitudinal trajectories of child-reported conflict over a period of six to eight years following divorce in a sample of 240 children. We related the trajectories to children's mental health problems, substance use, and risky sexual behaviors and assessed how children's coping prospectively predicted psychopathology in the different conflict trajectories. We identified three distinct trajectories of conflict; youth in two high-conflict trajectories showed deleterious effects on measures of psychopathology at baseline and the six-year follow-up. We found both main effects of coping and coping by conflict trajectory interaction effects in predicting problem outcomes at the six-year follow-up. The study supports the notion that improving youth's general capacity to cope adaptively is a potentially modifiable protective factor for all children facing parental divorce and that children in families with high levels of postdivorce conflict are a particularly appropriate group to target for coping-focused preventive interventions.
This chapter argues that the National Socialist regime, despite its urge to penetrate and control all facets of individuals’ lives, did nevertheless also acknowledge and uphold certain notions of spatial and domestic privacy, if not always consistently. In order to explore this, the chapter examines the actions of the judiciary in relation to private space in different types of court cases. These cases include breaches of domestic peace; ‘treachery towards the state’ where utterances critical of the regime were made within the home; marital relations and marital conflicts within family law; and the law on tenancy. Overall, the chapter shows that National Socialism enabled those whom it deemed ‘desirable’ to enjoy a domestic life and to pursue private interests, but the degrees of privacy granted by the law were at no point guaranteed and were regarded as privileges that could be revoked.
This chapter explores personal property and the desire for possessions as a dimension of private life in Nazi Germany. It examines the regime’s promotion of ‘German advertising’ as part of its drive against ‘Jewish’ business and asks how far, if at all, popular aspirations for consumer goods were accommodated within a dictatorship that was geared to a war economy at the expense of private consumption. It goes on to ask how far and with what arguments the regime in wartime encouraged private saving, and it shows that the promotional material used by savings banks often encouraged private saving using arguments – even in wartime – that focused less on patriotic duty than on personal dreams of material possessions. In promoting wartime saving, the regime thus in many respects continued its pre-war encouragement of private consumer aspirations, even if such aspirations were largely deferred.
This chapter examines the career of the novelist and advice columnist Walther von Hollander during the Third Reich, setting it in the context of his longer career before and after Nazism and in particular his prominence as an advice columnist in post-war West Germany. It argues that von Hollander’s books and letters to his readers during the Nazi period contained an ambivalent mix of messages. On one hand, he promoted the idea that individual personal happiness could be achieved during self-optimisation and conscious effort applied to personal relationships. This notion, characteristic of contemporary Western societies, was not specific to Nazism. On the other hand, his advice was also tinged with elements of Nazi ideology that promised to dissolve and eradicate the disappointments associated with individuality through an orientation towards the wider community and the nation.
This chapter examines the home leave granted to soldiers during the Second World War as a fundamental dimension of private life for millions of Germans in wartime. It explores the topic from a number of different perspectives. It outlines the regime’s policies and propaganda regarding home leave as a privilege, focusing on the regime’s goals and its conflicting impulses both to control the time men spent away from their military duties and to allow some degree of undisturbed privacy. The chapter then examines personal letters between home and front in order to explore the expectations and experiences relating to home leave on the part of the men on leave and their wives or girlfriends and families. Finally, it uses cases from military and civil courts to show instances of marital conflict and domestic violence associated with home leave.