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The seventh chapter, “An Era of Optimism,” analyzes the new culture of sanitation practices that helped to define modernity. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, those living in the developed world became accustomed to wearing shoes, using toilet paper, bathing regularly with soap, and utilizing refrigeration systems to extend the life of foods. In the mid-twentieth century, populations in the Global North benefited from population-wide vaccination programs against poliomyelitis, the prevalence of which seemed to have increased as a result of the implementation of better sanitation systems. Based on the "hygiene hypothesis," many specialists believed that poliomyelitis was rare in regions without modern sanitation. This was not the case. Regrettably, polio vaccination did not begin in the developing world until the 1970s. Oral rehydration therapy, a major breakthrough in the treatment of diarrheal disease, saved millions of lives.
This chapter provides a review of anesthetic considerations for children with pyloric stenosis. The disease presentation, genetics and risk factors for pyloric stenosis are presented. The chapter provides detailed analysis of the preoperative work-up and considerations, reviews neonatal dehydration and provides the relevant anesthetic considerations for this surgical group.
The Earth is a powerful organic chemist, transforming vast quantities of carbon through complex processes, leading to diverse suites of products that include the fossil fuels upon which modern societies depend. When exploring how the Earth operates as an organic chemist, it is tempting to turn to how organic reactions are traditionally studied in chemistry labs. While highly informative, especially in terms of insights gained into reaction mechanisms, this approach can also be a source of frustration, as many of the reactants and conditions employed in chemistry labs have few or no parallels to geologic processes. The primary goal of this chapter is to provide examples of predicting thermodynamic influences and using the predictions to design experiments that reveal the mechanisms of how reactions occur at the elevated temperatures and pressures encountered in the Earth. This work is ongoing, and we hope this chapter will inspire numerous and diverse experimental and theoretical advances in hydrothermal organic geochemistry.
Intravenous dextrose aids in the resolution of ketosis in dehydrated patients not tolerating oral glucose and is often recommended in this clinical scenario. Our aim was to determine whether the addition of dextrose to intravenous rehydration solutions results in decreased hospital admissions or other clinically important benefits among dehydrated children or adults.
MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, SCOPUS, and the Cochrane Library were searched by a medical librarian from inception through November 2017. The inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials comparing dextrose containing intravenous solutions with intravenous solutions without dextrose in patients being treated for dehydration, and not already hospitalized.
The database and bibliographies search identified 1,472 unique citations. Only two trials (N = 333) met the inclusion criteria. Both compared normal saline with solutions of dextrose in normal saline. There was no statistically significant difference in admission rates (relative risk = 0.83; 95% confidence interval = 0.62 to 1.10) or revisits (relative risk = 0.54; 95% confidence interval = 0.24 to 1.22). Heterogeneity was low (I2 = 0). No other outcome results were eligible for pooling, but neither study found differences in any clinical outcomes. No adverse events were reported in either trial.
The addition of dextrose to intravenous saline has not been shown to improve clinical outcomes in dehydrated children presenting to the emergency department with gastroenteritis, but the confidence intervals around the estimate of effect are wide and include the possibility of substantial benefit.
The new mineral saranchinaite, ideally Na2Cu(SO4)2, was found in sublimates of the Saranchinaitovaya fumarole, Naboko Scoria Cone, Tolbachik volcano, Kamchatka, Russia. Its discovery and study has enabled the characterization of the thermal decomposition of kröhnkite and provided an insight into the high-temperature behaviour of other kröhnkite-type materials. Saranchinaite is monoclinic, P21, a = 9.0109(5), b = 15.6355(8), c = 10.1507(5) Å, β = 107.079(2)°, V = 1367.06(12) Å3, Z = 8 and R1 = 0.03. Saranchinaite is a unique mineral in that two of its four independent Cu sites display a very unusual Cu2+ coordination environment with two weak Cu–O bonds of ~2.9–3.0 Å, resulting in [4+1+2] CuO7 polyhedra. Each of the Cu-centred polyhedra shares common corners with SO4 tetrahedra resulting in a [Cu4(SO4)8]8– framework with a complex channel system occupied by Na atoms. Saranchinaite is sensitive to moisture and transforms into kröhnkite within one week when exposed to open air at 87% relative humidity and 25°C. High-temperature X-ray diffraction studies were performed for both kröhnkite (from La Vendida mine, Antofagasta Region, Chile) and saranchinaite. During thermal expansion kröhnkite retains its strongly anisotropic character up to its full dehydration and the formation of saranchinaite at ~200°C, which then transforms back into kröhnkite after exposure to open air. The thermal expansion of saranchinaite is more complex than that of kröhnkite. Saranchinaite is stable up to 475°C with subsequent decomposition into tenorite CuO, thénardite Na2SO4 and unidentified phases.
The water uptake by the seed in arid and semi-arid ecosystems may not be continuous, but may occur in hydration and dehydration cycles (HD). In order to investigate the benefits of discontinuous hydration on seed germination of Pilosocereus catingicola subsp. salvadorensis subjected to environmental stresses, an imbibition curve was determined and times X, Y and Z selected, corresponding to 25, 50 and 75% of the first phase of imbibition, respectively. Seeds of two populations (Caatinga and Restinga) were subjected to 0, 1, 2 and 3 HD cycles, with 48 h of dehydration. Water and saline stress responses were tested at five osmotic potentials (0.0, –0.1, –0.3, –0.6 and –0.9 MPa). Discontinuous hydration provided greater tolerance to water and saline stress in the seeds from the Caatinga region. When the seeds were subjected to water stress, the reduction of the mean germination time (MGT) provided by HD cycles decreased with increasing concentration of the solution. In saline stress, the reduction of MGT was greater in the solutions with the highest concentrations. We conclude that the seeds of the same species collected from populations located in different ecosystems have different germination responses after passage through discontinuous hydration and HD cycles. This provides greater tolerance to environmental stresses but with different responses among populations.
An organic polar hydrate was obtained through cocrystallization of 2,4-diaminotoluene (2,4-DAT) and L(+)-tartaric acid (TA) from ethanol. Dehydration behavior of the obtained hydrate was investigated using variable temperature powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and thermal analysis. Proton transfer from L(+)-TA to 2,4-DAT in both hydrate and dehydrated form was revealed via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The crystal structures of both forms were determined using PXRD techniques. The similarities and differences between two crystal structures were analyzed and the role of water in the hydrate crystal structure was demonstrated.
Bettertonite, [Al6(AsO4)3(OH)9(H2O)5]•11H2O and penberthycroftite, [Al6(AsO4)3(OH)9(H2O)5].8H2O, two new minerals from the Penberthy Croft mine, Cornwall, have flexible layer structures based on corner-connected heteropolyhedral columns. Their response to dehydration on heating was studied using in situ synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction at temperatures in the range -53 to 157°C. The bettertonite sample transforms to penberthycroftite in a narrow temperature range of 67 to 97°C with a large (8%) contraction of the layer separation and a 6 Å sliding of adjacent layers relative to each other. Above 100°C a second phase transition occurs to a DL (displaced layer) phase, involving another 8% inter-layer contraction combined with a rotation of the columns. On heating the penberthycroftite sample the phase transition to the DL phase occurs at a lower temperature of ∼80°C. The DL phase is stable to a temperature of ∼120°C. At higher temperatures, increased rotation of the columns is accompanied by a progressive amorphization of the sample. Bettertonite, penberthycroftite and the DL phase exhibit negative thermal expansion (NTE) along all three axes with large NTE coefficients, of the order of-100 x 10 -6 °C-1.
Sapoviruses (SaVs) are responsible for sporadic cases and outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis. Despite this, few studies in India have focused on the epidemiological investigation of SaV in cases of acute gastroenteritis. The aim of this study was to understand the molecular epidemiology, genetic diversity and clinical impact of SaV in diarrhoeic children from Pune, Western India. Between 2007 and 2011, a total of 985 faecal samples from diarrhoeic cases and non-diarrhoeic controls were collected and examined for the presence of SaV by nested RT–PCR. SaV was detected in 2·7% (21/778) of the cases and 1·9% (4/207) of the controls. We observed that the majority of SaV mono-infections caused severe gastroenteritis (67%) with clinical manifestations of diarrhoea (100%), vomiting (73%) and dehydration (80%). All known human SaV genogroups were detected in the study. At least eight genotypes were identified from cases and controls. Genogroups GIV and GV, along with genotypes GI.5, GII.4 and GII.6, were discovered for the first time in India. Two GII.4 study strains were found to be 98·5–99% identical, having a novel intra-genogroup recombinant (GII.1/GII.4) recently reported from the Philippines, suggesting probable evidence of recombination. The circulation pattern of SaV genotypes varied during the study period, with GII.1 being predominant in 2007 and 2009, GIV.1 in 2008, and GV.1 in 2011.
Zeolite–zeolite composite composed of alumina-rich hierarchically porous ZSM-5 cores and high-silicon MFI shells was prepared by a hydrothermal synthesis procedure, in which a commercial ZSM-5 zeolite with a SiO2/Al2O3 of 36 was treated by an alkaline solution and then used as a supporter for epitaxial growth of a polycrystalline Silicalite-1 zeolite shell (denoted as MMZsa). Acid sites associated with framework Al on exterior surfaces of ZSM-5 zeolite cores are therefore passivated in different degrees by the epitaxial MFI zeolite shell. The structural, crystalline, and textural properties of the as-synthesized samples were characterized by x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), N2 adsorption-desorption, in situ IR spectra of pyridine and NH3-TPD. Aluminum species were observed to transfer from the alumina-rich cores to the high-silica shells. The adjustable thickness and SiO2/Al2O3 ratio of the shell offer the as-synthesized composite a potential and high-efficiency catalyst for methanol conversion into gasoline and diesel. As compared with the commercial ZSM-5 zeolite, the composite catalyst exhibits excellent catalytic performances with a longer catalytic life as well as a higher conversion and a slightly higher yield of diesel oil.
Hurricane Sandy, one of the most destructive natural disasters in New Jersey history, made landfall on October 29, 2012. Prolonged loss of electrical power and extensive infrastructure damage restricted access for many to food and water. We examined the rate of dehydration in New Jersey residents after Hurricane Sandy.
We obtained data from 2008 to 2012 from the Myocardial Infarction Data Acquisition System (MIDAS), a repository of in-patient records from nonfederal New Jersey hospitals (N=517,355). Patients with dehydration had ICD-9-CM discharge diagnosis codes for dehydration, volume depletion, and/or hypovolemia. We used log-linear modeling to estimate the change in in-patient hospitalizations for dehydration comparing 2 weeks after Sandy with the same period in the previous 4 years (2008–2011).
In-patient hospitalizations for dehydration were 66% higher after Sandy than in 2008–2011 (rate ratio [RR]: 1.66; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.50, 1.84). Hospitalizations for dehydration in patients over 65 years of age increased by nearly 80% after Sandy compared with 2008–2011 (RR: 1.79; 95% CI: 1.58, 2.02).
Sandy was associated with a marked increase in hospitalizations for dehydration. Reducing the rate of dehydration following extreme weather events is an important public health concern that needs to be addressed, especially in those over 65 years of age. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:188–192)
Non-isothermal dehydration kinetics of a heulandite-type zeolite-rich tuff from Turkey was investigated using thermogravimetric data recorded at three different heating rates (5, 10 and 20°C/min) under nitrogen flow. Isoconversional model-free methods gave a constant activation energy over the temperature range 30–200°C suggesting that the dehydration is a single-step process within this temperature range. The apparent activation energy was determined as: 34.54±1.18, 30.99±1.14 and 27.79±1.42 kJ/mol by the Flynn–Wall–Ozawa, the Kissinger–Akahira–Sunose and the Friedman methods, respectively. The activation energy values determined were less than the activation energy for vaporization of bulk water, indicating control of the dehydration rate by diffusion of water within this temperature range.
This review uses production and climate data to examine global and local production trends that can be related to events such as drought. UK grain quality data is also available and provides an overview of trends in protein content. Literature surveys show a consistent reduction in grain size due to the effects of temperature and/or drought. A review of gene expression studies showed that most genes involved in starch synthesis are down regulated under heat stress. Net protein production is also reduced under heat and/or drought stress but apparently to a lesser degree as the reduction in grain mass is larger, resulting in an increase in protein concentration. Modelling has suggested that adaptation could be achieved by moving production to more extreme latitudes but other research suggests that simply transferring germplasm from one region to another is unlikely to be successful. Another review has identified drought tolerance phenotypes that could be used to breed more drought tolerant crops. At the time of the review, the authors concluded that phenotypic selection was generally preferable to forms of marker-assisted breeding and have used the approach to produce drought tolerant wheat cultivars. Transgenic approaches have also been shown to improve drought tolerance under controlled environment conditions but there are no results to show how well these results translate into improved crop performance under field conditions. The recent advances in genomic data and detecting marker–trait associations suggest that marker-assisted breeding will play a much more important role in breeding drought tolerant cereals in the future.
The high-temperature- and moisture-dependent behaviour of synthetic kanemite (NaSi2O4(OH)·3H2O or SKS-10) has been studied by in situ powder X-ray diffraction. Heating experiments in the range between ambient temperatures and 250°C confirm earlier investigations that the dehydration of kanemite occurs in two steps. According to our results the two different reactions start at ∼30 and 75°C. The dehydration products have the following compositions: NaSi2O4(OH)·H2O (monohydrate) and NaSi2O4(OH), respectively. The crystal structures of both phases have been solved at ambient conditions ab initio from laboratory powder diffraction data using samples that have been carefully dehydrated at 60 and 150°C, respectively, and refined subsequently by the Rietveld method. Basic crystallographic data are as follows: NaSi2O4(OH)·H2O: orthorhombic, space group Pna21, a = 7.2019(1), b = 15.3252(2), c = 4.8869(1) Å, V = 539.37(1) Å3, Z = 4; NaSi2O4(OH): monoclinic, space group P21, a = 6.3873(1), b = 4.8876(1), c = 7.1936(1) Å, β = 93.36(1)°, V = 224.19(1) Å3, Z = 2. Both compounds belong to the group of single-layer silicates based on Si2O4 (OH) sheets. The sodium cations are located between the tetrahedral sheets and are surrounded by oxygen atoms from silicate anions and/or water molecules. Depending on the dehydration step the coordination numbers of the alkali ions vary between six (kanemite) and five (NaSi2O4(OH)). Kanemite and its two dehydration products show structural similarities which are discussed in detail. Moisture-dependent diffraction studies at ambient temperatures indicate that kanemite is stable between 10% and at least 90% relative humidity. Below the lower threshold a transformation to the monohydrate phase was observed. Dehydration and rehydration as a function of humidity is reversible. However, this process is combined with a significant loss of crystallinity of the samples.
Supposed 'merlinoite' crystals from Monte Somma, Vesuvius (Italy) and Fosso Attici, north of Rome (Italy) represent highly twinned coherent intergrowths between merlinoite and phillipsite on a submicroscopic level. The MER (Immm, a ≈ 14.1, b ≈ 14.2, c ≈ 9.9 Å) and PHI (P 21/m, a ≈ 9.9, b ≈ 14.3, c ≈ 8.7 Å, β = 124.8°) frameworks of similar composition are assembled from identical tetrahedral units, though with a different connectivity. Coherent intergrowth and twinning of the two frameworks lead to P42/mnm pseudosymmetry, which is diagnostic of the intergrowth. Under ambient conditions merlinoite has Immm symmetry or I4/mmm if twinned. a low-symmetry model of space group P121/m1 (a ≈ 14.2, b ≈ 14.2, c ≈ 10 Å, β = 90°) allows structure refinement and quantification of the two frameworks.
Upon in situ dehydration to 250°C the evolution of the unit-cell volume of the Monte Somma merlinoite/phillipsite intergrowth displays an intermediate trend between previously studied pure merlinoite from the Khibiny massif (Russia) and Ba-rich phillipsite.
The Monte Somma crystal studied by temperature-dependent single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods also contained a subordinate chabazite inclusion with no coherent structural relationship to the merlinoite/phillipsite framework. Thus, the modification of the chabazite framework on dehydration could also be studied.
Both acute and chronic dehydration can have important implications for human behaviour and health. Young children, non-autonomous individuals and the elderly are at a greater risk of dehydration. Mild hypertonic dehydration could be related to less efficient cognitive and physical performance and has been reported to be associated with frequently occurring pathological conditions, especially nephrolithiasis. The assessment of hydration status in a large sample appears to be of interest for conducting epidemiological and large clinical studies aimed at improving preventive and curative care. Especially in large-population studies, methods that are used have to be accurate, cheap, quick and require no technical expertise. Body weight change is widely used to determine acute hydration changes, but seems to be insufficiently accurate in longitudinal studies. Bioimpedance analysis methods enable the assessment of total body water content, but their use is still under debate. Because plasma osmolality directly reflects intracellular osmolality, it constitutes a good marker to assess acute hydration changes, but not chronic hydration status because it changes constantly. Moreover, venepuncture is considered to be invasive and is not suitable for a large-sample study, especially in children. Urinary markers appear to be good alternatives for assessing hydration status in large populations. Collection of urine samples is non-invasive and cheap. High technical expertise is not required to perform urinary marker measurements and these measurements can be carried out quickly. Thus, methods based on urinary markers are very well suited for field studies. Urine colour is probably the least sensitive marker despite its high specificity. Urine osmolality and especially urine specific gravity could be easily used for determining hydration status in large-sample studies.
In pest management programmes that incorporate the sterile insect technique (SIT), the ability of mass-reared insects to tolerate dry conditions may influence their survival after release in the field. In the present study, desiccation resistance of adult mass-reared Queensland fruit flies, Bactrocera tryoni (Frogatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae), that are routinely released in SIT programmes was compared with that of wild flies at 1, 10 and 20 days after adult eclosion. Under dry conditions without access to food or water, longevity of mass-reared B. tryoni was significantly less than that of their wild counterparts. Desiccation resistance of mass-reared flies declined monotonically with age, but this was not the case for wild flies. The sharp decline in desiccation resistance of mass-reared flies as they aged was likely explained by decreased dehydration tolerance. As in an earlier study, desiccation resistance of females was significantly lower than that of males but this was particularly pronounced in mass-reared females. Female susceptibility to dry conditions corresponded with declining dehydration tolerance with age and associated patterns of reproductive development, which suggests that water content of their oocyte load is not available for survival during periods of water stress.
The present study evaluated, using a well-controlled dehydration protocol, the effects of 24 h fluid deprivation (FD) on selected mood and physiological parameters. In the present cross-over study, twenty healthy women (age 25 (se 0·78) years) participated in two randomised sessions: FD-induced dehydration v. a fully hydrated control condition. In the FD period, the last water intake was between 18.00 and 19.00 hours and no beverages were allowed until 18.00 hours on the next day (23–24 h). Water intake was only permitted at fixed periods during the control condition. Physiological parameters in the urine, blood and saliva (osmolality) as well as mood and sensations (headache and thirst) were compared across the experimental conditions. Safety was monitored throughout the study. The FD protocol was effective as indicated by a significant reduction in urine output. No clinical abnormalities of biological parameters or vital signs were observed, although heart rate was increased by FD. Increased urine specific gravity, darker urine colour and increased thirst were early markers of dehydration. Interestingly, dehydration also induced a significant increase in saliva osmolality at the end of the 24 h FD period but plasma osmolality remained unchanged. The significant effects of FD on mood included decreased alertness and increased sleepiness, fatigue and confusion. The most consistent effects of mild dehydration on mood are on sleep/wake parameters. Urine specific gravity appears to be the best physiological measure of hydration status in subjects with a normal level of activity; saliva osmolality is another reliable and non-invasive method for assessing hydration status.
Introduction. Depuis quelques années, le séchage des fruits et légumes à
petite échelle connait un regain d’intérêt au Cameroun, que ce soit pour la vente locale
ou pour celle d’exportation. Or, les transformateurs qui pratiquent cette activité ne sont
pas satisfaits des séchoirs qu’ils utilisent. Matériel et méthodes. Dans ce
contexte, nous avons réalisé une enquête de type semi ouvert auprès d’une cinquantaine
d’unités de séchage installées dans les zones de Douala et de Yaoundé (Cameroun) afin de
mieux identifier les difficultés qu’elles rencontrent. Les informations obtenues au cours
de cette enquête ont été codifiées pour faciliter leur exploitation informatique. Nous
n’avons conservé dans l’échantillon constitué que les entreprises travaillant à petite
échelle (70 % de l’échantillon initial), c’est-à-dire traitant moins de 500 kg de produits
frais par cycle de séchage. Résultats. L’analyse des résultats a montré que
près de 45 % des unités étudiées ne possédaient pas de séchoir et que 70 % des séchoirs
recensés dans les unités qui en étaient équipées étaient des séchoirs à gaz. Dans
l’ensemble, près de 92 % de ces séchoirs sont des séchoirs à convection naturelle. Le
modèle de séchoir connu est le modèle Atesta importé du Burkina Faso dont des variantes
sont fabriquées localement. Il s’avère que ce modèle ne répond que partiellement aux
besoins des utilisateurs et que les transformateurs locaux abandonnent de plus en plus ces
séchoirs. Conclusion. L’état de lieux des activités de séchage à petite
échelle des fruits et légumes dans le sud du Cameroun a fait apparaître que, malgré les
différentes offres disponibles localement, le besoin en dispositifs de séchage répondant
mieux aux attentes des utilisateurs reste très important. Ce besoin se traduit par une
volonté d’acquérir des séchoirs présentant la capacité de traiter plus de 80 kg de
produits frais durant un cycle de séchage de 10 h, et équipés d’un système de ventilation
et de régulation des paramètres de séchage.
Nations intending to send teams to compete in the equestrian sports at the 2008 Olympic Games in August in Hong Kong were concerned that safe competition would not be possible in this environment. Our objective was to demonstrate that horses could safely compete in the Hong Kong climate, where identifying and treating dehydration and electrolyte losses would be especially important to horse welfare. We hypothesized that evaluating serial changes in body weight, urine specific gravity (USG), urine Na concentration (UNa) and urinary clearance of Na (CLNa) would allow us to identify dehydration and Na deficits. Seventeen horses were housed in air-conditioned stables maintained at 25°C. Vital signs and body weight were recorded twice daily. Twenty-four-hour water consumption, and number and duration of exercise periods, were recorded daily. Haematological and biochemical variables, USG, UNa and CLNa, were measured intermittently in subsets of horses. Environmental conditions were monitored daily. Fifteen horses completed the competition; vital signs and all mean values for haematological and biochemical variables (except a high mean total protein on day 1 after arrival) remained within reference ranges. Daily water intake was (mean ± SE) 38 ± 1.5 l (range 18–74 l). Mean change in body weight during the entire study was − 3 ± 2.4 kg (range − 17 to 14 kg). Horses spent at most 3.5 h outside and at least 20.5 h in the stables daily. The mean value for USG was 1.035 ± 0.0008 and 57% of determinations were >1.035. The mean UNa was 61 ± 8 mmol l− 1 and 57% of values were ≤ 20 mmol l− 1. The mean CLNa was 0.14 ± 0.0.04%, with 76% of determinations being ≤ 0.1%. An 88% completion rate demonstrated that safe competition was possible. Access to climate-controlled stables probably helped to minimize daily fluid and electrolyte losses, and facilitated recovery following exercise. A majority of USG values >1.035, UNa < 20 mmol l− 1 in 29% of determinations, and CLNa < 0.1% in 57% of determinations suggested that some horses may have had insufficient Na intake while in Hong Kong. Monitoring USG, UNa and CLNa may aid in identifying and treating fluid and Na deficits in competition horses.