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In chapter 14, John H. Astington considers the building put up at Whitehall Palace in 1606/7, and destroyed by fire early in 1619. Planned in the first few years of the king’s reign, the design of the interior in particular seems to have aimed to create a new style at Whitehall Palace. The architect was probably Robert Stickells. For plays, the king and his family might have wanted to be nearer to the actors; a royal seat brought forward to nearer the middle of the hall would have allowed space for rising ranks of seating to the rear. For masques, the area in front of the scenic stage was required for both orchestra and singers, and principally for the dancers, who performed in the area formed by the central floor of the building. Besides, Astington explains, the room was also used for court ceremonial of one kind and another: it was the largest gathering place within Whitehall Palace. Finally, Astington’s chapter also deals with what is known about the disposition of audience and performance space for these varying events, and suggests some conclusions about the role of the Banqueting House as a multiple-use space at a particular historical moment.
Excavations at Amheida between 2004 and 2006 revealed a large, late antique domicile, dubbed the “House of Serenos,” filled with an astonishing array of decorated plaster – a rare find in terms of quantity as well as the subject matter of the paintings in the house’s main reception room. Showcasing lively figural scenes drawn from Greco-Roman mythology in an era when one might expect instead Christian iconography, the visual program of this house reveals much about the sophisticated visual and literary culture at play in a city that could otherwise be considered a backwater given its distance from the major metropolitan centers of the Nile. This chapter surveys therefore the extraordinary corpus of late antique wall painting from Amheida’s House of Serenos alongside other examples of decorated plaster from the Great Oasis in order to interrogate the role played by artistic practice and visual culture in general in articulating the social, political, and religious dynamics of late antique Egypt.
The history of temple buildings in the Great Oasis shows periods of intense activity alternating with periods of relative quiet. When seen in combination with the varying amounts of archaeological remains over time, this data allows us to chart the development of contacts between the oases and the Nile Valley. In particular, this has consequences for the times of the Libyan conflicts of the 19th Dynasty. This chapter argues that the oases were in Libyan hands during this time, after which the Egyptian army re-established control. Two dated finds from the temple at Amheida, Dakhla, are of particular interest for this discussion. A stela of Seti II marks building works at Amheida shortly after the wars of Merenptah, and a fragment of relief dated to Ramesses IX sheds light on the incursions of Libyans into the Nile Valley at that time.
The paper discusses the Garboldisham macehead: an unusual decorated macehead carved from red deer antler. The macehead was found in the 1960s deposited in a tributary of the river Little Ouse, Norfolk and is decorated with three spirals, making it especially significant. This paper reports on the analysis of the decoration using digital imaging, discusses a new radiocarbon date recently obtained for the artefact, and discusses its significance alongside other dated antler maceheads.
This paper considers two vessels, one found at Silchester in Hampshire, the other at Flexford, near Guildford in Surrey. Both are products of the samian workshops at Rheinzabern and both owe their design to metal prototypes. Neither has any apparent known parallel for its combination of form and decoration and both are a valuable reminder that even in such a large enterprise as the samian potteries individual forms could be made, perhaps in response to a specific request or as experiments by the potters. They also form an important contribution to our knowledge of late samian ware in Britain and add to previous evidence for the use of samian in ritual contexts.
We report the synthesis of carbon nanowires (CNWs) via chemical vapor deposition using catalytic decomposition of ethanol on nanosized transition metals such as Co, Fe, and Ni. Dip-coating process was used for the formation of catalytic nanoparticles, inducing the growth of CNWs on the surface of the carbon fiber paper (CFP). The liquid ethanol used as carbon source was atomized by an ultrasonic atomizer and subsequently flowed into the reactor that was heated up to a synthesis temperature of 600–700°C. Microscopic images show that CNWs of <50 nm were densely synthesized on the surface of the CFP. Raman spectra reveal that a higher synthesis temperature leads to the growth of higher crystalline CNWs. In addition, we demonstrate the successful decoration of platinum nanoparticles on the surface of the prepared CNWs/CFP using the electrochemical deposition technique.
The book decoration that was practised in England during the two centuries between the reigns of Alfred the Great and William Rufus ranges from isolated decorated initials in modestly conceived volumes to elaborate full page miniatures in luxurious ones. This chapter outlines the main chronological development of this artform, and examines aspects of its patronage, production and purpose. Crude pen-drawn letters and their descendants composed of whole or part animals and birds, interwoven with sprigs of foliage were the dominant form of book decoration during the first half of the tenth century. The number of English centres that were producing fine decorated books seems to have expanded slightly in the early eleventh century. The three gospel-books of Judith of Flanders's were decorated by English illuminators seem to have been designed to look as different as was possible within the canons of late Anglo-Saxon manuscript art. In service-books, the decorations inspired man and sometimes arguably also glorified man.
Gospel-books produced in Ireland, Britain and Insular centres on the Continent constitute an important phase in the history of medieval book design. These books were elaborately decorated and written in formal script, and were impressive witnesses to the sacred and authoritative nature of Christ's words and actions. Insular manuscripts display greater variety in their layouts, scripts and decorations than the Mediterranean counterparts which served as their immediate or ultimate exemplars. In Codex Usserianus Primus, projecting semi-circles on the corners and red dots surrounding the monogram are the only elements that presage later developments in Insular decoration. Although Kells' gospel text was copied carelessly, in one instance a page was written twice, aesthetic qualities of script and decoration appear to have been of the highest concern to those producing the book. The presence of more than 2,000 decorative motifs within the text, however, distinguishes Kells from other Insular gospel-books.
The emergence of Germanic, and the development of Celtic kingdoms introduced or gave greater prominence to non-Roman artistic traditions, especially in metalwork and subsequently in manuscript illumination. The most influential piece of Roman architecture to be erected in medieval period was, not a complete church, the new annular crypt created by Gregory the Great, built, like the shrines of Laurence and Agnes, to cope with the crowds of pilgrims: in this case for those visiting the chief shrine of Rome, that of St Peter. The identified remains of architectural sculpture are perhaps more extensive in England than in Spain or France. What Italy lacks in terms of architectural stone sculpture from the period, it makes up for in terms of its mosaic decoration. Running parallel to this history of mosaic is a history of fresco painting, though here the evidence comes largely from a single Roman site, S. Maria Antiqua.
The increase in book production and growing demand spurred the binders on. Sewing on single thongs and on single cords took less time than the more elaborate sewing structures that were the norm for medieval bindings. Economies, such as the use of fewer sewing supports, sewing more than one section at a time and sewing on recessed or sawn-in supports, emerge and become widely used towards the end of the sixteenth and early in the seventeenth century. Tooling in blind, either with rolls, fillets, small hand tools or with larger corner and centre blocks carried on throughout the seventeenth century and well into the eighteenth. Pronounced corner and centre blocks were used to produce heavier designs found both on plainer and on more luxurious bindings. Textiles and embroidery played an important role in the covering and decoration of books during the Tudor and Stuart periods.
The article focuses on problems in making generalizations about the character of Stone Age sites and the difficulties of separating sacred and secular remains. Like many other Pitted Ware sites, the middle Neolithic site of Jettböle on the Åland Islands has been characterized as a settlement site despite finds of a ritual character. This study investigates the spatial relationships and depositional patterns of different find categories, with a special focus on human remains, including DNA analysis and the ornamentation of pottery from one of the larger excavation units from the site. The character and meaning of the site seem to be more complex than previously considered. The results of the study stress the need for careful investigation of the contextual circumstances of finds before making general interpretations.
A semi-automatic method for calibrating a robot-vision interface is presented. It puts a small work-load on the operator, requires a simple calibration jig and a solution of a very simple system of equations. It has been extensively used in an experimental robotic cell set up at Loughborough University of Technology, where various aspects of the manufacturing and the decoration of scale models are being investigated. As an extension of the calibration procedure, the paper also shows practical solutions for the problem of dealing with three dimensional objects using a single camera.
This chapter discusses the traditional approach of Islamic art of Iran, first architecture and architectural decoration, then the so-called minor arts whose importance is far greater than their slightly pejorative name suggests. Northeastern Iranian ceramics provide examples of figural representations. The subjects are riders, dancers, standing or seated personages holding flowers and pitchers, as well as a number of unidentified activities. The greatest originality of these representations lies in their style. A sketchy line outlines the main subjects with very little consideration for bodily proportions and at times with distortions which could be considered as folk caricatures or as wilful modifications of visual impressions. There is a fairly large number of objects in metal which are commonly assigned to the period between the fall of the Sāsānian dynasty and the middle of the 5th/11th century.
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