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Full duplex ultra-dense network (FDUDN) is envisioned as a promising network paradigm for spectrum efficiency enhancement. This chapter presents a power management scheme, which maximizes the total capacity of FDUDN, under given Quality-of-Service (QoS) and cross-tier interference constraints. The inter-cell power control is formulated as a non-convex optimization problem and the variable substitution is used to transform it into a convex one. Furthermore, the problem is solved through a low-complexity heuristic scheme, which utilizes the water-filling theorem in inter-cell power allocation. Simulation demonstrates the enhancement effect of the proposed scheme in terms of the capacity and the power efficiency.
This introductory chapter introduces the topics of the book and its main purposes in light of past scholarship. It emphasises how people hold contrasting perspectives and assumptions about the place of emotions in human social life. These contrasting orientations unfold into different approaches to educating emotions, and for how teachers should treat students, in relation to their emotional experiences and expressions. It first examines some possible assumptions that readers may have about the role of emotions in education. These assumptions are examples of contrasting perspectives about emotions and education. These are (1) that education does not particularly involve emotions, and (2) that emotions are a part of education, but this is non-controversial, with a consensus on the topic established. The chapter explores these assumptions and challenges them. The last section of the chapter explains the goals of this book, and gives an overview of the main contents of the chapters that follow.
Philosophers speculated that assocations might be crucial in guiding behavior, but it was Pavlov who first explored this question experimentally. He discovered that dogs would begin to salivate to stimuli that preceded the delivery of food; the greater the contiguity of these stimuli with food, the stronger the conditioning. He also discovered fundamental properties of conditioning including extinction, inhibition, second-order conditioning, counterconditioning, discrimination, and generalization. Watson and Raynor extended his research by showing that conditioning also occurred in humans; they showed that fear could be conditioned in an infant who became famous as Little Albert. Subsequent research used random and unpaired control groups to determine if a change in behavior was truly due to conditioning, or to sensitization or pseudoconditioning. Three responses proved particularly useful in this later research: fear conditioning (CER) and taste-aversion learning in rats, and the galvanic skin response (GSR) in humans.
This chapter explores competing perspectives and appraisals of anger in society and in education. It highlights the possibility of accepting and productively using moral anger, in contradiction to the prevalent approach of many educational psychologists and philosophers who are basically against anger. The chapter starts with a discussion of views admonishing against anger, from philosophy and psychology, before exploring their limitations, alongside more tolerant approaches to anger. It then considers the potential productive value of exploring anger in education.
After a brief summary of the book’s argument, I suggest how understanding Proverbs as a tradition of virtue helps to address other questions about the ethics of the book, such as recent discussions about character. Specifically, I draw together and draw out the book’s conception of human nature, moral action and character, the relation of moral and theological virtue, the human problem, and how Proverbs relates to its moral rivals.
When reinforcement principles are applied properly, they can be surprisingly effective. Examples discussed include improving classroom behavior, a token economy to reduce injuries in coal mines, reducing drug use, and Lovaas’s treatment for autism. One limitation is that when rewards are discontinued, the behavior may extinuish. To encourge persistence, and thus allow more time for reinforcers in the natural environment to take over, strategies include partial reinforcement during training, reinforcing behavior in a variety of settings, and fading reinforcement gradually. Another potential problem is that rewards can undermine a child’s intrinsic motivation, especially if the child feels coerced. One way to minimize this danger is to start with the mildest reinforcement likely to be effective, ususally praise, and to reinforce achievement rather than obedience. Another strategy is to train children to control their own behavior. Skinner argues that apparent failures of will-power—for example, difficulty dieting—are actually due to reinforcement contingencies that favor immediate gratification over long-term interests. One way to combat this is to introduce more immediate reinforcement for the desired behavior; another is to learn coping responses such as distraction. These techniques have been very effective in helping people lose weight and improve studying.
Since antiquity, arbitration has been well known in the Italian peninsula.1 Basic rules of arbitration are today spelled out in the Italian civil procedure code (hereinafter CCP). The code was enacted in 1940, but has, since then, undergone radical changes, including a comprehensive reform in 2006.2 Despite the fact that current rules are largely in line with those of other countries and with international legal standards, Italy is generally perceived, by insiders and outsiders alike, as a nonfriendly arbitration country.3
This chapter continues our exploration of language as symbolic power in the digital age. It explains first what the digital revolution is about and what Vaidhyanathan meant by the phrase “the googlization of everything.” We then consider the nature and the role of Facebook and Twitter in providing platforms for the exercise of symbolic power. How are we to conceive of social media and the Internet as symbolic systems? I discuss the importance of taking into account algorithms and the algorithmic control of information and knowledge as we use the Internet to teach language and language-mediated knowledge. The digital revolution is also clearly a social and cultural revolution. I discuss the current spread of what Rieffel has called “connected individualism” and the hunger for attention that accompanies the pressure to participate on social media. Finally, I reflect on the current phenomena of post-truth and disinformation in the information age, and on the potential and risks involved in Google Translate.
Arbitration enjoys a long tradition in Spain.2 It has been consistently recognized by and promoted throughout historical laws3 as an alternative method for dispute resolution. The recognition of arbitration in legal texts can be traced to Spanish medieval law.4Breviario de Alarico, or Lex Romana Visigothorum,5 promulgated on February 2, 506, and Liber Iudiciorum,6 among others, acknowledged that the value of arbitration was definitively enshrined in the fundamental Siete Partidas.7 Since then, a series of famous arbitral awards – Compromiso de Caspe 1321 and 1363 (the Covenant of Caspe), Sentencia Arbitral de Guadalupe 1486 (the Arbitral Award of Guadalupe) – and regal laws in Castile fostered the institution by ordering the enforcement of commitments agreed by the parties (Ordenanza de Madrid of 1502). These legal and arbitral decisions paved the way to the incorporation of the institution of arbitration into the Novísima Recopilación (1804).8 The resort to arbitration for solving disputes among merchants and guilds, as a response to their aversion to ordinary courts, gave a lot of impetus to arbitration during that period.
Chapter 4 deals with monarchical armies, as these allegedly specific cases are usually less addressed in studies about Arab militaries. It also delves into differences within the monarchies, with Jordan, Morocco and Oman closer to the model of professional/institutionalized Arab armies (with these terms strongly qualified), in contrast to the specific militaries of the Gulf oil states, characterized with overspending in some dimensions (infrastructure and equipment), the maintenance of an understaffed (yet well-paid and “cocooned”) army and the overreliance on the American (or Western) security alliance. It shows that monarchies are not so alien to the military, though they maintain a specific composition. Whatever the differences (and violent encounters) with republics in their trajectory of political development in the two post-independence decades, both types of regimes, monarchies as well as republics, converged in similar authoritarian control after the 1970s. And this chapter also explores a new sense of military assertiveness after 2011 in the UAE and Saudi Arabia.
In Chapter 2, I argue that military politics was laid down in a renewed pattern after the 1970s under enduring authoritarian regimes that were characterized as “demilitarized” or “civilianized.” In most cases, officers did not rule (or did not want to rule) but one of them was at the helm. I argue that Arab armies were state institutions of great importance, at least compared with other “ghost” or “void” institutional dynamics in Arab polities, and especially as the holders of last-resort heavy coercion. The creation and management of political quietism within armies was a key issue for such authoritarian regimes. This imperative of control was pushed to the limit in some cases: with the “social engineering” in the officer corps by Hafez al-Assad, or with the hijacking of the Yemeni military by Ali Abdallah Saleh, after the systemic positioning of close relatives (sons, half-brothers, nephews) in command posts. In the eclectic Libyan case, Qaddafi, though an officer, distrusted the army and spent decades tearing it apart. Conversely, the tradition of civilian control endured in Tunisia from Bourguiba to Ben Ali, though the latter was an army officer, quickly turned “securocrat.”
Chapter 3 investigates the fundamental role that ideas about racial and cultural difference play in the development episteme. The emerging discipline of physical anthropology in the nineteenth century challenged the notion in Darwin’s evolutionary theory that all human beings are part of the same species. Combined with social Darwinist ideas of the time, this set the stage for racialist discourses that linger in the development discourse. Social Darwinism also fed into the eugenics movements of the early twentieth century, creating new theories of race that pathologized blackness. This racialist thinking viewed Africans and people of African descent as biologically different from whites and in need of evolutionary intervention. Positive eugenicists advocated social welfare to “improve” Africans because they believed environmental factors affected their ability to “evolve” – or in twentieth-first-century terms, “modernize.” Evolutionary humanist theories based in ideas of cultural inequality emerged in the post–World War II era, but these also drew on social Darwinist ideas of race that viewed people of European descent as the evolutionary standard to which all races should strive. This eugenic history of early development policies has largely been forgotten but the rhetoric on racial difference, now masked as “culture,” has stubbornly endured.
In this paper, the k-valued logic control network is introduced to study the cooperative pursuit control problem of multiple underactuated underwater vehicles (UUVs) with time delay in three-dimensional space. The semi-tensor product of matrices is used to solve the complex calculation problem of the large dimension matrix. The influence of communication delay on multiple UUVs’ optimization and cooperative pursuit control is expressed in a matrix. Under the leadership of evader UUV, the control algorithm can ensure that all the pursuit UUVs reach the desired position. The stability of the closed loop system is proved.
Seed shatter is an important weediness trait on which the efficacy of harvest weed seed control (HWSC) depends. The level of seed shatter in a species is likely influenced by agroecological and environmental factors. In 2016 and 2017, we assessed seed shatter of eight economically important grass weed species in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] from crop physiological maturity to four weeks after maturity at multiple sites spread across eleven states in the southern, northern, and mid-Atlantic U.S. From soybean maturity to four weeks after maturity, cumulative percent seed shatter was lowest in the southern U.S. regions and increased as the states moved further north. At soybean maturity, the percent of seed shatter ranged from 1 to 70%. That range had shifted to 5 to 100% (mean: 42%) by 25 days after soybean maturity. There were considerable differences in seed shatter onset and rate of progression between sites and years in some species that could impact their susceptibility to HWSC. Our results suggest that many summer annual grass species are likely not ideal candidates for HWSC, although HWSC could substantially reduce their seed output at during certain years.
In some non-international armed conflicts (NIACs) a foreign state is involved in favour of an armed group. This poses a challenge to classifying these armed conflicts under IHL. This article argues that evaluating the actions of a foreign state is best carried out by application of the ‘overall control’ test as developed by the Appeals Chamber of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia in the Tadić case. The advantages of this approach are twofold. First, it is a more realistic benchmark for generating the required evidence than the complete dependency or effective control tests developed by the International Court of Justice. Second, using this test makes it less likely for a state to escape its responsibilities under IHL when it acts through armed groups in a prima facie NIAC on the territory of another state. To arrive at this conclusion, the article first critically discusses the different control tests. It then advances that Article 4 of Geneva Convention III 1949 and Article 29 of Geneva Convention IV 1949 themselves contain a threshold of control that can be used to identify foreign state participation in a prima facie NIAC.
It is an unfortunate truism that the topic of negligently-inflicted pure psychiatric illness is afflicted with many vagaries and complexities. That has been openly admitted, judicially. Recently, in RE v Calderdale and Huddersfield NHS Foundation Trust,2 the court described the law, in something of an understatement, as ‘not an area which is straightforward and without controversy’ – while, in Taylorson v Shieldness Produce Ltd, Ralph Gibson LJ remarked that the relevant principles are ‘as unconvincing as they are surprising’.
During the current COVID-19 pandemic, there is estimation that tens of thousands health care workers got infection. The doffing of personal protective equipment (PPE) has been identified an important place and procedure which might influence self-contamination of health care workers. Newer evidences suggest that in addition to existing infection control standards, there is an urgent need for incorporation of various recent information and advancements pertaining to structural and process to reduce self-contamination of health care workers during the doffing of PPE.
Chapter 2 is concerned with how Japan administered and effected social control over Southeast Asia’s six main countries of Burma, Thailand (Siam), Malaya (including the Straits Settlements of Singapore, Penang and Malacca), Indonesia (Netherlands India), Indochina (the five French administrative districts of Tonkin in the north, Annam in the centre, and Cochinchina in the south, along with Laos and Cambodia) and the Philippines. It is argued that this depended on a combination of Japanese co-option of elites, terror and Southeast Asians’ sense of self-preservation.
This is the first of two chapters that present the core ideas of Motivational Systems Theory (MST), along with supporting evidence that has continued to accumulate not only for MST concepts and principles but also for the broad range of motivation theories developed during the second half of the twentieth century that inspired the development of this integrative framework. Humans evolved to be goal directed, and motivational patterns are organized around goals and contexts. So, the first step in understanding human motivational systems is to dive deeply into the science of personal goals. Metaphorically, our core personal goals are the “leaders” in “motivational headquarters.”
The aim of this work is to report on the tumour control probability (TCP) of a UK cohort of lung stereotactic ablative radiotherapy patients (n = 198) for a range of dose and fractionations common in the UK.
Materials and methods:
TCP values for 3 (54 Gy), 5 (55 and 60 Gy) and 8 (50 Gy) fraction (#) schemes were calculated with the linear-quadratic Marsden TCP model using the Biosuite software.
TCP values of 100% were computed for the 3 # and for 5 # (α/β = 10 Gy) cohorts; reduced to 99% (range 97–100) for the 5 # cohort only when an α/β of 20 Gy was used. The average TCP value for the 50 Gy in 8 # regime was 97% (range 92–99, α/β = 10 Gy) and 64% (range 48–79, α/β = 20 Gy). Statistical significant differences were observed between the α/β of 10 Gy versus 20 Gy groups and between all data grouped by fraction.
TCPs achievable with current planning techniques in the UK have been presented. The ultra-conservative 50 Gy in 8 # scheme returns a significantly lower TCP than the other regimes.