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Attempts to mitigate the environmental impact of oil-palm expansion by improving production standards have been of limited success. An alternative approach aims at a better understanding of the factors that drive consumers to reduce excessive vegetable oil consumption. Our studies focused on consumers’ environmental knowledge as a potential determinant of palm oil consumption. They revealed critical limitations in consumers’ palm oil-related knowledge across different domains, study settings and assessment approaches. The more our participants knew about palm oil and its environmental consequences, the stronger were their reported intentions to reduce their consumption. This relationship was significantly stronger for subjective versus objective palm oil-related knowledge. In addition, we examined whether consumers can be stimulated to consult information about palm oil by making information access the default option. While this simple situational nudge promoted information access, we did not find it to significantly increase actual engagement with the information material. This result suggests that it might be necessary to complement default nudges for information access with other measures to enhance palm oil-related knowledge and to reduce palm oil consumption to more sustainable levels.
We suggest that consumer and marketer intelligence is, in its essence, practical. It is derived from adapting to, selecting, and shaping external environments. We review research relating to marketers’ and consumers’ strategies for interacting, intelligently, with their environments. On adapting, illustratively we point to a trend toward more fine-tuned adaptations in marketing communication, enabled by the large amount of information consumers are leaving online. On selection, illustratively we report research relating to customer relationship management: “big data” has enabled more informed, consequently more intelligent, customer selection by marketers. On shaping, illustratively we describe research relating to online customer reviews and the sea change it has had on the retail environment. Taking perspective, we opine that while adapting, shaping, and selection intelligence enable important, immediate outcomes, wisdom is needed, in addition, to achieve longer-term outcomes. A quintessential longer-term outcome for marketers is brand equity and for consumers is psychological well-being.
Globally, China is among the ‘saltiest’ nations. In order to support current nationwide salt reduction initiatives, we investigated Chinese consumers’ knowledge, beliefs and behaviours related to salt intake and salt reduction.
A cross-sectional face-to-face survey was carried out, focusing on salt knowledge, beliefs and behaviours related to salt intake and salt reduction, perceptions of salt reduction responsibility and support for different national strategies.
The survey was carried out in China mainland.
Consumers (n 2444) from six of seven major geographical regions in China participated in the survey. After data cleaning, a sample of 2430 was included in the final analysis.
A majority of Chinese consumers believed that salt added during home cooking was the biggest contributor to their salt intake. Knowledge gaps existed in the awareness of salt hidden in certain foods and flavouring products. Chinese consumers in general were interested in lowering their salt intake. They were aware of salt reduction tools, but the adoption level was low. Consumers expressed strong support for promotion of salt-restriction spoons and public education, but not fiscal policies (e.g. salt-related tax or subsidies). In terms of individual differences, education status demonstrated a substantial impact on salt reduction knowledge and behaviour.
There is still big room to ‘shake’ Chinese consumers’ salt habit. The present study provides important evidence and consumer insights to support China’s efforts to meet its salt reduction targets.
Laws are made by the judiciary as well as by the legislative and the executive branches of government. This book chapter explores how the career judge system of Japan affects the efficiency of court decisions both theoretically and empirically. We find evidence that judges under the career judge system are tempted to place great weight on case-handling efficiency rather than substantive efficiency, which leads to socially efficient outcomes in some cases, but suboptimal outcomes in others. We also highlight several important factors for the analysis of court behavior.
This chapter explores the evolution of judicial influence using a hand-collected data set of all cases until 2016 that address the enforceability of clickwrap, shrinkwrap, and browsewrap contracts as well as their out-of-state influence over time. A foundational theory conceptualizes precedent as an investment that yields valuable information to subsequent courts that depreciates over time, as new circumstances and innovations make such precedent less helpful for later courts. Empirical research on judicial citations has found a “superstar” or “tournament winner” effect, whereby a handful of cases garner almost all citations for a given question. How do tournament winners fare over time? I find that the citation universe is indeed dominated by “tournament winners.” These cases, which tend to be decided by circuit court judges, influence other courts from the date they are decided. Instead of experiencing depreciation, however, I find that their influence continues to grow, even over cases that are hierarchically more important. In addition, cases tend to converge towards a particular rule or standard over time. The results enrich our understanding of the evolution of judicial influence and help inform theories of the evolution of precedent and the common law.
The chapter draws on the legal, institutional and stakeholder perspectives to develop a septet framework that provides clarity to the concept of sustainable consumption and production and aligns consumer protection to sustainable development in developing countries. This contextualises the roles of consumers and corporations as institutional actors and consumption as an institution. The chapter uniquely unbundles the concept as consisting of six foundational components: sustainable consumption by proximate consumers for future generations; sustainable production for future generations; sustainable consumption by/for proximate consumers; sustainable production for proximate consumers; participation by proximate consumers; and CSR. The septet framework challenges conventional approaches to consumer vulnerability, disclosure regulation, contract law, consumer responsibilisation, stakeholder, corporate governance, institutional voids and international cooperation. The chapter’s interventionist consumer protection law approach includes public interest-oriented disclosure regulation, distributive justice-oriented contract law, resolution of business-to-consumer information asymmetry, credible corporate social reporting and certification standards, distributed/shared consumer responsibilisation, stakeholder enforcement rights, obligations and protection, independent stakeholder determination of standards, resolution of related agency problems through a stakeholder approach to corporate governance and international cooperation in regulatory standards and enforcement. It is also argued that a consumer protection approach to sustainable development can promote stakeholder engagement and meaningful corporate social responsibility.
As consumer-directed care programmes become increasingly common in aged care provision, there is a heightened requirement for literature summarising the experience and perspectives of recipients. We conducted rapid evidence reviews on two components of consumer experience of home- and community-based aged care: (a) drivers of choice when looking for a service (Question 1 (Q1)); and (b) perceptions of quality of services (Question 2 (Q2)). We systematically searched MEDLINE and EMBASE databases, and conducted manual (non-systematic) searches of primary and grey literature (e.g. government reports) across CINAHL, Scopus, PsychINFO, and Web of Science, Trove and OpenGrey databases. Articles deemed eligible after abstract/full-text screening subsequently underwent risk-of-bias assessment to ensure their quality. The final included studies (Q1: N = 21; Q2: N = 19) comprised both quantitative and qualitative articles, which highlighted that consumer choices of services are driven by a combination of: desire for flexibility in service provision; optimising mobility; need for personal assistance, security and safety, interaction, and social/leisure activities; and to target and address previously unmet needs. Similarly, consumer perspectives of quality include control and autonomy, interpersonal interactions, flexibility of choice, and safety and affordability. Our reviews suggest that future model development should take into account consumers’ freedom to choose services in a flexible manner, and the value they place on interpersonal relationships and social interaction.
This chapter studies access, a short-term and casual use of property. Two forms of access are analyzed: independent access, and access in cooperative and communal projects. The chapter offers a normative evaluation of access and highlights the values and concerns associated with flexibility and mobility. It revisits the justifications for private property discussed in Chapter II and demonstrates that these justifications can also defend an alternative vision of flexibility and mobility. Yet there is an important twist. Instead of freedom from interference, access fosters freedom from being tied down to a particular space. Instead of personhood, access supports the ability to experiment with one’s personality and pushes the boundaries of the self. In addition, access affects communities and changes interactions with other people. Access also raises significant normative concerns, such as vulnerability to immediate changes in health or financial stability, and vulnerability to platform power. This chapter then suggests preliminary guidelines for reform that are later developed in Chapter VII, including removing barriers to access, promoting consumer protection, restraining platform power, and respecting the principles of communal access by adjusting the legal rules of cases involving the physical integrity of the property.
We developed an expensiveness index and used the Food Acquisition and Purchase Survey data set to examine empirically whether Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants pay higher prices compared with nonqualifying and qualifying, but nonparticipating, households. Purchasers’ ability to minimize food expenditures has significant effects on the program’s effectiveness and on participants’ food security. Using ordinary least squares and two techniques that control for the endogeneity of SNAP participation, we found no significant effect of SNAP participation on food prices. Moreover, we found that SNAP participants pay, on average, lower prices than do nonparticipants. We conclude by providing suggestions for policy improvements and implications for future research.
Little attention has been paid to the effects of personality traits on the consumption of wine and beer. We used a survey to investigate the associations between personality traits and the differences in expected consumption frequencies of wine and beer for 3,482 Norwegian respondents. High scores on extraversion and openness to experiences increased the expected frequency of wine consumption, high score on agreeableness reduced the frequency of wine consumption, while scores on conscientiousness and neuroticism had no effects. For beer, there were no significant effects between personality traits and the frequency of consumption. (JEL Classification: D12, Q13).
Credit unions currently serve over 110 million members in the United States. This is surprising, given the challenges associated with forming cooperatives. This paper explains how grants were used to overcome these challenges and create the modern credit union sector. Edward Filene, a wealthy 20th-century department store owner, provided philanthropic funding and technical expertise to early credit unions, resulting directly in the creation of 26,000 American credit unions over a 45-year period. Filene's leadership helped overcome the various social dilemmas associated with creating cooperatives, reforming institutions, and establishing an institutional framework that enables and supports cooperatives.
The oft-cited privacy paradox is the perceived disconnect between individuals’ stated privacy expectations, as captured in surveys, and consumer market behavior in going online: individuals purport to value privacy yet still disclose information to firms. The goal of this paper is to empirically examine the conceptualization of privacy postdisclosure assumed in the privacy paradox. Contrary to the privacy paradox, the results here suggest consumers retain strong privacy expectations even after disclosing information. Privacy violations are valued akin to security violations in creating distrust in firms and in consumer (un)willingness to engage with firms. This paper broadens the scope of corporate responsibility to suggest firms have a positive obligation to identify reasonable expectations of privacy of consumers. In addition, research perpetuating the privacy paradox, through the mistaken framing of disclosure as proof of anti-privacy behavior, gives license to firms to act contrary to the interests of consumers.
Economic growth in Indian Country has improved over the past two decades, yet entrepreneurs and businesses on most reservations still find it difficult to access credit and capital investments. As sovereign nations, tribes can support and encourage the flow of credit into their communities by creating and strengthening their secured transaction systems (STS). These commercial laws are essential to protecting the interests and rights of businesses that extend credit, such as banks.
A strong STS establishes a set of rules for secured transactions that is reasonably similar to other jurisdictions, a reliable and transparent lien filing system, and politically independent contract enforcement mechanisms. This article explores the history and components of STS across the United States and Indian Country. It also discusses the Model Tribal Secured Transactions Act, and provides insights for tribal community leaders who are considering adopting or strengthening their STS.
It provides an early overview of the cases where the use of smart contracts may prove significantly beneficial in B2C transactions. It focuses on the capacity of smart contracts to mitigate some of the well-known problems affecting B2C and B2B relationships. The adoption of regulatory sandboxes in the rail and air sectors will be described as a first testing ground to assess the potential of smart contracts.
Chapter 14 defines the term algorithmic contract, distinguishing it from the term smart contract, and justifying the need for the term. Then, it argues that business-to-consumer algorithmic contracts present distinct issues from business-to-business algorithmic contracts. In particular, Chapter 14 argues that privacy is the canary in the coalmine with respect to the potential threat to civil liberties presented by personalized law by way of pseudo-contract regime. Without any deliberate choice on the part of consumers or change in attitudes, contracts and practices have severely eroded consumer privacy over the past two decades. Thus, privacy terms provide an ideal case study to examine what limits on the ability of consumers to contract with businesses using algorithms to determine customized terms might look like. Personalized law, in the absence of proper fiduciary incentives or default rules, could be a major threat to the civil liberties necessary for a liberal society.
The author examines the impact of blockchain and smart contracts on the legal profession. After all, the lawyer is entitled to draft smart contracts. For a few years now, in information technology, the lawyer has promoted the writing of so-called agile contracts in connection with projects run by “agileȁ methods. However, the smart contract, whether described as a contract or simple algorithm, challenges the lawyer by its philosophy (“code is law”) and by its writers who are no longer jurists but developers. He discusses whether this technology will be “killing off” the legal profession. Before over-hastily assuming this apocalyptic demise of the lawyer, the author suggests to think about the role and the status of the lawyer in his general mission of advice and defense, and considers whether information technology can be a substitute for the lawyer or simply a new tool that could be used.