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This article systematically and quantitatively characterizes interaction dynamics and community formation based on changes in spatial patterns of contemporaneous households. We develop and apply a geospatial routine to measure changing extents of household interaction and community formation from AD 600 to 1280 on the Mesa Verde cuesta in southwestern Colorado. Results suggest that household spatial organization was shaped simultaneously by the maintenance of regular social interaction that sustained communities and the need for physical space among households. Between AD 600 and 1200, households balanced these factors by forming an increased number of dispersed communities in response to population growth and variable environmental stressors. However, as population rebounded after the megadrought of the mid-1100s, communities became increasingly compact, disrupting a long-standing equilibrium between household interaction and subsistence space within each community. The vulnerabilities created by this change in community spatial organization were compounded by a cooler climate, drought, violence, and changes in political and ritual organization in the mid-1200s, which ultimately culminated in the complete depopulation of the Mesa Verde cuesta by the end of the thirteenth century.
Anecdotal evidence suggests the use of bolus tube feeding is increasing in long term home enteral tube feed (HETF) patients. A cross-sectional survey to assess the prevalence of bolus tube feeding and to characterise these patients was undertaken. Dietitians from 10 centres across the UK collected data on all adult HETF patients on the dietetic caseload receiving bolus tube feeding, (n=604, 60% male, age 58years). Demographic data, reasons for tube and bolus feeding, tube and equipment types, feeding method and patients’ complete tube feeding regimens were recorded. Over a third of patients receiving HETF used bolus feeding (37%). Patients were long-term tube fed (4.1years tube feeding, 3.5years bolus tube feeding), living at home (71%) and sedentary (70%). The majority were head and neck cancer patients (22%) who were significantly more active (79%) and lived at home (97%), while those with cerebral palsy (12%) were typically younger (age 31years) but sedentary (94%). Most patients used bolus feeding as their sole feeding method (46%), because it was quick and easy to use, as a top up to oral diet or to mimic meal times. Importantly, oral nutritional supplements (ONS) were used for bolus feeding in 85% of patients, with 51% of these being compact-style ONS (2.4kcal/ml, 125ml). This survey shows that bolus tube feeding is common amongst UK HETF patients, is used by a wide variety of patient groups and can be adapted to meet the needs of a variety of patients, clinical conditions, nutritional requirements and lifestyles.
Given the rapidly expanding older adult population, finding health care approaches that support older adults to age in their choice of place, with an accompanying philosophical re-orientation of health services, is becoming more urgent. We studied the Home Care Home First – Quick Response Project to understand how clients over age 75 and their family caregivers perceived the enhanced community-based services delivered through Home First. Using interpretive description as the methodological design, we explored the experiences of eight older adults and 11 family caregivers; all older adults were enrolled in Home First due to a significant change in their health status. We identified four themes: growing older in chosen places with support, philosophy of care, processes of Home First, and the significance of Home First for clients. Overall, clients and family caregivers responded positively to the Home First services. Clients valued their independence and growing older in places they had specifically chosen.
In this chapter, Alfano explores the Nietzschean virtue of curiosity. Curiosity, in this reading, is a drive to engage in and positively evaluate the process of inquiry, especially challenging inquiry into difficult and problematic questions. If this is right, then curiosity is less about static states (e.g., true belief, settled knowledge) and more about epistemic activity in its own right. Alfano connects his account of Nietzschean curiosity both with a large number of relevant passages from Nietzsche's writings and with contemporary accounts of intellectual virtue and vice. In so doing, he establishes curiosity as an intellectual virtue worthy of the attention of both Nietzsche scholars and contemporary virtue epistemologists.
In this chapter, Alfano argues that solitude is a Nietzschean virtue. This disposition has received almost no attention in the secondary literature. Alfano shows that it occupies Nietzsche's philosophical attention throughout his career and that it is essential to understanding his criticisms of his own culture and community. Solitude is the collective version of the individuals laughing at themselves. It involves taking an evaluative and emotional stance at some distance from and above one's community. As such, it integrates well with both the pathos of distance and a sense of humor. As such, it enables one to see and diagnose problems in one's own culture and community and to engage in cultural critique that would be impossible for others.
Cette étude visait à identifier les facilitateurs, les obstacles et la faisabilité d’implanter un Accompagnement-citoyen personnalisé d’intégration communautaire (APIC) pour des aînés en perte d’autonomie et vivant dans la communauté. L’APIC est un suivi hebdomadaire de trois heures réalisé par un accompagnateur non professionnel formé et supervisé qui vise à optimiser la réalisation d’activités sociales et de loisirs de personnes ayant des incapacités. Une recherche-action a permis de réaliser des entretiens semi-dirigés auprès de 16 participants de la communauté. Les principaux facilitateurs de l’implantation sont l’adaptabilité de l’APIC et son appui scientifique, la reconnaissance d’un besoin, l’expertise et la collaboration. La présence de leaders ouverts à la nouveauté et d’individus offrant du soutien est favorable. Le financement de l’implantation, associé à un contexte économique défavorable, est un obstacle. La majorité des participants perçoivent qu’il serait faisable d’implanter l’APIC en l’intégrant à des structures bénévoles déjà existantes. Ces connaissances permettront d’optimiser l’implantation de l’APIC ou d’interventions similaires dans la communauté.
Nous avons documenté et comparé les caractéristiques environnementales potentiellement associées à la participation sociale de Québécois âgés, selon le niveau de ruralité. Une enquête a été réalisée auprès de Québécois âgés de 65 ans et plus recrutés par différents regroupements d’aînés et les réseaux sociaux. Les répondants ont rempli le Questionnaire du potentiel de participation sociale, développé à partir d’une recension systématique des écrits. Selon les 515 aînés, âgés en moyenne de 71,5 ans, les caractéristiques environnementales liées à la participation sociale, ainsi que la convivialité des villes et des quartiers, sont perçues plus favorablement dans les milieux métropolitains et urbains que dans les milieux ruraux. Toutefois, l’accès à l’autobus ainsi que l’accueil et l’ouverture des gens du quartier sont davantage appréciés par les aînés ruraux. Ces résultats témoignent de la présence d’inégalités de participation sociale selon le niveau de ruralité et permettent d’envisager de nouvelles pistes d’action.
Chapter 4, “Community,” examines competing approaches to community development. Since the 1920s, planners had believed that spaces forged social ties; but from the 1960s, this approach was challenged by the view that communities came from people. Milton Keynes offered a showcase for this “people-ist” conviction. Its social development department sought to forestall the “new town blues,” by stimulating residents’ efforts to build communities. These initiatives nourished a rich associational life centered around women and their families. But when some estates encountered problems with their housing, their inhabitants demanded redress, while other residents later organized to challenge the corporation politically. Facing these more assertive forms of community, figures within the corporation reconsidered their commitment to social development, even questioning whether an entity called the “people” existed at all. From one perspective, this retreat affirms the triumph of an individualism associated with market liberalism – but from the residents’ perspective, this same episode becomes a story of social democratic subjects, mindful of their rights and collectively asserting them.
Chapter 3 argues that Stevens’ imaginative compositions of collectivity and audience provide another vantage point from which to highlight the contextual dimensions of his poetics of autonomy. In his longest and most intricate poem, “Owl’s Clover,” Stevens explores both the potentials and limits of aesthetic separation and autonomy for imagining new forms of collective agency, including the working classes. This exploration unfolds in tension with the period’s political-artistic aspirations to the inclusive “rhetoric of the people.” Stevens’ search for an inclusive “common” or “civil fiction” leads to a complex questioning of the imagination’s potential to expand from a local to a global vision of collectivity. The chapter demonstrates how by acknowledging the ideological pressures (fascist war and colonialism) that impede the aesthetic creation of a globally inclusive model of communal presence, Stevens takes the further step of resisting them, to affirm the continual need of poetry for envisaging prospective forms of collective life.
This article traces a conflict that erupted in the late 19th century between the Armenians and the Süryani. This conflict, I argue, precipitated nothing less than the creation of the Süryani community itself. The dispute began over the key to a closet in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, but it quickly evolved. Soon, the Armenians and the Süryani were clashing over holy places all around Jerusalem. The dispute centered on an Ottoman administrative arrangement which had been institutionalized nearly 400 years earlier: yamaklık. The Ottoman investigators, however, were unfamiliar with this archaic arrangement and had to be reeducated as to its terms and its history. The Süryani and the Armenians offered divergent accounts. Where the Armenians furnished hard documentation, however, the Süryani could produce only claims to tradition and local practice. In this article I argue that, through this protracted conflict, the Süryani came to understand the importance of the documentary record in a post-Tanzimat Ottoman world. They thus turned to an alternative strategy that would conform to this documentary sensibility and render their community visible to the state: a series of petitions with thousands of Süryani signatures from around the Ottoman Empire.
Over 80% of CTSA programs have a community advisory board (CAB). Little is known about how research discussed with CABs aligns with community priorities (bidirectionality). This program evaluation assessed researcher presentations from 2014 to 2018 to the CABs linked to our CTSA at all three sites (Minnesota, Arizona, and Florida) for relevance to local community needs identified in 2013 and/or 2016. From content analysis, of 65 presentations total, 41 (63%) addressed ≥1 local health needs (47% Minnesota, 60% Florida, and 80% Arizona). Cross-cutting topics were cancer/cancer prevention (physical activity/obesity/nutrition) and mental health. Results could help to prioritize health outcomes of community-engaged research efforts.
National public health organizations recommend that local governments improve access to healthy foods. One way is by offering incentives for food retailer development and operation, but little is known about incentive use nationwide. We aimed to describe the national prevalence of local government reported incentives to increase access to healthy food options in three major food retail settings (farmers’ markets, supermarkets, and convenience or corner (smaller) stores) overall and by municipality characteristics.
Cross-sectional study using data from the 2014 National Survey of Community-Based Policy and Environmental Supports for Healthy Eating and Active Living.
USA, nationally representative survey of 2029 municipalities.
Municipal officials (e.g. city/town managers or planners; n 1853).
Overall, 67 % of municipalities reported incentives to support farmers’ markets, 34 % reported incentives to encourage opening new supermarkets, and 14 % reported incentives to help existing convenience or corner stores. Municipality characteristics significantly associated with incentive use were larger population size (all settings), location in Midwest v. West (supermarkets, smaller stores), higher poverty level (farmers’ markets) and ≤50 % of the population non-Hispanic White (supermarkets, smaller stores). The most commonly reported individual incentives were permission of sales on city property for farmers’ markets, tax credits for supermarkets and linkage to revitalization projects for smaller stores.
Most municipalities offered food retail incentives for farmers’ markets, but fewer used incentives to open new supermarkets or assist existing smaller stores. National data can set benchmarks, provide relative comparisons for communities and identify areas for improvement.
An inclusive neighbourhood is a key facilitator enabling older adults to age in place. Neighbourhoods have been identified as a dimension of social exclusion important to older adults, and it has been argued that older adults are particularly vulnerable to neighbourhood change. The aim of this study was to explore older adults’ experiences of neighbourhood exclusion within the context of neighbourhood change. Focus groups were undertaken in the urban and rural areas of a metropolitan borough in England involving a total of 41 older adults, with data analysed via thematic analysis. Urban areas in the borough studied have transformed following the closure of the mining industry, with a high level of deprivation in many areas, while some rural areas have undergone gentrification. Within the context of structural neighbourhood change, four themes were identified: community cohesion, political agency, feelings of safety and the physical environment. The themes were interlinked, which calls for collaboration across traditional lines of professional responsibility, and for research that encompasses different aspects of neighbourhood exclusion. This study contributes with knowledge on older adults’ experiences of exclusion, including novel findings on the importance of political agency and collective memory, and identifies actions to combat exclusion. An active involvement of older adults in the development of initiatives to tackle social exclusion is recommended.
Habitats under ice shelves are minimally explored, primarily because of technological limitations. These areas are separated from photosynthetic primary productivity by thick ice and distance to open water. Nevertheless, a diverse macrofaunal benthic community was discovered at 188 m depth, 80 km back from the edge of the McMurdo Ice Shelf. The general habitat was fine sediment with occasional dropstones, and dominant taxa were polychaetes and brittle stars, with alcyonacean soft corals and anemones on hard substrates. Gelatinous animals were abundant near the seafloor, and possibly part of a food web that supports the benthic community.
To assess community mental health in suburban Dublin in 2018, 5 years after Ireland’s economic recession ended.
A cross-sectional, face-to-face, household survey was conducted in a random cluster sample of 351 households in Tallaght, a deprived suburb of Dublin.
A majority of respondents (61.3%) reported stress over the previous 12 months, with a higher rate in areas of high (66.9%) compared to lower deprivation (55.5%). Deprivation was not related to rates of loneliness (20.2%), feeling depressed (20.2%), loss of interest (19.7%) or anxiety (22.5%). Mean score for positive mental health (59.3/100, with a higher score indicating better mental health) was lower than that reported in a national sample in 2007 (68/100); positive mental health was associated with not living with a person with chronic illness, self-identifying as ‘non-Irish’ and greater age. Mean score for psychological distress (76.7/100, with a higher score indicating less distress) was also lower than that in 2007 (82/100); less psychological distress was associated with not living with a person with chronic illness or disability, greater age and identifying as non-Irish. The rate of ‘probable mental illness’ over the previous 4 weeks (13.1%) was higher than in 2007 (7%).
Our findings emphasise the high prevalence of stress, especially in deprived suburban areas; the centrality of carer burden in determining mental wellbeing; and associations between positive mental health on the one hand and greater age and identifying as non-Irish on the other.