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We learn from this excursus that the amount of available information covaries significantly with the discriminating power of different stimuli, but not with the recovered country-specific “policy moods,” which are the quantities of interest. Our policy moods summarize respondents’ views on a number of stimuli; although these stimuli are not consistently repeated year after year, the summaries relay information about policy stances, and not only information about the number of stimuli included in any given year.
Studying the relationships among citizens' preferences, policy-makers' preferences, and policy orientations poses many challenges, and this chapter outlines how we chose to meet those challenges. We discuss our measures of each and how we intend to use them to capture one-to-one, many-to-many, and many-to-one congruence and responsiveness at different stages in the chain of representation. We also make the case for why it is vital that all these concepts be measured on a common scale, and we give a brief preview of how we intend to do that. We also provide an overview of the features of electoral systems and policy-making processes that we will aggregate or cluster in order to summarize their incentives for providing congruence and responsiveness. We conclude the chapter by setting our work in the context of important related works that do not exactly set out to tackle the questions we will tackle here.
We employed the modern analog technique to quantitatively reconstruct temperature and precipitation over the past 2500 yr based on fossil pollen records from six high-elevation lakes in northern Colorado. Reconstructed annual temperatures for the study area did not deviate significantly from modern over the past 2500 yr despite hemispheric expressions of Medieval Climate Anomaly warmth and Little Ice Age cooling. Annual precipitation, however, shifted from lower than modern rates from 2500 to 1000 cal yr BP to higher than modern rates after 1000 cal yr BP, a greater than 100 mm increase in precipitation. Winter precipitation accounts for the majority of the change in annual precipitation, while summer precipitation rates did not change significantly over the past 2500 yr. The large change in winter precipitation rates from the first to second millennium of the Common Era is inferred from a shift in fossil pollen assemblages dominated by subalpine conifers, which have southern sites as modern analogs, to assemblages representing open subalpine vegetation with abundant Artemisia spp. (sagebrush), which have more northern modern analogs. The change helps to explain regional increases in lake levels and shifts in some isotopic and tree-ring data sets, highlighting the risk of large reductions in snowpack and water supplies in the Intermountain West.
This chapter examines vocabulary explanations during Swedish as a second language (L2) lessons for beginner learners in a primary school classroom, attended by 10- to 12-year-old children with immigrant backgrounds. It shows how teachers elaborated word meanings through short narratives and descriptions that demonstrated uses of words to students as prospective users. It argues that vocabulary-related explanations were dynamic activities in which teachers mediated not only linguistic forms but also culturally appropriate meanings and values, ways of thinking and behaving in new communities of practice, and provided affordances for shaping the lifeworlds and identities of the second language learners. The students’ responses reveal that, rather than simply appropriating the teachers’ norms and values, they engaged in a process of actively negotiating, disagreeing, and even resisting the teachers’ narrative exemplifications. The findings show how vocabulary explanations are a locus for socializing children into appropriate language use and cultural membership in the target-language community, attesting to the negotiated and, at times, resistant process of becoming an L2 speaker.
Chapter 6 addresses two ways in which our minds can be constructive: either by making inferences on the basis of what’s already there – filling in gaps of information, or by transforming what’s there into something new. This twofold ability of the human mind to construct is basic to our existence, enabling us to go beyond what we encounter around us. The way we talk reflects both inference and transformation processes systematically. Inference involves taking observable facts and combining them with further knowledge or assumptions, in order to come to new insights or conclusions that aren’t directly observable. Transformation, on the other hand, involves taking observable facts or objects and turning them into something different, something that isn’t yet there but that can be accomplished using available tools and operators. Chapter 6 looks at each of these processes of cognitive constructiveness in turn.
This study focuses on the dolphins populating the water between Gibraltar and Algeciras in the south Iberian Peninsula, an area subjected to pressure due to high human activity. The area is considered an important feeding and breeding ground for common dolphins (Delphinus delphis). Due to the degree of residence of some specimens, and the large gap in knowledge about the evolution of wounds in D. delphis specimens with lacerations, this work sought to perform the following analyses: identify lacerated individuals; characterize sequences of ‘before – during – after’ with respect to the occurrence of lacerations; and associate the type of injury with its severity. This work will inform future studies by expanding a database on injured individuals and contribute to periodical monitoring of specimens that frequent these geographic areas. Between 2013 and 2017, we were able to track the healing process of five injured individuals of common dolphins from a whale-watching platform thanks to photo identification. The animals exhibited fresh external wounds from different sources. In the majority of individuals, the wound-healing processes lasted 3–21 weeks. The frequency with which sightings are made and knowledge about the local population will help track injured animals, follow their wound evolution, and document their survival rates. The documented injuries inflicted by human interactions described in this paper may include fishing interactions and propeller strikes, probably as a consequence of the high intensity of recreational fishing and whale-watching activities in the area.
Drawing upon the theoretical debate on the concept of common good involving, in particular, Sison and Fontrodona (2012), I aim to show how the common good principle can serve as the basis for a new diversity perspective. Each of the three dominant diversity approaches—equality, diversity management, and inclusion—runs the ethical risk of focusing on community or individual levels, or on particular disciplines—economic, social, or moral. This article demonstrates that the common good principle could mitigate the ethical risks inherent to each of these diversity approaches. There are three positive aspects to a comprehensive common good perspective: 1) it includes considering different community levels, which it connects by subsidiarity, 2) it embraces the moral, social, and economic fields, which it connects by teleological hierarchy, and 3) it avoids the risk of exclusion by generating a sense of solidarity.
Chapter 2 contends that the seemingly innocent attempt to document citizens through Operation Family (1959–1965) developed into an instrument for consolidating state power. This Ministry of Justice campaign to legalize extra-legal unions and register undocumented Cubans provoked a surge in marriage, a direct consequence – this chapter demonstrates – of fixed-term laws that concurrently restricted the power of the judiciary. The chapter also argues that Cuban leadership advanced legal matrimony in order to supplant female heads of household, whose participation in the paid-labor force could support men engaged in illegal or counterrevolutionary activities. Las Villas and Matanzas, provinces where counterrevolutionaries most threatened revolutionary government authority, had the highest rates of legal marriage during the peak years of the marriage campaign. These two provinces were also predominantly white, suggesting that MINJUS prioritized the regulation and reformation of rural, Hispanic white couples over those of Afro-Cubans. The second half of the chapter examines the inauguration of Wedding Palaces and material benefits meant to incentivize marriage. Popular discourse suggested that Cubans were marrying (and divorcing) in high numbers in order to take advantage of the increased purchasing power allocated to newlyweds. In these ways, couples showed themselves reluctant to acquiesce to the state’s marital expectations.
Practical intelligence has been referred to as “street smarts” or “common sense” and is typically contrasted with “book smarts” or general academic intelligence. The concept emerged from a recognition that success with solving abstract, academic problems did not necessarily translate to success with solving real-world, practical problems, and vice versa. This chapter reviews research aimed at better understanding the cognitive underpinnings of practical intelligence, its distinctiveness from general intelligence, and its relationship to performance. Particular attention is given to research on tacit knowledge, or the unspoken, practical know-how that often differentiates expert from novice performance. Tacit knowledge has been found to be related to successful performance in domains as diverse as sales, primary education, college admissions, military leadership, information technology, and policing. The chapter concludes with promising directions for future research on the acquisition and dissemination of tacit knowledge as a means of enhancing the development of practical intelligence.
Cover crops can provide many benefits to peanut and cotton rotation including: suppressing weeds, conserving soil moisture after termination, increasing soil organic matter, and reducing soil erosion. However, herbicide carryover can affect cover crop establishment. The objective of this study was to investigate the responses of six cover crops (daikon radish, cereal rye, oat, crimson clover, winter wheat, and common vetch) to twelve soil residual herbicides. A multi-year (2016-2018), multi-location study was conducted in Macon and Henry counties, Alabama. Herbicide treatments included; S-metolachlor, acetochlor, pyroxasulfone, diclosulam, imazapic, chlorimuron-ethyl, bentazon plus acifluorfen, pyrithiobac-sodium, trifloxysulfuron-sodium, diuron, prometryn, and flumioxazin, each applied at 10% of full-labelled rate. At 42 to 52 and 145 to 149 d after planting (DAP), cover crop plant heights and stand counts were evaluated, as well as biomass at 145 to 149 DAP. Treatments varied from year to year but not locations. In 2016, significant stand reductions (p≤0.05) of 36 to 43% in rye and 44 to 75% in wheat were observed at 48 to 52 DAP for S-metolachlor, acetochlor, pyroxasulfone, imazapic, and bentazon plus acifluorfen as compared to the non-treated. Vetch had stand reductions for all treatments 50 DAP except for prometryn ranging from 14 to 80%. S-metolachlor, pyroxasulfone and acetochlor reduced the stand of rye, wheat, and vetch more than any other herbicides. In 2017, at 147 to 149 DAP, clover stands were reduced by 29% for diclosulam and 38% for trifloxysulfuron-sodium. Similarly, radish stands were reduced by 64% in the diclosulam treatment. No significant biomass reductions were observed for any cover crop species either year. Oat showed the most tolerance with no treatments reducing any growth parameters either year. Although initial injury and stunting may occur, biomass at termination of cover crops were not affected by herbicide residues evaluated in this study.
The United States does not yet have a comprehensive legal regime to manage germline editing. However, the US Congress, which appropriates funds annually to support the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), has enacted a rider that prevents the agency from using those funds to receive applications for clinical trials. In this manner, Congress has imposed a de facto moratorium that prevents scientists from creating children with modified genomes. In most of the fifty states, scientists remain free to edit human gametes and embryos in the lab as long as they mind federal regulations governing research. In the future, Congress and state legislatures may ban germline editing, in whole or in part. Such bans may face legal challenges. To be sure, the United States has not ratified the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, and is not bound by its requirement that parties respect scientific freedom. Nor does the US Constitution expressly state a right to engage in scientific research. However, some academics argue that such a right can be derived from the First Amendment. Further, those who cannot conceive a healthy child without germline editing may claim that a ban violates their constitutional right to privacy.
This chapter describes Holmes's two great scholarly works: the twelfth edition of Kent’s Commentaries and The Common Law. Both books entailed a prodigious amount of legal research into the history of the common law. Both were written at a time when the law was rapidly changing to accommodate the increased commercialization and industrialization in the last half of the nineteenth century. Many men – most notably Christopher Columbus Langdell – were proposing new theories of common law decision-making, but Holmes was unique in his historical approach. This chapter explains Holmes’s approach and addresses some of the misunderstandings and criticisms it has generated.
Given the widespread use of English, this chapter explores two critical issues: (1) what varieties and standards of English are taught and tested in English as second/foreign language (L2) learning contexts and (2) what role is assigned to communication strategies and plurilingual competences in learning, teaching, and assessing English, particularly in lingua franca contexts.
Causation in competition law damages actions shows peculiarities that distinguish it from any other tort in civil law and common law countries. Antitrust damages claims are based on pure economic losses made compensable by the violation of statutorily protected interests and EU laws (Articles 101 and 102 TFEU). The claims are therefore based on losses caused by actions distorting market dynamics which negatively affect the assets of undertakings or consumers operating in the same market. The wide range of subjects and heads of damages involved in this process make the identification of the causal link a particularly difficult task for parties and judges. In confirmation of this, the analysis of national case law suggests that claimants are often discouraged from bringing damages claims characterized by high causal uncertainty.
Against the backdrop of mounting calls for the global scaling-up of mental health services – including quality care and prevention services – there is very little guidance internationally on strategies for scaling-up such services. Drawing on lessons from scale-up attempts in six low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and using exemplars from the front-lines in South Africa; we illustrate how health reforms towards people-centred chronic disease management provide enabling policy window opportunities for embedding mental health scale-up strategies into these reforms. Rather than going down the oft-trodden road of vertical funding for scale-up of mental health services, we suggest using the policy window that stresses global policy shifts towards strengthening of comprehensive integrated primary health care systems that are responsive to multimorbid chronic conditions. This is indeed a substantial opportunity to firmly locate mental health within these horizontal health systems strengthening funding agendas. While this approach will promote systems more enabling of scaling up of mental health services, implications for donor funders and researchers alike is the need for increased time commitments, resources and investment in local control.
Metacercariae of various species within the genus Holostephanus Szidat, 1936 (Trematoda: Digenea: Cyathocotylidae) occur in muscles of both farmed and wild fish, including common carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758). The life cycle includes a snail as first intermediate host, fish as second intermediate host and birds or mammals as final hosts. We studied the zoonotic potential and the viability of Holostephanus metacercariae from common carp following exposure to various physical and chemical treatments. Muscle tissue samples of common carp specimens from a fish farm in the north-eastern part of Hungary were examined and metacercariae recovered. The zoonotic potential was evaluated experimentally by using small mammals as models (albino mice, n = 2; and Syrian hamsters, n = 4) infected per os with Holostephanus cysts. Parallelly, Metagonimus metacercariae were used as positive controls. We could not confirm the zoonotic potential of Holostephanus metacercariae as they did not survive in the mammalian intestine whereas Metagonimus metacercariae developed to the adult stage. We assessed the viability of metacercariae isolated from common carp specimens during exposure to different physical treatments (temperatures of −18°C, +20°C, +40°C and +60°C) and chemical agents (5% and 10% acetic acid and 10% sodium chloride (NaCl)). Metacercariae lost viability by freezing at −18°C (2 h), heating at 60°C (20 min), incubation in 5% and 10% acetic acid (5 min) and 10% NaCl (2 h). These methods served as models to investigate the effectiveness of food preparation techniques (such as cold and hot smoking, freezing, salting and pickling) on the survival of metacercariae.
During the 2015, 2016, and 2017 growing seasons, a survey of 63 pastures in Missouri was conducted to determine the effects of selected soil and forage parameters on the density of common annual, biennial, and perennial weed species. Permanent sampling areas were established in each pasture at a frequency of one representative 20-m2 area per 4 ha of pasture, and weed species and density in each area were determined at 14-d intervals for a period from mid-April until late September. The parameters evaluated included soil pH, phosphorus (P), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), sulfur (S), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), and copper (Cu) concentrations, as well as tall fescue density, forage groundcover density, and stocking rate. An increase of 1 unit in soil pH was associated with 146 fewer weeds per hectare, the largest reduction in weed density in response to any soil parameter. Increased soil pH was associated with the greatest reduction in perennial grass weed density, along with an average reduction of 1,410 brush weeds per hectare for each 1-unit increase in soil pH. Common ragweed, a widespread weed of pastures, could be reduced by 3,056 weeds ha−1 when soil pH was 1 unit greater. A 1-ppm increase in soil P was correlated with a decrease of 206 biennial broadleaf weeds per hectare. Perennial broadleaf weed density was reduced in soils with greater concentrations of P, K, and Ca. Additionally, for every 1% increase of tall fescue and forage groundcover, there was a decrease of 18 and 38 perennial broadleaf weeds per hectare. The results from this research indicate that the density of many common weed species can be reduced with higher soil pH and adjustments to soil macro- and micronutrient concentrations, especially P.
This chapter explores the evolution of judicial influence using a hand-collected data set of all cases until 2016 that address the enforceability of clickwrap, shrinkwrap, and browsewrap contracts as well as their out-of-state influence over time. A foundational theory conceptualizes precedent as an investment that yields valuable information to subsequent courts that depreciates over time, as new circumstances and innovations make such precedent less helpful for later courts. Empirical research on judicial citations has found a “superstar” or “tournament winner” effect, whereby a handful of cases garner almost all citations for a given question. How do tournament winners fare over time? I find that the citation universe is indeed dominated by “tournament winners.” These cases, which tend to be decided by circuit court judges, influence other courts from the date they are decided. Instead of experiencing depreciation, however, I find that their influence continues to grow, even over cases that are hierarchically more important. In addition, cases tend to converge towards a particular rule or standard over time. The results enrich our understanding of the evolution of judicial influence and help inform theories of the evolution of precedent and the common law.