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Chapter 1 argues that the foundations of an Iberian “Empire of Eloquence” were laid in the sixteenth century by the simultaneous expansion of humanist intellectual and educational traditions. This chapter takes the form of a case study of the Valley of Mexico placed within the context of an emerging Iberian World. As well as offering a thumbnail sketch of the Iberian World circa 1550, it makes the case for significant continuity or at least parallels across the pre-/post-Conquest divide. The colleges where classical rhetoric was taught were often built on the site of earlier indigenous institutions, while Renaissance rhetoric and oratory replaced similar indigenous forms of social ordering, most notably Nahuatl huehuetlatolli (“ceremonial speeches”).
Why is the ecological potential of Sharia’ not exploited for the protection of our planet today? This chapter reports the analyses of philosophers, economists and historians on the causes of the decline of one of the most important institution of the Sharia': the Waqf. From these analyses it is easy to understand why the environmental Waqf stopped functioning.
In this cross-sectional study, we examined the relationship between resident level of care in the nursing home and colonization with resistant gram-negative bacteria. Residential-care residents were more likely to be colonized with resistant gram-negative bacteria than were postacute care residents (odds ratio, 2.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.40–3.80; P < .001).
Today, one-quarter of all the land in Latin America is set apart for nature protection. In Nationalizing Nature, Frederico Freitas uncovers the crucial role played by conservation in the region's territorial development by exploring how Brazil and Argentina used national parks to nationalize borderlands. In the 1930s, Brazil and Argentina created some of their first national parks around the massive Iguazu Falls, shared by the two countries. The parks were designed as tools to attract migrants from their densely populated Atlantic seaboards to a sparsely inhabited borderland. In the 1970s, a change in paradigm led the military regimes in Brazil and Argentina to violently evict settlers from their national parks, highlighting the complicated relationship between authoritarianism and conservation in the Southern Cone. By tracking almost one hundred years of national park history in Latin America's largest countries, Nationalizing Nature shows how conservation policy promoted national programs of frontier development and border control.
We are living in a time when the line between “climate” and “weather,” and our understanding of what these terms mean, is changing. This chapter shows that such significations were never stable, and our understanding of these terms has changed over time. In fact, our understanding of climate – as the expected weather in a region over a particular period of time – is a relatively recent one, emerging only about 150 years ago. This chapter argues that the evolution of our thinking about climate was catalyzed and assimilated by Europeans’ colonization of the Americas. These trans- and multinational efforts initiated and sustained scientific inquiry into what exactly climate is and how it functions on a planetary scale. In tracing climate theories from the early colonial period to the present, this chapter shows how earlier theories laid the groundwork for modern meteorology and climatology. And, ultimately, it argues that our current understanding of climate – including our coping with global and local climate changes – shares with earlier epistemologies an enmeshment of nature and culture that might productively point us toward creative and crucial solutions for our climate crises.
This essay unpacks the strategic role of race in Titus Andronicus and brings to light the play’s earnest representation of racism’s entanglement in the demands of the global capitalist project born in Shakespeare’s time. Titus Andronicus dreams of London as a cosmopolitan capital with imperial aspirations in a proto-colonial world-economy. In the possible futures that the play dreams up for England, prescribing the most profitable forms of intercultural trafficking is a priority. The smart device used for establishing such prescriptions is called race. The racial regime ushered in by early modern globalization, triggered by colonization, and forged in the furnace of early capitalism, was predicated not upon the elimination of racialized others, but on their strategic and contingent inclusion at inferior ranks in a hierarchical multicultural society. Titus Andronicus dramatizes the push and pull between the exclusion and inclusion of racialized Others necessary to the growth of early modern world-economies.
Decades before the ACS even came to exist, white reformers had planned black colonies for what they imagined to be the vacant wilds of the American West. They discerned how internal colonization might address the “race question” while not wasting black labor overseas; for their part, black Americans took less offense at an idea that offered them autonomy without expatriation. But as white migrants, with slaves or without, settled the West at a rate few had foreseen, Americans abandoned continental black colonies. That changed with the Civil War, which rekindled northerners’ faith in internal colonization – but for the South, not the West. While chaos within the White House mothballed President Lincoln’s foreign colonization schemes, policy makers began to trust the white North’s salvation to “natural” trends of racial migration, which just might do the job that conscious design had failed to. Yet the postwar frustrations of conservatives such as President Andrew Johnson, and of the freedpeople (who craved ownership of the land that they had long worked), showed that black resettlement would continue to hold a place in American race relations.
From the Revolution to the Civil War, white Americans believed that the freedom of the slaves, should it ever come to pass, must end in blacks and whites living hundreds, even thousands of miles apart. Most famously, a coalition of slaveholders and reformers founded the American Colonization Society (ACS) in 1816–17, which carved out the West African settlement of Liberia for black expatriates. But a vast array of contemporaries, black and white, American and foreign, also staked their claim to plans for moving African Americans from the United States, especially to other parts of the Americas. African American emigrants left for Canada, Haiti, and the British West Indies as well as for Liberia, while white institutions and individuals variously encouraged and resisted schemes to resettle them across the Caribbean and Latin America. Contemporaries were so sure that they would make at least one plan the locus of an African American exodus that, when the Civil War destroyed slavery in the United States at unexpected speed, they found themselves with few intellectual foundations on which to build a biracial nation.
Despite this book’s focus on the period after decolonization, one must not think that Africa’s history started with the appearance of the colonial powers or their formal withdrawal. Hence, this chapter pays attention to the pre-colonial era, highlighting the rich culture and organization of African societies at that time. When exploring the colonization and the colonial rule, the chapter pays attention to collaboration with, resistance against, and avoidance of the colonial powers by African actors.
This chapter conceptualizes, codes, and provides a visualization of property rights gaps. Land can be held by individuals, groups, and governments; ownership can be formalized or informal in various ways; and property rights can face a diverse array of restrictions. I home in on several critical components of property rights in constructing my property rights gap measures: land formalization, defensibility, and alienability. I use these aspects of property rights to construct measures of complete, partial, and absent property rights. Based on these definitions, this chapter outlines the original data, I collected on land reform and property rights through land titling in Latin America, and then visualizes the data used to construct measures of the property rights gap. The chapter situates the data and patterns relative to important forms of landholding such as collective and communal land rights, cooperatives, land that is nationalized, and individually held land. This chapter also discusses the evolution of land rights in Latin America from the colonial period to the early 1900s.
This chapter offers a brief overview of the multiple transformations the island went through with the rise and fall of the colonial economy in the sixteenth century, as it cycled through gold extraction, and then the expansion of African slavery with the establishment of sugar plantations, all the while exploiting indigenous labor. After the decline of the sugar economy, ginger and cattle ranching followed as the most important economic activities in the last two decades of the century. The chapter ends with a description of the city of Santo Domingo as the social and political center of the colony.
Nineteenth-century Europeans developed scientific methodologies that generated new knowledge about Africa through Eurocentric ideas about progress. These ideas became the foundation for the development episteme. The development episteme emerged out of both these scientific endeavors and the missionary-imperialist project to disseminate European Christianity, commerce, and “civilization” to Africans. Knowledge explorers, cartographers, medical doctors, biologists, economists, ethnologists, and other scientists produced about Africa facilitated colonization by claiming mastery over the continent’s environment and people. Europeans drew on this scientific information to assert their technological expertise and moral right to “civilize” Africans. European scholars suggested their expertise was needed because they knew Africans best. Yet the development episteme was formulated in dialogue with Africans whose own knowledge and interests often determined which development efforts would succeed and which would fail. Many Africans working for Europeans were educated in Western, most often missionary schools. As such, African assistants were adept at filtering information through a Western lens. This filter transformed African knowledge into European “facts.” More recently scholars of the global north have introduced forms of knowledge about Africa that do not perpetuate the notion of Western superiority, but that still rely on some of the assumptions built into nineteenth-century European epistemologies.
A transformation of the Declaration of Independence’s symbolism in the 1820s that proved useful for those advancing claims on behalf of black Americans. In the first instance, the Declaration became more closely associated with a commitment to equality. In the second instance, the project of unifying the nation around the sacred text of the Declaration had the effect of providing a written expression of American nationalism as a value-laden concept. This chapter traces the ways in which free black writers sought to exploit both opportunities, ultimately generating an understanding of American citizenship that would inform the wider abolitionist movement of the 1830s. These efforts saw free black writers advance claims upon American citizenship with pamphlets, including David Walker’s Appeal, and the first African American owned and operated newspaper in the United States, Freedom’s Journal. Associating this understanding of the Declaration with the U.S. Constitution provided a framework for understanding the Constitution as committed to an expansive notion of the People and provided an important orientating concept for the abolitionist movement as it evolved into the 1830s.
This chapter investigates historical and modern case studies, and media and popular culture examples of discriminatory language related to race, ethnicity, and national origin. Following a discussion of overt racism (especially slavery, segregation, and the treatment of Native people in the United States), we discuss several case studies that reveal hidden racism against various groups of people. For example, we will look at the 1992 Presidential campaign when candidate Ross Perot referred to his audience of African Americans as “You People” in a speech, and the racial controversy surrounding celebrity chef Paula Deen’s use of racial slurs. We talk about the problems with the slogan All lives matter, the saying playing the race card, and why people found Donald Trump’s Twitter comment, “I love Hispanics!” to be offensive. This chapter also examines linguistic discrimination, otherwise known as linguicism. We look at expressions of xenophobia, nationalism, and prejudice against immigrants and minorities on the basis of the language they speak or their accent. We look at cases in the media, within the education system, and the workplace. For example, we discuss Mock Spanish, Engrish, anti-Muslim prejudice, and we look at cases where people have been ordered to Speak English or get out of America!
The relationship between culture, psychology and human rights remains relatively unexplored. Analyses of human rights violations and challenges to its implementation in non-Western cultures usually involve socioeconomic and political analyses but rarely bring in psychological cultural differences as a lens through which to understand these phenomena. A cross-cultural psychological approach can yield fruitful and interesting perspectives. Specifically, it can shed some light on the treatment of mental illness in former colonies and non-Western cultures, and on whether the conceptualization of human rights is universal across cultures. The authors explore these issues in two parts of the world, Africa and Asia. The first section provides a historical framework of the legacy of colonization and its impact on the treatment of mental health in Africa, as well as attempts by African countries to incorporate African cultural values into their human rights frameworks. The second section looks at human rights paradoxes in the treatment of mental illness in Asia and utilizes cross-cultural and Indigenous psychology to delve deeper into cultural differences in the conceptualization of human rights, which is seen as arising out of a Western cultural context.
The chapter’s locally emplaced focus on Menelik’s conquest “from below” fills important gaps in Ethiopian history that enable us to get a more complete picture of a crucial time period. Detailing the violent campaigns, it provides insights on how it was experienced in local contexts and discusses the deep impacts it had on the Arsi Oromo. The involuntary incorporation into the Ethiopian Kingdom meant that they had to submit to an alien and hegemonic regime focused on extracting as many resources as it could from its new territories. The chapter underscores that the Arsi Oromo saw the arrival of Menelik’s soldiers as an intrusion and that the new realities entailed subjugation and loss of autonomy. It moreover discusses the Arsi Oromo’s acts of resistance from the early days of the conquest into the twentieth century. It concludes that it is far from clear that the Arsi Oromo at the time viewed the conquest as part of a larger program of internal colonization – as it has later been interpreted – and that detailed micro-studies of the conquest serve to nuance the unproductive dichotomy of viewing it either as a process of national unification or as acts of illegitimate colonialization.
This essay looks at the innovations in poetry and poetry publishing from 2001 to 2018, with a particular emphasis on the emerging generation of Indigenous poets like Sherwin Bitsui, Orlando White, Natalie Diaz, and Layli Long Soldier. While paying close attention to the themes and motifs that have been of interest to Native writers, this essay foregrounds innovations in poetic form, including erasures and strikethroughs, complicated syntax, and typographical experimentation. A good deal of recent Native poetry takes on English and its rules and structures as a tool of colonization, repression, identification, and misinformation, and in so doing, seeks to remake English so that it might be viewed through an Indigenous lens.
This chapter surveys the historical background of the global spread of English and its linguistic consequences. Since World Englishes are mostly products of colonialism, it surveys the history of European colonization and colonization types, the growth and decline of the British Empire, and the role of the United States in the globalization of English. It discusses the tension between the internationalization and the localization of English, the range of variety types which have consequently grown in specific circumstances; and offers numbers of varieties and speakers involved, including a global map of countries in which English has some sort of a special internal status. It is shown that, surprisingly, the global growth of English gained even more momentum after the end of the colonial period. The constant leitmotif in all of this is the relationship between the language-external and the internal, the direct functional relationship between historical events and constellations, the communicative patterns caused by these, and, consequently, their effects upon the development of linguistic forms and varieties.
Starting as early as the Spanish colonial caste system, the ancestors of modern Latinos faced discrimination that led Whites to view them as a non-White racial group. The discrimination Latinos faced resulting from the caste system limited their social mobility, helping create a belief that Latinos were incapable of assimilating into colonial society. Other types of formal and informal forms of discrimination against Latinos (e.g., the California Land Act, Operation Wetback, the Zoot Suit riots) had a similar effect, reinforcing beliefs about the inability of Latinos to assimilate as well as creating an impression that Latinos fail to adhere to Anglo-American norms. This chapter traces various historical institutions that have helped shape how White's perceive Latino identity and ultimately shape the way that animus is expressed toward Latinos today.