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A research study to evaluate the implementation of a long-term conditions model of care provoked questions regarding the potential impact of the researcher’s role in health service research. Traditional methods of qualitative interviewing require researchers to be a disembodied presence, objective, and free from bias. When health service research is conducted by health professionals, role conflict may occur if the topic is one they have expertise in, and therefore the ability to provide guidance or information. An alternative perspective to the idea of an independent and objective researcher is the notion of a partnership. In this research collaboration, participants utilised the interview process to reflect and explore different perspectives, and the researcher bracketed their own participation in the phenomenon being studied. Reflexivity was utilised by both participants and the interviewer to ensure transparency and thus bridge the gap between subjectivity and objectivity in qualitative health service research interviewing.
This chapter challenges the standard narrative associated with the woman writer and the rise of the novel according to which an antisocial woman requires a separate, private space to create works that she delivers to the world anonymously, if she dares to publish them at all. When we return to seventeenth-century France, the period when the novel first came into its own, we discover a history of the genre, its practitioners and its consumers that upends this reductionist and stereotypical history. In France the novel arises out of a culture of collaboration and conversation, where women played a pivotal and determining role. Women influenced the novel form itself in addition to adding their own texts. The chapter presents the argument that collaboration and conversation, which were the hallmarks of a unique salon culture created and dominated by women, were at the heart of the genesis of the novel and influenced and shaped France’s Republic of Letters as whole. An examination of these particular characteristics illuminates the particular form the novel took in France, the influence women exerted on the novel, and why it was their creative genre of choice.
If young people are to be equipped to shape the future, then a key outcome of their learning experience needs to be the development of their own agency. Learners who have agency are purposive, reflective and action-oriented. Agency means developing goals, initiating action, reflecting on and regulating progress and belief in self-efficacy. Just like thriving, we can understand agency as a process or as an outcome of learning at a variety of levels: individual, collaborative and collective. Agency – and co-agency – are at the heart of the OECD Framework for Education and Skills 2030. Agency is central to transformational competencies: creating new value; taking responsibility; coping with tensions and trade-offs. In the school context, agency can be learned and exercised through stutdent voice, student leadership and student ownership of learning. Beyond the school walls, agency can be learned and exercised when students engage in community issues that matter. Some systems are now explicitly promoting agency with support resources and materials but government can do more to ensure that schools can promote learner agency while meeting regulative and accountability requirements.
This chapter assesses the emergent mindset and the city’s insular nature by providing an analysis of the propaganda created in Königsberg during its siege. As the idea of Volksgemeinschaft steadily lost its appeal, propagandists struggled to convey their message to the fortress’s population. By drawing attention to the efforts of local propagandists, this chapter examines the impact of the Wehrmacht ‘on the ground’, and discusses the need to forge a Kampfgemeinschaft, based on Königsberg’s ‘battle’ rather than on Germany’s ‘struggle’. Rather than encouraging the population to leave the city, the fortress command instead propagated a false sense of safety. An assessment of the themes portrayed in local media reveals how, in a fractured Germany, local authorities presented their message and how they sought to link it to the larger regional picture of events. A martial narrative came to dominate Königsberg’s propaganda while the unfolding events were consistently explained by drawing parallels to the city’s Prussian past, offering an alternative to the National Socialist rhetoric. The population’s reluctance to leave the city until the very end is a sombre testament to the propagandists’ success in downplaying the dangers to which all were exposed.
Primary care is geared to manage patients with mild to moderate presentations of common mental disorders and to refer patients with more severe mental disorders to specialist mental health services. With growing demand for specialty care, the quality of the referral is increasingly important to ensure efficient patient flow across the primary/secondary care interface and appropriate use of secondary services. We report on an initiative in a Qatari mental health clinic to improve the quality of referrals from primary care to specialist mental health services through an educational intervention for family physicians. We highlight the problem, the intervention and the outcome of our initiative, which was the first of its kind in the region. The number of inappropriate referrals fell by 93%, and the number of referrals with inadequate clinical information declined from 15 (January 2019) to 1 (September 2019). Feedback was very positive; respondents reported feeling supported, with better understanding of care pathways, the scope of primary care and mental health services.
Despite this book’s focus on the period after decolonization, one must not think that Africa’s history started with the appearance of the colonial powers or their formal withdrawal. Hence, this chapter pays attention to the pre-colonial era, highlighting the rich culture and organization of African societies at that time. When exploring the colonization and the colonial rule, the chapter pays attention to collaboration with, resistance against, and avoidance of the colonial powers by African actors.
The digital restaging of early Caribbean texts includes critical efforts by scholars, librarians, archivists, and others working together to identify, locate, digitize, and put in place supports for online access and long-term digital preservation. Digital preservation and access to lost, rare, or hard-to-find literary archives have revolutionized Caribbean literary history and scholarship. This essay covers digital restaging in relation to concerns for access, the importance of scholarly bibliographies and collaboration for identifying literary texts for digitization and contextualization, and the importance of digital libraries in enabling the transition, focusing specifically on the Digital Library of the Caribbean (dLOC). This chapter concludes with the significance of digital humanities programmes and projects in Caribbean Studies for continuing the work of bibliographies and inventories.
This chapter investigates deductive practices in what is arguably their main current instantiation, namely practices of mathematical proofs. The dialogical hypothesis delivers a compelling account of a number of features of these practices; indeed, the fictive characters Prover and Skeptic can be viewed as embodied by real-life mathematicians. The chapter includes a discussion of the ontological status of proofs, the functions of proofs, practices of mathematicians such as peer review and collaboration, and a brief discussion of probabilistic and computational proofs. It also discusses three case studies: the reception of Gödel’s incompleteness results, a failed proof of the inconsistency of Peano Arithmetic, and a purported proof of the ABC conjecture.
Interactions between firms, universities and other actors in the innovation system are essential for open innovation. Empirical literature on the relationship between open innovation strategies and firm performance in low-income countries however is less and heavily biased towards developed countries. This chapter examines the role of open innovation strategies on the innovation performance of firms in Ghana and Tanzania, and explores further the roles of university–industry collaborations and the participation of regional and global production networks on capability development of African firms. Based on primary data, our results show that open innovation strategies – external knowledge search, clusters, collaboration and regional value chains – help firms in Ghana and Tanzania to circumvent the many constraints they face in their day-to-day operations. In terms of policy, the chapter suggests that there is a need for policy actions that directly help to support and promote open innovation strategies within and between formal and informal sectors
This chapter looks at two case studies: two groups that are part of “smart” farming assemblages in quite divergent ways. These data are derived from interviews with (1) twenty employees (technicians, sale reps, and engineers) from various big data companies located from around North America and the U.K., and (2) eighteen farmers from around the USA engaged to various degrees with the loosely organized group called Farm Hack. The chapter beings by briefly introducing each empirical case. Next, findings from an instrument used to generate word clouds are explored. The word clouds are used to interrogate how the two populations thought about the concept of good citizen. The chapter concludes by discussing what it means for data and code in an agricultural context to have politics and how we might think about prioritizing some techniques, in particular, those supporting collaborative ontologies, over others.
The rise of multi-party processes in which people with quite different ties to a region, natural resource-related industry, or environmental issue work collaboratively to hammer out mutually acceptable agreements is arguably one of the biggest shifts in environmental management over the past twenty-five years. This chapter engages in some sensemaking around this diverse and evolving phenomenon in two ways. First, an approach to designing collaborative natural resource-related discourse with a particularly strong theoretical foundation (Collaborative Learning) is presented to illustrate how theory is manifest in practice. Second a recent best practices/common features list is examined through the perspectives of four social science theorists: Max Weber, Pierre Bourdieu, Niklas Luhmann, and Muzafer Sherif. The practical recommendations that emerge from this list is largely consistent with the larger social and communicative dynamics articulated by these theorists.
Practices of denunciation are at once ubiquitous and marginalised in literature on the Guatemalan armed conflict. Meanwhile, ordinary Guatemalans who spontaneously denounced neighbours, former friends and fellow villagers have largely escaped scrutiny in scholarly work on low-level perpetrators. Departing from untapped confidential documents in the Historical Archive of the National Police, this article provides the first archival study of denunciatory behaviour during the Guatemalan Civil War, specifically at the height of the conflict (1970–85). This contribution reveals both the strategic considerations that spurred state intelligence apparatuses to elicit civilian information as well as the broad range of personal, opportunistic and strategic motives that drove civilians to denounce. The case study questions scholarly consensus on the spontaneous and voluntary character of denunciation by arguing that besides providing novel pathways for opportunistic action, denunciations also opened up new strategies for survival in the face of a civil war that structured available choices.
The changing position of the public service is examined in relation to the growth of ministers’ policy roles. As the political executive assumed greater policy leadership, a stronger emphasis has been placed on the contestability of advice and increasing use of other advisory sources. There is a tendency for public service policy capacity to decline, but there are differences across the policy advisory systems due to country-specific patterns of reforms. The public service has become more disposed to being internally collaborative and externally engaged through policy processes, but regular injunctions for greater connectivity indicate continuing shortfalls. There is a question of whether a restoration of capacity is possible and what the advisory role is for a public service that has been emphasising generalist and process-based functions as a broker and convenor of advisory inputs.
From his early experiences as a conductor to the final performances of his operas, Richard Strauss collaborated with the most accomplished artists in the German-speaking theater. These associations set standards for productions of his stage works which were essential for their short- and long-term success. Important collaborators included the directors Max Reinhardt and Rudolf Hartmann, choreographers Heinrich Kröller and the duo of Pino and Pia Mlakar, and designers Alfred Roller and Ludwig Sievert. These and other partnerships flourished in the cities which Strauss favored for his premieres: Dresden, Munich, and Vienna. Under the auspices of the Salzburg Festival, Strauss and his stage collaborators established a vital legacy of production that continues into the present.
Hofmannsthal’s death in 1929 left Strauss in a quandary. The will to compose was undiminished, and a replacement of similar caliber was difficult to find. Over the ensuing twenty years, Strauss enlisted the services of three further librettists. First was the celebrated Jewish writer Stefan Zweig, who supplied the text for Die schweigsame Frau. After Zweig exiled himself from his Austria in 1936, the distraught composer turned to the Viennese theater historian Joseph Gregor as collaborator on Friedenstag, Daphne, and Die Liebe der Danae. Last was Clemens Krauss, whom Strauss entrusted with the libretto of Capriccio, Strauss’s last opera. Decades earlier, Strauss himself wrote the text for his first music drama, Guntram, but it was “song-and-dance-man” Ernst von Wolzogen (Feuersnot) whose racy libretto served to loosen the Wagnerian chains that bound the composer in Guntram and pointed Strauss in a direction that led the Hofmannsthalian masterpieces of the next three decades.
In this book, Claudia Glatz reconsiders the concept of empire and the processes of imperial making and undoing of the Hittite network in Late Bronze Age Anatolia. Using an array of archaeological, iconographic, and textual sources, she offers a fresh account of one of the earliest, well-attested imperialist polities of the ancient Near East. Glatz critically examines the complexity and ever – transforming nature of imperial relationships, and the practices through which Hittite elites and administrators aimed to bind disparate communities and achieve a measure of sovereignty in particular places and landscapes. She also tracks the ambiguities inherent in these practices -- what they did or did not achieve, how they were resisted, and how they were subtly negotiated in different regional and cultural contexts.
Crisis management in major accidents requires the collaboration among different organizations. One of the most important problems of crisis management is the lack of coordination between executive organizations. The aim of this study was to examine the structural characters and problems of interorganizational network during crisis in the petrochemical industry and provide solutions to achieve the highest performance in crisis management.
The organizations involved in crisis management were identified through interviews and questionnaires. Gephi (0.9.1) software was used to examine interorganizational relationships.
In this study, the crisis management team consisted of 25 public and private organizations and non-governmental organizations. The highest betweenness centrality was observed in Crisis Management of Provincial Government (CMPG) (142.16) and Fire Department of Petrochemical Complex (FDC) (89.3). The highest closeness centrality was observed in FDC (0.77), CMPG (0.7), Shazand Governorate (0.7), and Crisis Management of University of Medical Sciences (0.7).
Coordination between organizations plays an important role in crisis and emergency management, and social network analysis helps identify strengths and weaknesses of organizations involved in crisis management, overcome those weaknesses, and consequently achieve the best performance in crisis management.
What might a truly comparative Native American and Indigenous literary studies look like? Building from an extended contextualization and “literary” analysis of a work of carving, painting, inlay, and assemblage, this essay suggests a range of possible approaches to comparative, global, and/or trans-Indigenous projects based in engagements with alphabetic literatures. Both the sculptural and alphabetic examples expose ways in which the work of contemporary artists and writers elucidates neither Indigenous stasis nor Indigenous isolation—as colonial stereotypes continue to assert—but rather Indigenous connections to wider worlds, often in multiple ways simultaneously, and often explicitly within processes of real and imagined travel. In these examples, artists and writers center the Indigenous in their works in terms of the cultures, histories, and aesthetics they reference and engage, but also in the very conceptions of space, place, movement, and time their works evoke and, indeed, enact.
The unique traits and behaviours of students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often present a range of barriers to their educational experiences and development. The present study investigated collaborative partnerships between 3 stakeholders that often support students with ASD: teachers, parents, and allied health professionals (AHPs). With current literature on collaboration between teachers, parents, and AHPs involved in the education of students with ASD predominantly relating to specific skill or knowledge acquisition, there was an insufficient understanding of ‘collaborative processes’ and the factors that benefit or limit effective practice. In the present study, the researchers explored the experiences, processes, and opinions of parents, teachers, and AHPs supporting students with ASD in mainstream Australian primary schools. A total of 129 responses were recorded (41 teachers, 44 parents, and 44 AHPs) through an online survey, and thematic data analysis was used to qualitatively interpret the open-ended questions. The findings highlight the current opportunities and challenges faced by key stakeholders in this important process.
Scientific collaboration is an unavoidable practice in science. Science is growing with collaboration, which is itself increasing. The chapter examines the kinds of collaboration, from regional to international, that prevail in Africa. Bibliometric data forms the basis of this analysis. Collaboration in Africa can be explained by the core-periphery theoretical model. Regional collaboration within Africa was not as strong as international collaboration that is mostly with the USA, France, the UK, Germany and Belgium. The colonial ties of Africa have not been severed in the current collaborative links and continue to have prominence in international scientific collaboration. Some neocolonial ties are also evident in international collaboration in recent years. International partners, apart from their past ties, look for scientifically strong countries in Africa to associate with. Within the continent, South Africa is the centre of regional collaboration, maintaining scientific ties with many other African countries. Specific scientific fields and collaboration are related. Scientific alliances between specific countries in Africa and other countries are found in the analysis. Forms of collaboration also vary across African countries. While international collaboration is useful, the comparative benefits gained are not equally beneficial for Africa.