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Are local politics usually characterized by disagreement or consensus? While scholars of politics in major cities such as New York, Atlanta, and Los Angeles have long emphasized the centrality of racial and class cleavages in elections and governing, the conventional wisdom is that local politics outside such urban behemoths – that is, in the thousands of smaller cities and towns where nearly 3 in 4 Americans live – are relatively staid. According to this view, local politics are distinctive from national or state politics because they typically revolve around relatively low-stakes issues and rely on elected officials who are characterized more by managerial acumen than ideological fervor. These characteristics, the argument goes, make local politics relatively placid in comparison with the pitched battles that frequently roil national politics.
In the previous chapter, we examined patterns in descriptive representation, ideological congruence representation, and policy responsiveness across economic groups in communities throughout the United States, revealing the substantial underrepresentation of citizens with low wealth at the municipal level. Importantly, however, Chapter 7 focused largely, though not exclusively, on general patterns of (inequality in) representation. This emphasis, while vital, has the effect of minimizing the nontrivial number of instances in which less affluent residents receive considerable representation at the local level.
Houston, Texas is a city of roughly 2.3 million people, located in the southeastern portion of the state, near Galveston Bay and the Gulf of Mexico. It has a dynamic economy, with two dozen Fortune 500 companies, the nation’s second-most-active port, and significant energy, technology, aerospace, medical, and manufacturing sectors. Although the city has a white-plurality population (37.3 percent of residents identify as white), it is very racially diverse, with 36.5 percent of residents identifying as Hispanic/Latino; 16.6 percent identifying as African American; 7.5 percent identifying as Asian; and 2 percent identifying as “Other.” Compared with many cities of similar size, Houston boasts an attractive combination of abundant jobs, affordable housing, and exciting cultural amenities.
Mount Pleasant, Wisconsin, is a village of 26,000 residents in Racine County, Wisconsin, a suburban area approximately 30 miles south of Milwaukee. Although historically devoted to agriculture, the village economy is now dominated by the retail, industrial, and health care sectors. Mount Pleasant boasts numerous local, national, and international companies, “including Putzmeister, Case New Holland, SC Johnson, Diversey, Horizon Retail Construction, Racine Federated, and many others.” The village is fairly prosperous: The median family income ($59,584) is slightly above the state median of $59,305, and more than 40 percent of residents possess at least an associate’s degree. Nearly 72 percent of residents own homes, with a median home value of $172,292.
Inflammation and metabolic dysregulation are age-related physiological changes and are associated with depressive disorder. We tried to identify subgroups of depressed older patients based on their metabolic-inflammatory profile and examined the course of depression for these subgroups.
This clinical cohort study was conducted in a sample of 364 depressed older (⩾60 years) patients according to DSM-IV criteria. Severity of depressive symptoms was monitored every 6 months and a formal diagnostic interview repeated at 2-year follow-up. Latent class analyses based on baseline metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers were performed. Adjusted for confounders, we compared remission of depression at 2-year follow-up between the metabolic-inflammatory subgroups with logistic regression and the course of depression severity over 2-years by linear mixed models.
We identified a ‘healthy’ subgroup (n = 181, 49.7%) and five subgroups characterized by different profiles of metabolic-inflammatory dysregulation. Compared to the healthy subgroup, patients in the subgroup with mild ‘metabolic and inflammatory dysregulation’ (n = 137, 37.6%) had higher depressive symptom scores, a lower rate of improvement in the first year, and were less likely to be remitted after 2-years [OR 0.49 (95% CI 0.26–0.91)]. The four smaller subgroups characterized by a more specific immune-inflammatory dysregulation profile did not differ from the two main subgroups regarding the course of depression.
Nearly half of the patients with late-life depressions suffer from metabolic-inflammatory dysregulation, which is also associated with more severe depression and a worse prognosis. Future studies should examine whether these depressed older patients benefit from a metabolic-inflammatory targeted treatment.
Hilbert-space based analysis of differential operators, with the goal of using elliptic differential operators to build K-homology classes. Particular focus on geometric aspects related to propagation speed. Also some more precise Schatten-class theory.
This chapter recounts the Marcos case, in which an American jury held Ferdinand Marcos’ estate liable for torture, disappearance, and extrajudicial killing and awarded a class of 10,000 plaintiffs close to two billion dollars in damages. The case has been applauded as a victory of the rule of law over arbitrary power, and a sign of the United States’ commitment to international human rights.This chapter offers a different view of the relationship between abuses under Marcos on the one hand, and law and the United States on the other. In Marcos, the chapter shows, because the lawsuit took the form of a class action against a former head of state, the human rights violations were presented by both plaintiffs and court as systematic policy, in contrast to the US courts’ individualized portrayal of violence in Filártiga. Yet the historical narrative produced by the courts was nonetheless highly distorted, as it whitewashed two key structural foundations of repression under Marcos: US support for the regime, as well as the regime’s extensive use of legal discourse to legitimate and implement repressive policies.
Abduction can be described as the practice of carrying off a woman with the purpose of compelling her to marry a particular man who would then have access to the available dowry of money, land or other property, tied to the woman. Abduction was a noted phenomenon of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries and, within the context of the history of marriage in Ireland, reflects the desire, and in some cases the ability, of couples to overcome parental decisions on their marriage partners, but perhaps primarily the desire among individuals and families for property and status that was achievable through marriage. Abduction was most often a crime of considerable terror and violence and it is worth exploring for what it says about marriage strategy, attitudes to marriage, consent, parental authority and property, women’s agency in choosing a marriage partner and the value of women in Irish society. Abduction in Ireland between the seventeenth and twentieth centuries was a common practice. In this chapter we examine the motives behind, and assess reactions, to abductions, including the role of the family and wider community in this often very violent enterprise.
There is a dearth of British tech-companies listing on the London Stock Exchange (LSE), and the LSE lacks a large, innovative tech-company such as Google. The UK Government, concerned as to the loss of UK tech-companies to foreign acquirors, views the encouragement of UK tech-firm listings as a policy priority. Dual-class stock, currently prohibited from the LSE Main Market's premium-tier, allows founders to list their firms, and retain majority-control, while holding significantly less of the cash-flow rights in the company. This article will broach the potential for dual-class stock to attract UK tech-company listings, and explore the benefits that dual-class stock can engender for UK tech-companies and their public shareholders. The risks of dual-class structures will also be discussed, but it will be shown that in a UK regulatory context, in relation to high-growth tech-companies, the risks may not be as severe as presumed, and easily moderated through judicious controls.
The present study aimed to examine the temporal prevalence of overweight and obesity in Irish children through different methodologies and evaluate the change in rates between 1990 and 2019.
Anthropometric data from three Irish national food consumption surveys were used to examine the change in the prevalence of BMI and waist circumference-derived overweight and obesity levels.
Three cross-sectional food consumption surveys from the Republic of Ireland: the Irish National Nutrition Survey (1990), the National Children’s Food Survey (2005) and The Second National Children’s Food Survey (2019).
A demographically representative sample of Irish children aged 5–12 years: 1990 (n 148), 2005 (n 594) and 2019 (n 596).
Twelve percentage of children had overweight/obesity in 1990, which was significantly higher in 2005 at 25 % and significantly lower in 2019 at 16 % (P = 0·003). In 2019, more girls had overweight/obesity in comparison with boys (19 v. 14 %), whilst children from the lowest social class group had the highest levels of overweight/obesity (P = 0·019). Overall, the proportion of children with abdominal overweight/obesity was significantly lower in 2019 in comparison with 2005 (P ≤ 0·001).
Evidence from the most recent national survey suggests that overweight and obesity levels are plateauing and in some cases reducing in children in Ireland. Despite this, rates remain high, with the highest prevalence in 2019 observed in girls and in those from the lowest social class group. Thus, overweight/obesity prevention and intervention policies are necessary and should be continued.
Substance use in adolescence relates to other problems such as involvement in violence and mental/physical health problems. This study aimed to identify substance use patterns in a considerable sample of Brazilian adolescents and to estimate the magnitude of the relationship between each pattern and violence involvement indicators, as aggressor and/or as victim, and of mental and general health. The data analyzed were collected from 6702 schoolchildren, within the scope of the National Survey of School Health, employing latent class analysis for reports of alcohol, tobacco, marijuana and crack cocaine use. The five groups identified were compared regarding their involvement in violence and mental and general health aspects. Abstainers (18%) would neither make use of substances, nor be involved in violence or display health problems. Drinkers (26%) would tend to only make use of alcohol, but would not display the other problems either. Conventional Drug Users (28%) would tend to make use of alcohol and tobacco or alcohol and marijuana and would also be involved in violence, but would not display health problems. Polysubstance Users (23%) would tend to make use of alcohol, tobacco and marijuana and would be more frequently involved in violence. Hard Drug Users (5%) would tend to make frequent use of all substances in addition to also being more involved in violence, both as aggressor and victim, and would display mental/general health problems. Our findings reveal different levels of problems and reinforce the importance of varied prevention/treatment policies in order to meet specific demands.
denote the mapping class group of the plane minus a Cantor set. We show that every action of
on the circle is either trivial or semiconjugate to a unique minimal action on the so-called simple circle.
The relationship between the subtypes of psychotic experiences (PEs) and common mental health symptoms remains unclear. The current study aims to establish the 12-month prevalence of PEs in a representative sample of community-dwelling Chinese population in Hong Kong and explore the relationship of types of PEs and common mental health symptoms.
This is a population-based two-phase household survey of Chinese population in Hong Kong aged 16–75 (N = 5719) conducted between 2010 and 2013 and a 2-year follow-up study of PEs positive subjects (N = 152). PEs were measured with Psychosis Screening Questionnaire (PSQ) and subjects who endorsed any item on the PSQ without a clinical diagnosis of psychotic disorder were considered as PE-positive. Types of PEs were characterized using a number of PEs (single v. multiple) and latent class analysis. All PE-positive subjects were assessed with common mental health symptoms and suicidal ideations at baseline and 2-year follow-up. PE status was also assessed at 2-year follow-up.
The 12-month prevalence of PEs in Hong Kong was 2.7% with 21.1% had multiple PEs. Three latent classes of PEs were identified: hallucination, paranoia and mixed. Multiple PEs and hallucination latent class of PEs were associated with higher levels of common mental health symptoms. PE persistent rate at 2-year follow-up was 15.1%. Multiple PEs was associated with poorer mental health at 2-year follow-up.
Results highlighted the transient and heterogeneous nature of PEs, and that multiple PEs and hallucination subtype of PEs may be specific indices of poorer common mental health.
The Revolution of 1949 did not begin the shift to greater state capitalism. Chapter 2 examines the shift toward greater state capitalism in the lead up to and after 1949 by addressing why the CCP decided that facilitating the expansion of industrial production was more important than transforming the social relations of production. In short, military competition required rapid industrialization. Together, the first two chapters show how the CCP built on the pre-existing institutional foundations for the expansion of consumerism. The CCP consistently subordinated the transformation of social relations to the goal of amassing ever greater sums of capital and control over it and tolerated contradictory policies toward capitalists as long as those policies helped facilitate more immediate goals. Two mass campaigns examined illustrate how the CCP instrumentalized class warfare and used it only for greater capital accumulation rather than socialist transformation. Then the final section shows that the same CCP outcome of accumulation over social transformation applies to the countryside.
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) may gradually worsen to dementia, but often remains stable for extended periods of time. Little is known about the predictors of decline to help explain this variation. We aimed to explore whether this heterogeneous course of MCI may be predicted by the presence of Lewy body (LB) symptoms in a prospectively-recruited longitudinal cohort of MCI with Lewy bodies (MCI-LB) and Alzheimer's disease (MCI-AD).
A prospective cohort (n = 76) aged ⩾60 years underwent detailed assessment after recent MCI diagnosis, and were followed up annually with repeated neuropsychological testing and clinical review of cognitive status and LB symptoms. Latent class mixture modelling identified data-driven sub-groups with distinct trajectories of global cognitive function.
Three distinct trajectories were identified in the full cohort: slow/stable progression (46%), intermediate progressive decline (41%) and a small group with a much faster decline (13%). The presence of LB symptomology, and visual hallucinations in particular, predicted decline v. a stable cognitive trajectory. With time zeroed on study end (death, dementia or withdrawal) where available (n = 39), the same subgroups were identified. Adjustment for baseline functioning obscured the presence of any latent classes, suggesting that baseline function is an important parameter in prospective decline.
These results highlight some potential signals for impending decline in MCI; poorer baseline function and the presence of probable LB symptoms – particularly visual hallucinations. Identifying people with a rapid decline is important but our findings are preliminary given the modest cohort size.
This article provides a close reading of two popular Egyptian action films, al-Almani (The German, 2012), the first blockbuster since the 25 January 2011 revolution, and Qalb al-Asad (Lion heart, 2013), both starring Muhammad Ramadan as a socially produced proletarian “thug” figure. Made for Egyptian audiences, the films privilege entertainment over aesthetics or politics. However, they express distinct messages about violence, morality, and revolution that are shaped by their moments of postrevolutionary release. They present the police state in salutary yet ambivalent terms. They offer a rupture with prerevolutionary cinema by staging the failure of proletarian masculinities and femininities that rely on middle-class respectability in relation to sex, marriage, and work. Even as each film expresses traces of revolutionary upheaval and even nostalgia, cynicism rather than hopefulness dominates, especially in al-Almani, which conveys to the middle and upper classes the specter of an ever-present threat of masculine frustration. The form and content of Qalb al-Asad, by comparison, offer the option of reconciling opposing elements—an Egyptian story line with a less repressive conclusion if one chooses a path between revolutionary resistance and accepting defeat.
This chapter makes an initial presentation of the 1Lex hypothesis. It is shown that the mixed selection and noun class puzzles disappear if there is only one lexicon. It is followed with a discussion of how the lexicon of a biingual must be organized and the possibility of competition at the vocabulary insertion point. It also explores some of the consequences of the hypothesis for our understanding of borrowing, loan translation, and syntactic transfer.
While recent evidence suggests that women exhibit a high capacity to cooperate in all-women groups, existing research focuses on how women cooperate among themselves versus in mixed-gender situations. We still know little, however, about how social differences among women affect their collective action capacity. We examine this by implementing a public goods experiment in Lebanon in which 713 women and men were randomly assigned to play in same-gender groups that were either homogeneous or heterogeneous in their class and sectarian compositions. We show that women contribute significantly less in mixed-class groups while men contribute more, reinforcing that this pattern is unique to women. We also demonstrate that class differences can undermine women’s cooperation more than sectarian differences. These findings highlight how social differences – and class differences in particular – can impede women’s collective action capacity, revealing the potential barriers to building broad, gender-based coalitions to advance women’s rights and interests.
This paper presents a novel GaN-based digital outphasing power amplifier (PA) for the 800 MHz range. The PA reaches a maximum output power of 5.8 W at 30 V final-stage (FS) drain supply voltage. A novel output combiner circuit is used and efficiency is improved by resonant commutation of the FSs and optimized driver circuits for the two GaN push-pull FSs. 3D electromagnetic simulation of output network has been conducted to extract an equivalent circuit model and to access full information in terms of functionality and broadband impedance characteristics for optimized outphasing operation in the final design. Measured total efficiencies (ηtot) of 59 and 25% at 0 and 10 dB power back-off are achieved, respectively, fitting the simulation quite well. The proposed digital outphasing module is a promising candidate for fully digitized base-station architectures in future wireless communications.
This study aimed to evaluate the association between socio-economic factors and the food consumption of a young population. Participants were from the Portuguese National Food, Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (IAN-AF 2015–2016) aged from 3 to 17 years (n 1153). Food consumption was assessed using two non-consecutive days of food diaries in children and two 24-h recalls for adolescents. A latent class analysis (LCA) was used to classify children’s socio-economic status (socio-economic composite classification (SCC)), categorised in low, middle or high. The associations between socio-economic variables and food consumption were evaluated through linear or logistic regression models, weighted for the Portuguese population distribution. A positive association was found between belonging to a higher level of SCC and consumption of fruits and vegetables (FV), by children (β = 2·4, 95 % CI 1·1, 3·8) and by adolescents (β = 52·4, 95 % CI 9·6, 95·3). A higher SCC, but particularly higher maternal education, was positively associated with consumption of ‘white meat, fish and eggs’. Both higher SCC and parental education were positively associated with salty snack consumption in the adolescents’ group. In conclusion, children and adolescents with higher educated parents and belonging to a high socio-economic level have a higher daily intake of FV and white meat, fish and eggs. Socio-economic factors play an important role in justifying differences in the food consumption of children and adolescents and must be considered in future interventions. The relationship between higher socio-economic position and salty snack consumption in adolescents needs to be further explored in other populations.