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The present study investigated the effect of Bacillus subtilis DSM 29784 (Ba) and enzymes (xylanase and β-glucanases; Enz), alone or in combination (BE) as antibiotic replacements, on the growth performance, digestive enzyme activity, immune response and the intestinal barrier of broiler chickens. In total, 1200 1-d-old broilers were randomly assigned to five dietary treatments, each with six replicate pens of forty birds for 63 d as follows: (a) basal diet (control), supplemented with (b) 1 × 109 colony-forming units (cfu)/kg Ba, (c) 300 mg/kg Enz, (d) 1 × 109 cfu/kg Ba and 300 mg/kg Enz and (e) 250 mg/kg enramycin (ER). Ba, Enz and BE, similar to ER, decreased the feed conversion rate, maintained intestinal integrity with a higher villus height:crypt depth ratio and increased the numbers of goblet cells. The BE group exhibited higher expression of claudin-1 and mucin 2 than the other four groups. BE supplementation significantly increased the α-diversity and β-diversity of the intestinal microbiota and markedly enhanced lipase activity in the duodenal mucosa. Serum endotoxin was significantly decreased in the BE group. Compared with those in the control group, increased superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities were observed in the jejunal mucosa of the Ba and BE groups, respectively. In conclusion, the results suggested that dietary treatment with Ba, Enz or BE has beneficial effects on growth performance and anti-oxidative capacity, and BE had better effects than Ba or Enz alone on digestive enzyme activity and the intestinal microbiota. Ba or Enz could be used as an alternative to antibiotics for broiler chickens.
We conducted a systematic review and network meta-analysis to determine the comparative efficacy of antibiotics used to control bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in beef cattle on feedlots. The information sources for the review were: MEDLINE®, MEDLINE In-Process and MEDLINE® Daily, AGRICOLA, Epub Ahead of Print, Cambridge Agricultural and Biological Index, Science Citation Index, Conference Proceedings Citation Index – Science, the Proceedings of the American Association of Bovine Practitioners, World Buiatrics Conference, and the United States Food and Drug Administration Freedom of Information New Animal Drug Applications summaries. The eligible population was weaned beef cattle raised in intensive systems. The interventions of interest were injectable antibiotics used at the time the cattle arrived at the feedlot. The outcome of interest was the diagnosis of BRD within 45 days of arrival at the feedlot. The network meta-analysis included data from 46 studies and 167 study arms identified in the review. The results suggest that macrolides are the most effective antibiotics for the reduction of BRD incidence. Injectable oxytetracycline effectively controlled BRD compared with no antibiotics; however, it was less effective than macrolide treatment. Because oxytetracycline is already commonly used to prevent, control, and treat BRD in groups of feedlot cattle, the use of injectable oxytetracycline for BRD control might have advantages from an antibiotic stewardship perspective.
This study aimed to assess the evidence regarding the relationship between early-life antibiotic exposure and childhood overweight/obesity by reviewing observational studies on prenatal antibiotic exposure and systematic reviews on infant antibiotic exposure. A search in Pubmed, Embase and Google Scholar covering the period 1st January till 1st December 2018 led to the identification of five studies on prenatal antibiotic exposure and four systematic reviews on infant antibiotic exposure. Positive trends between prenatal antibiotic exposure and overweight/obesity were reported in all studies; two studies reported a significant overall relationship and the other three reported significant relationships under certain conditions. Effect sizes ranged from odds ratio (OR): 1.04 (0.62–1.74) to relative risk (RR): 1.77 (1.25–2.51). Regarding infant antibiotics, one review concluded there was substantial evidence that infant antibiotic exposure increased the risk of childhood overweight/obesity [pooled effect sizes: RR: 1.21 (1.09–1.33) for overweight and RR: 1.18 (1.12–1.25) for obesity]. Two reviews concluded there was some evidence for a relationship [pooled effect sizes: OR: 1.05 (1.00–1.11) and OR: 1.11 (1.02–1.20)]. The fourth review concluded the studies were too heterogeneous for meta-analyses and the evidence regarding the relationship between infant antibiotic exposure and childhood overweight/obesity was inconclusive. More well-designed studies are needed that include data on intra-partum antibiotics and address important potential confounders (including maternal and childhood infections). This review points to some evidence of a relationship between early-life antibiotic exposure and childhood overweight/obesity; this is especially evident in certain children (i.e. exposed to multiple and broad-spectrum antibiotics, earlier postnatal exposure and male gender) and merits further research.
The human microbiome plays a number of critical roles in host physiology. Evidence from longitudinal cohort studies and animal models strongly supports the theory that maldevelopment of the microbiome in early life can programme later-life disease. The early-life microbiome develops in a clear stepwise manner over the first 3 years of life. During this highly dynamic time, insults such as antibiotic use and formula feeding can adversely affect the composition and temporal development of the microbiome. Such experiences predispose infants for the development of chronic health conditions later in life. This review highlights key factors that disrupt the early-life microbiome and highlights major non-communicable diseases which are underpinned by early-life dysbiosis.
The evidence supporting the efficacy of antibiotic therapy in the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis is not compelling. A limited number of studies show that the changes in the nasal microbiome in patients following drug therapy are unpredictable and variable. The evidence for the impact of oral antibiotics on the gut microbiota is stronger, possibly as a result of differences in drug distribution to various sites around the body. There are few studies on sinus mucosal and mucus levels of oral antibiotics used in the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis. The distribution dependent effects of antibiotics on the sinonasal microbiome is unclear.
This review highlights that relative drug concentrations and their efficacy on microbiota at different sites is an important subject for future studies investigating chronic rhinosinusitis.
High-fat diet (HFD) consumption leads to metabolic disorders, gastrointestinal dysfunction and intestinal dysbiosis. Antibiotics also disrupt the composition of intestinal microbiota. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of a short-term feeding with HFD on oxidative status, enteric microbiota, intestinal motility and the effects of antibiotics and/or melatonin treatments on diet-induced hepato-intestinal dysfunction and inflammation. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were pair-fed with either standard chow or HFD (45 % fat) and were given tap water or melatonin (4 mg/kg per d) or melatonin plus antibiotics (ABX; neomycin, ampicillin, metronidazole; each 1 g/l) in drinking water for 2 weeks. On the 14th day, colonic motility was measured and the next day intestinal transit was assessed using charcoal propagation. Trunk blood, liver and intestine samples were removed for biochemical and histopathological evaluations, and faeces were collected for microbiota analysis. A 2-week HFD feeding increased blood glucose level and perirenal fat weight, induced low-level hepatic and intestinal inflammation, delayed intestinal transit, led to deterioration of epithelial tight junctions and overgrowth of colonic bacteria. Melatonin intake in HFD-fed rats reduced ileal inflammation, colonic motility and perirenal fat accumulation. ABX abolished increases in fat accumulation and blood glucose, reduced ileal oxidative damage, suppressed HFD-induced overgrowth in colonic bacteria, and reversed HFD-induced delay in intestinal transit; however, hepatic neutrophil accumulation, hepatic injury and dysfunction were further enhanced. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that even a short-term HFD ingestion results in hepato-intestinal inflammatory state and alterations in bacterial populations, which may be worsened with antibiotic intake, but alleviated by melatonin.
Increasing hospital admissions for pneumonia have been reported recently but it is not known whether pneumonia incidence rates have increased in the community. To determine whether incidence rates of pneumonia increased in primary care in the United Kingdom from 2002 to 2017, an open cohort study was conducted using electronic health records from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Clinically diagnosed pneumonia, influenza pneumonia, pleural infection and clinically suspected pneumonia, defined as chest infection treated with antibiotics, were evaluated. Age-standardised and age-specific rates were estimated. Joinpoint regression models were fitted and annual percentage changes (APC) were estimated. There were 70.7 million person-years of follow-up with 120 662 episodes of clinically diagnosed pneumonia, 1 831 005 of clinically suspected pneumonia, 23 814 episodes of influenza pneumonia and 2644 pleural infections over 16 years. The incidence of clinically diagnosed pneumonia increased from 1.50 per 1000 person-years in 2002 to 2.22 per 1000 in 2017. From 2010 to 2017, the APC in age-standardised incidence was 5.1% (95% confidence interval 3.4–6.9) compared with 0.3% (−0.6 to 1.2%) before 2010. Clinically suspected pneumonia incidence rates increased from 2002 to 2008 with an APC 3.8% (0.8–6.9) but decreased with an APC −4.9% (−6.7 to −3.1) from 2009 to 2017. Influenza pneumonia increased in the epidemic year of 2009. There was no overall trend in pleural infection. The results show that clinically diagnosed pneumonia has increased in primary care but there was a contemporaneous decline in recording of clinically suspected pneumonia or ‘chest infection’. Changes in disease labelling practice might partly account for these trends.
Consumption of cow’s milk, which is associated with diet and health benefits, has decreased in the USA. The simultaneous increase in demand for more costly organic milk suggests consumer concern about exposure to production-related contaminants may be contributing to this decline. We sought to determine if contaminant levels differ by the production method used.
Half-gallon containers of organic and conventional milk (four each) were collected by volunteers in each of nine US regions and shipped on ice for analysis. Pesticide, antibiotic and hormone (bovine growth hormone (bGH), bGH-associated insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)) residues were measured using liquid or gas chromatography coupled to mass or tandem mass spectrometry. Levels were compared against established federal limits and by production method.
Laboratory analysis of retail milk samples.
Current-use pesticides (5/15 tested) and antibiotics (5/13 tested) were detected in several conventional (26–60 %; n 35) but not in organic (n 34) samples. Among the conventional samples, residue levels exceeded federal limits for amoxicillin in one sample (3 %) and in multiple samples for sulfamethazine (37 %) and sulfathiazole (26 %). Median bGH and IGF-1 concentrations in conventional milk were 9·8 and 3·5 ng/ml, respectively, twenty and three times that in organic samples (P < 0·0001).
Current-use antibiotics and pesticides were undetectable in organic but prevalent in conventionally produced milk samples, with multiple samples exceeding federal limits. Higher bGH and IGF-1 levels in conventional milk suggest the presence of synthetic growth hormone. Further research is needed to understand the impact of these differences, if any, on consumers.
We compared antibiotic prescribing to older people in different settings to inform antibiotic stewardship interventions. We used data linkage to stratify individuals aged 65 years and over in Northern Ireland, 1st January 2012–31st December 2013, by residence: community dwelling, care home dwelling or ‘transitioned’ if admitted to a care home. The odds of being prescribed an antibiotic by residence were analysed using logistic regression, adjusting for patient demographics and selected medication use (proxy for co-morbidities). Trends in monthly antibiotic prescribing were examined in the 6 months pre- and post-admission to the care home. The odds of being prescribed at least one antibiotic were twofold higher in care homes compared with community dwellers (adjusted odds ratio 2.05, 95% CI 1.93–2.17). There was a proportionate increase of 51.5% in the percentage prescribed an antibiotic on admission, with a monthly average of 23% receiving an antibiotic in the 6 months post admission. While clinical need likely accounts for some of the observed antibiotic prescribing in care homes we cannot rule out more liberal prescribing, given the twofold difference between care home residents and their community dwelling peers having accounted for co-morbidities. The appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing in the care home setting should be examined.
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common among college-aged women and often recur. Some antibiotics recommended to treat UTIs trigger dysbiosis of intestinal and vaginal microbiomes – where uropathogens originate, though few studies have investigated associations between these therapies with recurrent infections. We retrospectively analysed the electronic medical records of 6651 college-aged women diagnosed with a UTI at a US university student health centre between 2006 and 2014. Women were followed for 6 months for incidence of a recurrent infection. In a secondary analysis, associations in women whose experienced UTI recurrence within 2 weeks were also considered for potential infection relapse. Logistic regression was used to assess associations between infection recurrence or relapse and antibiotics prescribed, in addition to baseline patient characteristics including age, race/ethnicity, region of origin, year of encounter, presence of symptomology, pyelonephritis, vaginal coinfection and birth control consultation. There were 1051 instances of infection recurrence among the 6620 patients, indicating a prevalence of 16%. In the analysis of patient characteristics, Asian women were statistically more likely to experience infection recurrence whereas African American were less likely. No significant associations were identified between the antibiotic administered at the initial infection and the risk of infection recurrence after multivariable adjustment. Treatment with trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole and being born outside of the USA were significantly associated with increased odds of infection relapse in the multivariate analysis. The results of the analyses suggest that treatment with trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole may lead to an increased risk of UTI relapse, warranting further study.
A 47-year-old homeless male presents to the emergency department (ED) with right lower extremity swelling, erythema and pain. He has diabetes mellitus, and had one prior episode of cellulitis three months ago affecting the same leg. He has a history of medication noncompliance. At triage, his temperature is 38.3°C but the remaining vital signs are unremarkable. On examination of the affected leg, there is an approximately 10 × 10 cm area of erythema, induration and increased warmth. There is mild tenderness to palpation and you wonder if there is a small degree of fluctuance. There is no lymphangitis, crepitus, necrosis or pain out of proportion to clinical findings.
The objective of the studies reported in this research communication was to investigate the use of whey contaminated with antibiotics such as cephalosporins, quinolones and tetracyclines as a nutrient medium for the growth of Kluyveromyces marxianus with particular attention to the effect of thermal treatment used to overcome the inhibitory effects of antibiotic concentrations close to the Maximum Residue Limits. The heat treatments at 120 °C for 40 min, 120 °C for 83 min, and 120 °C for 91 min caused total inactivation of cephalosporins, tetracyclines and quinolone residues in whey respectively.
Possible multidrug-resistant (MDR) mechanisms of four resistant strains of Escherichia coli to a model β-lactam, ampicillin, were investigated using contact angle measurements of wettability, crystal violet assays of permeability, biofilm formation, fluorescence imaging, and nanoscale analyses of dimensions, adherence, and roughness. Upon exposure to ampicillin, one of the resistant strains, E. coli A5, changed its phenotype from elliptical to spherical, maintained its roughness and biofilm formation abilities, decreased its length and surface area, maintained its cell wall integrity, increased its hydrophobicity, and decreased its nanoscale adhesion to a model surface of silicon nitride. Such modifications are suggested to allow these cells to conserve energy during metabolic dormancy. In comparison, resistant strains E. coli D4, A9, and H5 elongated their cells, increased their roughness, increased their nanoscale adhesion forces, became more hydrophilic, and increased their biofilm formation upon exposure to ampicillin. These results suggest that these strains resisted ampicillin through biofilm formation that possibly introduces diffusion limitations to antibiotics. Investigations of how MDR bacterial cells modify their surfaces in response to antibiotics can guide research efforts aimed at designing more effective antibiotics and new treatment strategies for MDR bacterial infections.
The Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) publishes guidelines regularly for the management of skin and soft tissue infections; however, the extent to which practice patterns follow these guidelines and if this can affect treatment failure rates is unknown. We observed the treatment failure rates from a multicentre retrospective ambulatory cohort of adult emergency department patients treated for a non-purulent skin infection. We used multivariable logistic regression to examine the role of IDSA classification and whether adherence to IDSA guidelines reduced treatment failure. A total of 759 ambulatory patients were included in the cohort with 17.4% failing treatment. Among all patients, 56.0% had received treatments matched to the IDSA guidelines with 29.1% over-treated, and 14.9% under-treated based on the guidelines. After adjustment for age, gender, infection location and medical comorbidities, patients with a moderate infection type had three times increased risk of treatment failure (adjusted risk ratio (aRR) 2.98; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15–7.74) and two times increased risk with a severe infection type (aRR 2.27; 95% CI 1.25–4.13) compared with mild infection types. Patients who were under-treated based on IDSA guidelines were over two times more likely to fail treatment (aRR 2.65; 95% CI 1.16–6.05) while over-treatment was not associated with treatment failure. Patients ⩾70 years of age had a 56% increased risk of treatment failure (aRR 1.56; 95% CI 1.04–2.33) compared with those <70 years. Following the IDSA guidelines for non-purulent SSTIs may reduce the treatment failure rates; however, older adults still carry an increased risk of treatment failure.
Introduction: Current guideline recommendations for optimal management of non-purulent skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are based on expert consensus. There is currently a lack of evidence to guide emergency physicians on when to select oral versus intravenous antibiotic therapy. The primary objective was to identify risk factors associated with oral antibiotic treatment failure. A secondary objective was to describe the epidemiology of adult emergency department (ED) patients with non-purulent SSTIs. Methods: We performed a health records review of adults (age 18 years) with non-purulent SSTIs treated at two tertiary care EDs. Patients were excluded if they had a purulent infection or infected ulcers without surrounding cellulitis. Treatment failure was defined any of the following after a minimum of 48 hours of oral therapy: (i) hospitalization for SSTI; (ii) change in class of oral antibiotic owing to infection progression; or (iii) change to intravenous therapy owing to infection progression. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify predictors independently associated with the primary outcome of oral antibiotic treatment failure after a minimum of 48 hours of oral therapy. Results: We enrolled 500 patients (mean age 64 years, 279 male (55.8%) and 126 (25.2%) with diabetes) and the hospital admission rate was 29.6%. The majority of patients (70.8%) received at least one intravenous antibiotic dose in the ED. Of 288 patients who had received a minimum of 48 hours of oral antibiotics, there were 85 oral antibiotic treatment failures (29.5%). Tachypnea at triage (odds ratio [OR]=6.31, 95% CI=1.80 to 22.08), chronic ulcers (OR=4.90, 95% CI=1.68 to 14.27), history of MRSA colonization or infection (OR=4.83, 95% CI=1.51 to 15.44), and cellulitis in the past 12 months (OR=2.23, 95% CI=1.01 to 4.96) were independently associated with oral antibiotic treatment failure. Conclusion: This is the first study to evaluate potential predictors of oral antibiotic treatment failure for non-purulent SSTIs in the ED. We observed a high rate of treatment failure and hospitalization. Tachypnea at triage, chronic ulcers, history of MRSA colonization or infection and cellulitis within the past year were independently associated with oral antibiotic treatment failure. Emergency physicians should consider these risk factors when deciding on oral versus intravenous antimicrobial therapy for non-purulent SSTIs being managed as outpatients.
Introduction: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in Canada. The Anthonisen criteria utilizes the cardinal symptoms of acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD), increased shortness of breath, increased sputum production, and increased sputum purulence, to determine which patients should receive antibiotics. In July 2015, a COPD Order Set Pilot was implemented in Saskatoon emergency departments (ED). The order set utilizes the Anthonisen criteria to optimize AECOPD patient management and ensure appropriate antibiotic usage. By January 2019, we aim to optimize AECOPD patient management in Saskatoon ED. We aim to increase physician uptake of the order set to 50% and to increase appropriate antibiotic prescription to 90%. Methods: Our project was designed following the Plan-Do-Study-Act method. Our primary outcome was to measure the rate of appropriate antibiotic prescription when managing AECOPD patients. Our secondary outcome was to measure physician uptake of the order set. We believed that a standardized order set would optimize patient care. We hypothesized that 80% of AECOPD patients would be managed with antibiotics appropriately and that 25% of emergency physicians would utilize the order set. A chart review was conducted examining AECOPD patient management in Saskatoon ED. The study period included the 6 months following the implementation of the order set. Our inclusion criteria were patients diagnosed with AECOPD and managed in the ED. Our exclusion criteria were patients currently prescribed antibiotics or patients requiring inpatient admission. A convenience sample of 125 charts was selected for review, enabling an accurate representation of order set utilization and antibiotic usage. A secondary reviewer abstracted a random 15% sample of the charts to ensure validity of the data. Results: Our results showed that, during our study period, none of the AECOPD patients were managed with the order set. Of the patients receiving antibiotic therapy, only 32 of the 53 (60.38%) met the Anthonisen criteria and were appropriately prescribed antibiotics. Of the patients not given antibiotics, 15 of the 42 (35.71%) met the Anthonisen criteria and should have been managed with antibiotics. These results refuted both of our hypotheses. Conclusion: As COPD is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in Canada, proper management is crucial. Our results state that uptake of the order set is low and that antibiotic utilization is not optimized. These results demonstrate the need to modify and promote the current order set. We believe that by encouraging the use of the order set and streamlining the management guidelines, we can increase physician uptake. This will subsequently increase appropriate antibiotic prescription and improve AECOPD patient care. A second identical chart review for 2017 has been completed. Data analysis will be finalized prior to the conference.
Recent research implicates antibiotic use as a potential contributor to child obesity risk. In this narrative review, we examine current observational evidence on the relation between antibiotic use in early childhood and subsequent measures of child body mass.
We searched PubMed, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library to identify studies that assessed antibiotic exposure before 3 years of age and subsequent measures of body mass or risk of overweight or obesity in childhood.
We identified 13 studies published before October 2017, based on a total of 6 81 332 individuals, which examined the relation between early life antibiotic exposure and measures of child body mass. Most studies did not appropriately account for confounding by indication for antibiotic use. Overall, we found no consistent and conclusive evidence of associations between early life antibiotic use and later child body mass [minimum overall adjusted odds ratio (aOR) reported: 1.01, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.98–1.04, N = 2 60 556; maximum overall aOR reported: 2.56, 95% CI 1.36–4.79, N = 616], with no clinically meaningful increases in weight reported (maximum increase: 1.50 kg at 15 years of age). Notable methodological differences between studies, including variable measures of association and inclusion of confounders, limited more comprehensive interpretations.
Evidence to date is insufficient to indicate that antibiotic use is an important risk factor for child obesity, or leads to clinically important differences in weight. Further comparable studies using routine clinical data may help clarify this association.
Campylobacter jejuni is an important zoonotic pathogen recently designated a serious antimicrobial resistant (AR) threat. While most patients with C. jejuni experience hemorrhagic colitis, serious autoimmune conditions can follow including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and the acute neuropathy Guillain Barré Syndrome (GBS). This review examines inter-relationships among factors mediating C. jejuni diarrheal versus autoimmune disease especially AR C. jejuni and microbiome shifts. Because both susceptible and AR C. jejuni are acquired from animals or their products, we consider their role in harboring strains. Inter-relationships among factors mediating C. jejuni colonization, diarrheal and autoimmune disease include C. jejuni virulence factors and AR, the enteric microbiome, and host responses. Because AR C. jejuni have been suggested to affect the severity of disease, length of infections and propensity to develop GBS, it is important to understand how these interactions occur when strains are under selection by antimicrobials. More work is needed to elucidate host–pathogen interactions of AR C. jejuni compared with susceptible strains and how AR C. jejuni are maintained and evolve in animal reservoirs and the extent of transmission to humans. These knowledge gaps impair the development of effective strategies to prevent the emergence of AR C. jejuni in reservoir species and human populations.
This study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary live yeast (LY) supplementation on growth, intestinal permeability and immunological parameters of piglets challenged with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88 (ETEC). Piglets weaned at 21 d were allocated into three treatments with six pens and six piglets per pen, receiving the control diet (CON), diets supplemented with antibiotics plus zinc oxide (ANT–ZnO) and LY (Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain CNCM I-4407), respectively, for a period of 2 weeks. On day 8, thirty-six piglets were selected as control without ETEC (CON), CON–ETEC, ANT–ZnO–ETEC and LY–ETEC groups challenged with ETEC until day 10 for sample collections. Piglets fed ANT–ZnO diet had the highest average daily gain and average daily feed intake (P<0·05) during the 1st week, but ADG of piglets fed the ANT–ZnO diet was similar as piglets fed LY diet during the second week. Piglets with LY–ETEC or ANT–ZnO–ETEC had markedly lower diarrhoea score (P<0·05) than piglets with CON–ETEC during the 24 h after ETEC challenge. Relative to piglets with CON, the counts of E. coli, urinary ratio of lactulose to mannitol, plasma IL-6 concentration, mRNA abundances of innate immunity-related genes in ileum and mesenteric lymph node tissues were increased (P<0·05), whereas the villous height of jejunum and relative protein expression of ileum claudin-1 were decreased (P<0·05) in piglets with CON–ETEC; however, these parameters did not markedly change in piglets with LY–ETEC or ANT–ZnO–ETEC. In summary, dietary LY supplementation could alleviate the severity of diarrhoea in piglets with ETEC, which may be associated with the improved permeability, innate immunity and bacterial profile.
Brain abscess is uncommon in paediatric population, but of clinical importance because of significant long-term morbidity and mortality. In this multicentre study, promoted by the Italian Society for Paediatric Infectious Diseases, we retrospectively collected patients aged 0–18 years, with a diagnosis of ‘brain abscess’. Seventy-nine children were included; the median age was 8·75 years. As predisposing factor, 44 children had preceding infections. The Gram-positive cocci were mostly isolated (27 cases). Sixty (76%) children underwent a surgical intervention. Intravenous antibiotic therapy was administered in all patients, then switched to oral treatment. Clinical sequelae were recorded in 31 (39·2%) children. Twenty-one of them had a single sequela, of which, the most represented, was epilepsy in nine of them. This study focus the attention on the need to have standardized national guidelines or adequate recommendations on type and duration of antibiotic treatment.