To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This paper aims to report our experience with a minimally invasive surgical procedure for the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, performed in a day-surgery setting under local anaesthesia.
A retrospective study of 30 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps was conducted. Sino-Nasal Outcome Test 22 and modified Lund–Kennedy scores were collected. Intra- and post-operative pain was evaluated using a 10-point visual analogue scale.
The mean Sino-Nasal Outcome Test 22 score decreased from 41.8 ± 15.8 pre-operatively to 13.3 ± 9.5 post-operatively (p < 0.001). Accordingly, the mean endoscopic score decreased from 6.8 ± 1.8 to 0.2 ± 0.7 (p < 0.001). The mean intra-operative pain score was 2.9 ± 3.2, and 29 patients (96.7 per cent) reported no pain in the post-operative period (visual analogue scale score = 0).
Our study confirms that minimally invasive surgery represents a safe, repeatable procedure that results in remarkable subjective and objective improvement, without intra- and post-operative pain or discomfort.
To analyse the results of treatment for nasolabial cysts according to whether an intraoral sublabial or endoscopic transnasal approach was used, and to determine the recent surgical trend in our hospital.
Twenty-four patients with a histopathologically and radiologically confirmed nasolabial cyst between January 2010 and December 2017 were enrolled in this study.
Nasolabial cysts were predominant in females (91.7 per cent) and on the left side (54.2 per cent). Treatment involved an intraoral sublabial approach in 12 cases (48.0 per cent) and a transnasal endoscopic approach in 13 cases (52.0 per cent). In 13 cases (52.0 per cent) surgery was performed under local anaesthesia, while in 12 cases (48.0 per cent) it was conducted under general anaesthesia. The most common post-operative complications were numbness of the upper lip or teeth (n = 9, 36.0 per cent). Only one patient (4.0 per cent), who underwent a transnasal endoscopic approach, experienced a reoccurrence.
Surgical resection through an intraoral sublabial or transnasal endoscopic approach is the best treatment for a nasolabial cyst, showing very good results and a low recurrence rate. The recent surgical trend in our hospital is to treat nasolabial cysts using a transnasal endoscopic approach under local anaesthesia.
The choice of the anesthetic technique in austere environments is dictated by the availability of medical personnel, electricity, oxygen, and supplies. TIVA appears to be a very promising, reliable alternative for the future of field anesthesia given its safety, simplicity, rapid setup, and small logistical footprint. Therefore, more anesthesia providers need to be trained and educated to be familiar and comfortable with administration of TIVA. Whenever regional nerve block anesthesia use is appropriate, it can be another excellent choice to provide better acute pain control and decrease postoperative complications in austere environments. There is no perfect analgesic, and hence multimodal approach for pain management is imperative. Early pain treatment has been proven to decrease chronicity, improve functionality, and reduce the risk of subsequent development psychological morbidities such as PTSD and depression. The chapter lists the recommendations on prevention and management of the consequences of sexual violence, reduction of HIV transmission, prevention of excess maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity, and planning of comprehensive reproductive health services in the early days and weeks of an emergency.
In this chapter, the authors discuss the issues related to post-operative neonatal apnea with an example of an infant hernia repair. Neonatal apnea, its etiology and associated risk factors is reviewed. The use of infant spinal anesthesia versus general anesthesia and its relationship to neonatal post-operative apnea is discussed.
This chapter, provides an overview for caudal and penile blocks and their application in pediatric anesthesia practice. The authors discuss the indication for caudal blocks as well as anatomic considerations, dosing, conformation of placement and safety. The alternative penile block is presented.
This chapter, provides an overview on the concerns centered on neurotoxicity from anesthetics in children following the FDA warning from 2016 and 2017. The authors provide a background for both clinical and basic science evidence on the effects of commonly used anesthetics on neural development. After review of the landmark studies in both animals and humans, the chapter provides suggestions for reducing exposure as well as addressing parental concerns.
this chapter, reviews anesthetic considerations for children undergoing dental procedures requiring anesthesia. The dental considerations for children requiring anesthesia are discussed. The requirements for infective endocarditis prophylaxis are provided as many of these patients have underlying cardiac disease.
This chapter, reviews the basics of lower extremity innervation and the commonly performed regional anesthetic blocks. Through a case of lower extremity trauma, the author provides an overview of the available regional techniques with anatomic and ultrasound descriptions for their performance.
This chapter, provides an overview of bladder exstrophy repair. The author reviews the pathophysiology and associated anomalies related to bladder exstrophy. The surgical approaches and related anesthetic considerations are discussed.
With regionalized trauma care, medical transport times can be prolonged, requiring paramedics to manage patient care and symptoms. Our objective was to evaluate pain management during air transport of trauma patients.
We conducted a 12-month review of electronic paramedic records from a provincial critical care transport agency. Patients were included if they were ≥18 years old and underwent air transport to a trauma centre, and excluded if they were Glasgow Coma Scale score <14, intubated, or accompanied by a physician or nurse. Demographics, injury description, and transportation parameters were recorded. Outcomes included pain assessment via 11-point numerical rating scale, patterns of analgesia administration, and analgesia-related adverse events. Results were reported as mean ± standard deviation, [range], (percentage).
We included 372 patients: 47.0 years old; 262 males; 361 blunt injuries. Transport duration was 82.4 ± 46.3 minutes. In 232 (62.4%) patients who received analgesia, baseline numerical rating scale was 5.9 ± 2.5. Fentanyl was most commonly administered at 44.3 [25–60] mcg. Numerical rating scale after first analgesia dose decreased by 1.1 [-2–7]. Thereafter, 171 (73.7%) patients received 2.4 [1-18] additional doses. While 44 (23.4%) patients had no change in numerical rating scale after first analgesia dose, subsequent doses resulted in no change in numerical rating scale in over 65% of patients. There were 43 adverse events recorded, with nausea the most commonly reported (39.5%).
Initial and subsequent dose(s) of analgesic had minimal effect on pain as assessed via numerical rating scale, likely due in part to inadequate dosing. Future research is required to determine and address the barriers to proper analgesia.
This chapter discusses whether and in what respects patients who experience intraoperative awareness with recall can be harmed by it. The chapter considers psychological and pharmacological interventions that might prevent, weaken or erase memories of intraoperative awareness. When awareness is detected during surgery, mechanisms of memory encoding and consolidation may be difficult to reverse. Intervening in the brain to erase memories already consolidated is even more difficult. If a patient recalls being aware days or weeks after surgery, then the memory may be resistant to modification. Nevertheless, memory research and actual cases indicate that these memories can be prevented by administering consolidation-blocking drugs to induce anterograde amnesia. It is also theoretically possible for reconsolidation-blocking drugs to induce retrograde amnesia and eliminate memories of awareness.
Animal studies have suggested that exposure of the middle ear to topical local anaesthesia may be ototoxic. This study aimed to report sensorineural hearing outcomes and patients’ satisfaction in those who underwent myringotomy and ventilation tube insertion using topical local anaesthesia.
Twenty-nine patients (32 ears) were operated on. Pre- and post-operative audiology findings were compared. A Likert-type questionnaire on treatment satisfaction was completed at the end of the procedure.
Median patient age was 55 years (range, 27–88 years). Pre- and post-operative bone conduction pure tone averages were 26.76 dB and 25.26 dB respectively (mean reduction of −1.22 dB, 95 per cent confidence interval of −5.91 to 8.13 dB; p = 0.7538). One ear (3 per cent) had a reduction in pure tone average of 10 dB.
The results suggest that sensorineural hearing loss is not a complication of ear exposure to topical local anaesthesia during myringotomy and ventilation tube insertion. The procedure was well perceived.
Head rotation causes compression and occlusion of the ipsilateral internal jugular (IJ) vein. This can result in raised intracranial pressure and increased bleeding if the patient is having or has recently had surgery. The amount of head rotation in adults resulting in occlusion of the ipsilateral IJ vein is unknown however. We measured the amount of head turn that produced occlusion of the ipsilateral IJ vein in 25 patients having surgery under general anesthesia. On average, 80% of IJ veins occlude at a mean of 55.6° on the left and 53.3° on the right.
The successful provision of middle-ear surgery requires appropriate anaesthesia. This may take the form of local or general anaesthesia; both methods have their advantages and disadvantages. Local anaesthesia is simple to administer and does not require the additional personnel required for general anaesthesia. In the low-resource setting, it can provide a very safe and effective means of allowing middle-ear surgery to be successfully completed. However, some middle-ear surgery is too complex to consider performing under local anaesthesia and here general anaesthesia will be required.
This article highlights considerations for performing middle-ear surgery in a safe manner when the available resources may be more limited than those expected in high-income settings. There are situations where local anaesthesia with sedation may prove a useful compromise of the two techniques.
A double-blinded, randomised, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to determine whether routine pre-operative analgesia is beneficial in reducing post-operative ear pain following bilateral myringotomy and tube placement.
Forty-five children (aged 3–15 years) were randomised to receive either pre-operative analgesics (paracetamol and ibuprofen) (n = 21) or placebo (n = 24). All children underwent sevoflurane gas induction with intranasal fentanyl (2 mcg/kg) to reduce the incidence of emergence agitation. Post-operative pain scores were measured using the Wong-Baker Faces Pain Rating Scale. Median pain scores taken 90 minutes post-surgery, and the highest pain score recorded prior to 90 minutes, were analysed.
There were no statistical differences between the median pain scores at 90 minutes or subsequent need for rescue analgesia. Emergence agitation did not occur in any child. Inadvertent ear trauma, use of an intravenous cannula or airway adjunct did not affect pain scores.
Routine pre-operative analgesia does not reduce pain scores in the early post-operative period. Simple analgesics are effective for rescue analgesia in the minority of cases.
Background: Intraoperative sedation is often used to facilitate deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery; however, these sedative agents also suppress microelectrode recordings (MER). To date, there have been no studies that have examined the effects of differing sedatives on surgical outcomes and the success of DBS surgery. Methods: We performed a retrospective study to evaluate the effect of differing sedative agents on postoperative surgical outcomes at 6 months in parkinsonian adult patients who underwent DBS surgery, from January 2004 through December 2014, at one academic center. Surgical outcomes of DBS were evaluated using a simplified Unified Parkinson Diseases Rating Score-III and levodopa dose equivalent reduction at baseline and 6 months postoperatively. Results: We analyzed data from 121 of 124 consecutive parkinsonian patients. Propofol, dexmedetomidine, remifentanil, and midazolam were used individually or in combination. All sedatives were routinely discontinued 20 to 30 minutes before MER, in accordance with our institutional protocol. We found no statistically significant association between the use of individual agent or combination of sedative agents and surgical outcomes at 6 months, the success of DBS, duration of MER, duration of stage 1 procedure, and perioperative complications. Conclusions: Our study showed that the choice of sedative agent was not associated with poor surgical outcomes after DBS surgery using MER and macrostimulation techniques in parkinsonian patients.
The seventh meeting of the World Congress of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery was an opportunity for healthcare professionals from around the world to meet and discuss current issues affecting patients with acquired and CHD. A dedicated anaesthesia track facilitated the exchange of ideas and fostered many new friendships. This review highlights the congenital cardiac anaesthesia track and the involvement of the Congenital Cardiac Anesthesia Society in the congress.
Background: Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN–DBS) has become a standard treatment for many patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). The reported clinical outcome measures for procedures done under general anesthesia (GA) compared to traditional local anesthetic (LA) technique are quite heterogeneous and difficult to compare. The aim of this systematic review and metaanalysis was to determine whether the clinical outcome after STN–DBS insertion under GA is comparable to that under LA in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Methods: The databases of Medline Embase, Cochrane library and Pubmed were searched for eligible studies (human trials, English language, published between 1946 and January of 2016). The primary outcome of this study was to assess the postoperative improvement in the symptoms, evaluated using either Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) scores or levodopa equivalent dosage (LEDD) requirement. Results: The literature searches yielded 395 citations and six retrospective cohort studies with a sample size of 455 (194 in GA and 261 in LA) were included in the analysis. Regarding the clinical outcomes, there were no significant differences in the postoperative Unified Parkinson’s disease rating scale and levodopa equivalent drug dosage between the GA and the LA groups. Similarly, the adverse events and target accuracy were also comparable between the groups. Conclusions: This systematic review and meta-analysis shows that currently there is no good quality data to suggest equivalence of GA to LA during STN-DBS insertion in patients with PD, with some factors trending towards LA. There is a need for a prospective randomized control trial to validate our results.