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This chapter focuses on the development of psychological assessment in Brazil, Peru, Chile, and Bolivia. A brief history of psychological assessment is provided for each country, followed by discussion on the political, social, economic, and other environmental factors that have shaped the development and use of psychological assessment in these countries. The authors reflect critically on the various phases of the development of the psychology discipline in relation to the development and uptake of psychological assessment. The chapter concludes with challenges being experienced and steps for a way forward.
Corrections are made to Stuart Fiedel’s (2022) recent errors and misrepresentations related to the late Pleistocene sites of Monte Verde and Huaca Prieta and to South American Fishtail projectile points.
Origins of contact varieties are at the center of language contact research, focusing on the dynamics between the population structure’s social ecology and the linguistic phenomena that emerge. This chapter proposes an alternative hypothesis to the emergence of Andean Spanish, a macro-dialect spoken in several countries in western South America and product of contact between Spanish and Andean languages, particularly Quechua, the most spoken in the Americas. It argues that contrasts between the linguistic evidence present in colonial documents authored by Indigenous individuals and those present in the speech of Andean Spanish speakers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries reveal different types of contact phenomena. The colonial data include linguistic evidence of lexical borrowing (primarily cultural) and grammatical phenomena proper of second language speakers (e.g., number and gender agreement, vocalic alternation). The post-colonial data include evidence of grammaticalization phenomena, revealing a case of contra-hierarchical grammatical influence (from the minoritized Indigenous language to the hegemonic language). The contrast between these two historical periods’ internal social ecologies reveals specific (types of) social conditions that help explain the focusing and emergence of the contact (macro-)dialect known as Andean Spanish.
The dating and routes by which humans colonised South America continue to be debated. Recent research in Uruguay has yielded new Palaeoindian lithic finds from the southern shores of the coastal Merín Lagoon. The author's analysis of a group of Fell points—comparable to other regional examples—shows that this widespread artefact was produced using locally available materials and that they were repeatedly resharpened and repaired until no longer functional. The finds from the Merín Lagoon permit consideration of changing sea levels and their influence on colonisation routes, resource exploitation and archaeological preservation. The Atlantic coastline may have been one possible route of entry for early colonisers of South America.
All Pseudocorynosoma species inhabit freshwater environments of the American continent, but little is known about their life cycles. We report Pseudocorynosoma enrietti (Molfi & Freitas Fernandes, 1953) from natural and experimental specimens in Patagonia and identify the intermediate and definitive hosts of its life cycle for the first time in South America. Adult worms were recovered from Anas platyrhynchos (Linnaeus) and from a new definitive host, Coscoroba coscoroba Molina. Naturally infected amphipods, Hyalella patagonica Ortmann, were collected to obtain cystacanths that were fed to Gallus gallus domesticus (Linnaeus) and Anas platyrhynchos. Specimens of P. enrietti are described in detail using light and scanning electron microscopy. A key to species of the genus Pseudocorynosoma is included. Worms are characterized in both sexes by fore-trunk spines, and genital spines in an isolated field. The proboscis has 19–20 hook rows; males have 9–11 (10) hooks per row and females 7–9 (8). Males with four cement glands similar in size. Eggs elongated, with filaments. Experimental male and female worms were recovered from A. platyrhynchos at seven and 14 days, post-infection.
Caracterizar las estrategias de movilidad de las sociedades cazadoras-recolectoras-pescadoras en ambientes insulares y litorales es fundamental para comprender la interacción humano-ambiental en el pasado. Las prospecciones en el noreste de la isla Diego Portales, en el mar interior de Última Esperanza (Magallanes, Chile), han permitido documentar ocho yacimientos arqueológicos formados por uno o varios conchales. Todos ellos se hallan ubicados en áreas de la costa al resguardo del viento dominante y con fácil acceso mediante embarcación. Los trabajos arqueológicos en dos de estos yacimientos (Bahía Easter 1 y 2) indican una estrategia de subsistencia similar durante el Holoceno tardío final, basada en el aprovechamiento de la biodiversidad de este ambiente de ecotono, con más de una docena de recursos marinos y terrestres consumidos. Entre éstas destaca en abundancia el huemul (Hippocamelus bisulcus), probablemente cazado en el litoral continental. Teniendo en cuenta las dinámicas de poblamiento y movilidad propuestas desde la etnografía o la arqueología para otras áreas del archipiélago fuego-patagónico, los resultados permiten discutir la reocupación sucesiva de puntos estratégicos de la isla, particularmente en primavera-verano, cuando la encrucijada de caminos y recursos que representa el mar interior de Última Esperanza presentaba alicientes significativos para las comunidades canoeras.
Paraguay is a landlocked country in South America. It is a democratic low-middle-income nation, and the Ministry of Public Health and Social Welfare is responsible for its healthcare system. Mental health services receive just 1–2% of healthcare budgets, and there are only 1.6 psychiatrists per 100 000 inhabitants. There are insufficient resources to adequately assess and treat mental disorders in high-risk populations such as children, adolescents and prisoners. Despite several improvements to mental health policies within the past two decades, the nation still lacks a Mental Health Act and specific policies required to optimise the mental health of the population.
What explains the variation in how states collectively deal with public health challenges across different regions? We tackle this puzzle by comparing the regional health governance efforts pursued within the Central American Integration System (SICA) and the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR). We show that Central America's health governance has been driven by external actors, whereas South America's was driven by states within the region, and remained insulated from external actors’ influence. We argue that the explanation for such variation lies in the interplay of state capacity and regional leadership. In Central America, weak state capacity combined with the absence of a regional leader willing to provide governance resources. This opened up space for external actors to contribute actively to regional health governance, complementing the governance of Central American governments. In South America, Brazil's regional leadership mobilised neighbouring states’ capacities by promoting a South-South cooperation agenda based on intra-regional exchanges among national health bureaucracies, which, however, proved vulnerable to intergovernmental conflicts. Through the comparison of Central and South America, the article bridges the gap between global health governance scholarship and comparative regionalism, providing new insights on the determinants and effects of regional health governance modes in the Global South.
We present stable isotope and osteological data from human remains at Paloma, Chilca I, La Yerba III, and Morro I that offer new evidence for diet, lifestyle, and habitual mobility in the first villages that proliferated along the arid Pacific coast of South America (ca. 6000 cal BP). The data not only reaffirm the dietary primacy of marine protein for this period but also show evidence at Paloma of direct access interactions between the coast and highlands, as well as habitual mobility in some parts of society. By locating themselves at the confluence of diverse coastal and terrestrial habitats, the inhabitants of these early villages were able to broaden their use of resources through rounds of seasonal mobility, while simultaneously increasing residential sedentism. Yet they paid little substantial health penalty for their settled lifestyles, as reflected in their osteological markers of stature and stress, compared with their agriculturalist successors even up to five millennia later. Contrasting data for the north coast of Chile indicate locally contingent differences. Considering these data in a wider chronological context contributes to understanding how increasing sedentism and population density laid the foundations here for the emergence of Late Preceramic social complexity.
The Southern Hemisphere lichen genus Villophora in subfamily Teloschistoideae is analyzed based on DNA sequence data. Six species are described, five of which are new to science: V. darwiniana and V. wallaceana grow on lignum and bark in southern Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego; V. onas and V. patagonica are lichenicolous or saxicolous on rocks in southern Patagonia; V. rimicola is saxicolous in Antarctica. Based on a three-gene DNA analysis, Tayloriellina is shown to be closely related to Villophora, and Tayloriellina microphyllina is established as a new combination. A key is provided to all species of the two genera. Raesaeneniana maulensis is combined into Villophora.
Chapter 30 of The Cambridge Companion to Sappho examines the reception of Sappho’s poetry in Latin America, examining figures such as José Martí, Julio Herrera y Reissig, Esteban de Luca, Lucas José de Alvarenga, TomÁs Antônio Gonzaga, Carlos Guido y Spano, Álvares de Azevedo, Antônio Frederico de Castro Alves, Mario Faustino, SalomÓn de la Selva, Haroldo de Campos, Décio Pignatari, Mercedes Matamoros, Juana de Ibarbourou, Alfonsina Storni, Alejandra Pizarnik, Rosario Castellanos, Mercedes CortÁzar, and Ana Cristina César.
: The Republican colonizationists had always fixated on Latin America, especially Central America, where African American settlers might resist “filibusters,” expansionist expeditions supported by American citizens. For their part, the region’s rulers toyed with an influx of immigrants that would expand their population but darken its complexion. Once Abraham Lincoln came to power, he focused on the province of Chiriquí in what is now Panama (then part of Colombia), where black colonists might secure an isthmian crossing for US troops and traders. Announcing the venture in a notorious address of August 1862, the president had to retreat once he came to realize the instability of Colombian politics and the extent of his own associates’ stake in the business. Accordingly, the very same day that Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, he instead signed an agreement with a contractor to settle a party of freed slaves on the Île à Vache, one of Haiti’s satellite islands. That colony’s tragic failure finally impressed on him that he should not deal with sovereign states via shady contractors.
Urban rodents are associated with parasites and pathogens, which present health risks for humans, but information on factors related to parasite and pathogen infection in rodents in cities of Latin America is scarce. This study analyzes the hosts, host community structure and environmental characteristics of parasite and pathogen fauna present in the three species of urban rodents in an urban area of South America. Rodents were captured seasonally in seven different neighborhoods. Digestive tracts were dissected under stereoscopic microscopy and feces were processed using a sedimentation technique. Protozoa and bacteria were detected through polymerase chain reaction and indirect immunofluorescence techniques. In Rattus norvegicus, Rattus rattus and Mus musculus, ten helminths, three protozoa and two bacteria were found. Six were zoonotic: Toxoplasma gondii; Hymenolepis diminuta; Rodentolepis nana; Strobilocercus fasciolaris; Leptospira borgpetersenii; and Leptospira interrogans. The parasite and pathogen infections were influenced by the host species, the host community structure, the season, and the presence of streams in the neighborhood. Urban rodents may be the infection source of many zoonotic diseases and it is important to generate public policies for this problem. This study is one example of the situation of many cities of Latin America, where peripheral neighborhoods are growing dramatically.
El registro de Canis familiaris en contextos arqueológicos resulta cada vez más frecuente en Sudamérica. En este escenario, este trabajo discute su rol económico y social dentro de las sociedades indígenas prehispánicas. Se presentan nuevos hallazgos de perros procedentes de cinco sitios arqueológicos del Noreste argentino. La muestra estudiada incluye siete especímenes craneales y uno poscraneal correspondientes a individuos jóvenes y adultos, de tamaños medianos (13-23 kg). Algunos de los especímenes presentan huellas de corte y marcas de carnívoros. Tres nuevas fechas taxón ubican a la muestra entre aproximadamente 2500 y 900 cal aP. Se concluye que C. familiaris presenta edades y tamaños ligeramente mayores a los registrados previamente. Asimismo, la evidencia antrópica indica procesamiento y consumo de esta especie. Las dataciones extienden el rango cronológico conocido previamente para este taxón en Argentina, Brasil y Uruguay. Su presencia se vincula a cazadores-recolectores-pescadores y horticultores, con una marcada adaptación fluvial durante el Holoceno tardío.
The Americas constitute one of the most topographically diverse and environmentally heterogeneous regions of the world, and each of these dimensions, and a host of social, economic, political, and cultural variables, necessarily serve to define the nature of war and society in the American hemisphere. In the two centuries anticipating Columbian contact with the New World in 1492, the Americas were largely dominated by the rise and fall of hundreds of kingdoms and warring polities, and the emergence of two powerful, albeit militaristically distinctive, imperial traditions – one Mesoamerican, the other Peruvian. Each evolved from a pattern of military statecraft and conquest interaction that coalesced in the highlands of each region in the period extending from 1300 to 1500 ce. While the Andean highlands of Peru and Bolivia were the crucibles of a centuries-old tradition of empire building, questions regarding the extent to which Mesoamerican empires fully and completely consolidated their gains as hegemonic imperial formations remain.
Beyond Europe, the European imperialist security community proved too divided to act on non-European issues with a unified voice. European self-interest and Iberian resistance stood in the way of an early nineteenth-century plan to include the United States in the European system, and the non-European world was not considered as an equal partner at the negotiating table. From 1830 onwards, France was no longer considered an aggressor or enemy. The network of fortifications was losing its function, and the reputation of Allied solidarity slowly crumbled. The instruments to curb terror had spawned new protests and resistance across Europe. A novel, nationalist and radical rhetoric trumped the emotional vocabulary of ‘balance’, ‘moderation’ and collective security, and Spanish, Portuguese, South American, Belgian and German voices of dissent considered the Allied interventions too exclusive and imperialistic. Allied dictates were ignored, or openly rebelled against with radical counter-violence.
Evidence suggests the incidence of non-affective psychotic disorders (NAPDs) varies across persons and places, but data from the Global South is scarce. We aimed to estimate the treated incidence of NAPD in Chile, and variance by person, place and time.
We used national register data from Chile including all people, 10–65 years, with the first episode of NAPD (International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision: F20–F29) between 1 January 2005 and 29 August 2018. Denominators were estimated from Chilean National Census data. Our main outcome was treated incidence of NAPD and age group, sex, calendar year and regional-level population density, multidimensional poverty and latitude were exposures of interest.
We identified 32 358 NAPD cases [12 136 (39.5%) women; median age-at-first-contact: 24 years (interquartile range 18–39 years)] during 171.1 million person-years [crude incidence: 18.9 per 100 000 person-years; 95% confidence interval (CI) 18.7–19.1]. Multilevel Poisson regression identified a strong age–sex interaction in incidence, with rates peaking in men (57.6 per 100 000 person-years; 95% CI 56.0–59.2) and women (29.5 per 100 000 person-years; 95% CI 28.4–30.7) between 15 and 19 years old. Rates also decreased (non-linearly) over time for women, but not men. We observed a non-linear association with multidimensional poverty and latitude, with the highest rates in the poorest regions and those immediately south of Santiago; no association with regional population density was observed.
Our findings inform the aetiology of NAPDs, replicating typical associations with age, sex and multidimensional poverty in a Global South context. The absence of association with population density suggests this risk may be context-dependent.
Research on the topic of poor perinatal mental health in South America is scarce. Nevertheless, studies have shown that it is not uncommon, and that it is linked to women's experience of sexual and intimate partner violence and to inequality, poverty and low educational attainment. High-quality research in large samples with rigorous methodology is a priority, so that data from this region may be compared and analysed in systematic reviews. The links with intimate partner violence need to be explored. Risk and protective factors must be investigated with a strong intercultural perspective. Service integration needs to be implemented. This will require improvements in the availability, accessibility and quality of obstetric and mental health services. There is a need for targeted evidence-based interventions for women and children at risk that incorporate a strong gender and rights perspective.
Lake sediments are key archives for paleoenvironmental investigation as they provide continuous records of the depositional history of the lake and its watershed. Lake Futalaufquen (42.8°S) is an oligotrophic waterbody located in Los Alerces National Park in the Andes of northern Patagonia, South America. A sedimentary sequence covering 1600 years was recovered to analyze the potential for paleoenvironmental reconstructions of the last millennia. Integration of different geochemical and mineralogical parameters and comparison with climatic reconstructions from other Patagonian records give clues for the identification of a warm period around AD 800–1000, associated with the Medieval Climatic Anomaly. The high frequency of tephra layers beginning in the mid-sixteenth century precludes identification of the Little Ice Age, recorded in northern Patagonia as a cold period from the fourteenth to the eighteenth century. Furthermore, the parameters analysed do not provide evidence of late-twentieth-century global warming. However, Zn deposition, a long-distance atmospheric transport process of anthropogenic origin, was identified during the last century.