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: The Republican colonizationists had always fixated on Latin America, especially Central America, where African American settlers might resist “filibusters,” expansionist expeditions supported by American citizens. For their part, the region’s rulers toyed with an influx of immigrants that would expand their population but darken its complexion. Once Abraham Lincoln came to power, he focused on the province of Chiriquí in what is now Panama (then part of Colombia), where black colonists might secure an isthmian crossing for US troops and traders. Announcing the venture in a notorious address of August 1862, the president had to retreat once he came to realize the instability of Colombian politics and the extent of his own associates’ stake in the business. Accordingly, the very same day that Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, he instead signed an agreement with a contractor to settle a party of freed slaves on the Île à Vache, one of Haiti’s satellite islands. That colony’s tragic failure finally impressed on him that he should not deal with sovereign states via shady contractors.
El registro de Canis familiaris en contextos arqueológicos resulta cada vez más frecuente en Sudamérica. En este escenario, este trabajo discute su rol económico y social dentro de las sociedades indígenas prehispánicas. Se presentan nuevos hallazgos de perros procedentes de cinco sitios arqueológicos del Noreste argentino. La muestra estudiada incluye siete especímenes craneales y uno poscraneal correspondientes a individuos jóvenes y adultos, de tamaños medianos (13-23 kg). Algunos de los especímenes presentan huellas de corte y marcas de carnívoros. Tres nuevas fechas taxón ubican a la muestra entre aproximadamente 2500 y 900 cal aP. Se concluye que C. familiaris presenta edades y tamaños ligeramente mayores a los registrados previamente. Asimismo, la evidencia antrópica indica procesamiento y consumo de esta especie. Las dataciones extienden el rango cronológico conocido previamente para este taxón en Argentina, Brasil y Uruguay. Su presencia se vincula a cazadores-recolectores-pescadores y horticultores, con una marcada adaptación fluvial durante el Holoceno tardío.
The Americas constitute one of the most topographically diverse and environmentally heterogeneous regions of the world, and each of these dimensions, and a host of social, economic, political, and cultural variables, necessarily serve to define the nature of war and society in the American hemisphere. In the two centuries anticipating Columbian contact with the New World in 1492, the Americas were largely dominated by the rise and fall of hundreds of kingdoms and warring polities, and the emergence of two powerful, albeit militaristically distinctive, imperial traditions – one Mesoamerican, the other Peruvian. Each evolved from a pattern of military statecraft and conquest interaction that coalesced in the highlands of each region in the period extending from 1300 to 1500 ce. While the Andean highlands of Peru and Bolivia were the crucibles of a centuries-old tradition of empire building, questions regarding the extent to which Mesoamerican empires fully and completely consolidated their gains as hegemonic imperial formations remain.
Beyond Europe, the European imperialist security community proved too divided to act on non-European issues with a unified voice. European self-interest and Iberian resistance stood in the way of an early nineteenth-century plan to include the United States in the European system, and the non-European world was not considered as an equal partner at the negotiating table. From 1830 onwards, France was no longer considered an aggressor or enemy. The network of fortifications was losing its function, and the reputation of Allied solidarity slowly crumbled. The instruments to curb terror had spawned new protests and resistance across Europe. A novel, nationalist and radical rhetoric trumped the emotional vocabulary of ‘balance’, ‘moderation’ and collective security, and Spanish, Portuguese, South American, Belgian and German voices of dissent considered the Allied interventions too exclusive and imperialistic. Allied dictates were ignored, or openly rebelled against with radical counter-violence.
Evidence suggests the incidence of non-affective psychotic disorders (NAPDs) varies across persons and places, but data from the Global South is scarce. We aimed to estimate the treated incidence of NAPD in Chile, and variance by person, place and time.
We used national register data from Chile including all people, 10–65 years, with the first episode of NAPD (International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision: F20–F29) between 1 January 2005 and 29 August 2018. Denominators were estimated from Chilean National Census data. Our main outcome was treated incidence of NAPD and age group, sex, calendar year and regional-level population density, multidimensional poverty and latitude were exposures of interest.
We identified 32 358 NAPD cases [12 136 (39.5%) women; median age-at-first-contact: 24 years (interquartile range 18–39 years)] during 171.1 million person-years [crude incidence: 18.9 per 100 000 person-years; 95% confidence interval (CI) 18.7–19.1]. Multilevel Poisson regression identified a strong age–sex interaction in incidence, with rates peaking in men (57.6 per 100 000 person-years; 95% CI 56.0–59.2) and women (29.5 per 100 000 person-years; 95% CI 28.4–30.7) between 15 and 19 years old. Rates also decreased (non-linearly) over time for women, but not men. We observed a non-linear association with multidimensional poverty and latitude, with the highest rates in the poorest regions and those immediately south of Santiago; no association with regional population density was observed.
Our findings inform the aetiology of NAPDs, replicating typical associations with age, sex and multidimensional poverty in a Global South context. The absence of association with population density suggests this risk may be context-dependent.
Research on the topic of poor perinatal mental health in South America is scarce. Nevertheless, studies have shown that it is not uncommon, and that it is linked to women's experience of sexual and intimate partner violence and to inequality, poverty and low educational attainment. High-quality research in large samples with rigorous methodology is a priority, so that data from this region may be compared and analysed in systematic reviews. The links with intimate partner violence need to be explored. Risk and protective factors must be investigated with a strong intercultural perspective. Service integration needs to be implemented. This will require improvements in the availability, accessibility and quality of obstetric and mental health services. There is a need for targeted evidence-based interventions for women and children at risk that incorporate a strong gender and rights perspective.
Lake sediments are key archives for paleoenvironmental investigation as they provide continuous records of the depositional history of the lake and its watershed. Lake Futalaufquen (42.8°S) is an oligotrophic waterbody located in Los Alerces National Park in the Andes of northern Patagonia, South America. A sedimentary sequence covering 1600 years was recovered to analyze the potential for paleoenvironmental reconstructions of the last millennia. Integration of different geochemical and mineralogical parameters and comparison with climatic reconstructions from other Patagonian records give clues for the identification of a warm period around AD 800–1000, associated with the Medieval Climatic Anomaly. The high frequency of tephra layers beginning in the mid-sixteenth century precludes identification of the Little Ice Age, recorded in northern Patagonia as a cold period from the fourteenth to the eighteenth century. Furthermore, the parameters analysed do not provide evidence of late-twentieth-century global warming. However, Zn deposition, a long-distance atmospheric transport process of anthropogenic origin, was identified during the last century.
Dating to the Early Formative period, Vaquerías pottery is the earliest polychrome ceramic in the Argentine Northwest. Questions about its provenance, use and circulation persist, however. To address these, the authors employ, for the first time, an integrated methodology comprising petrographic, morphological, iconographic and contextual analyses of ceramic samples from three regions of north-western Argentina. The results suggest five distinct modes of manufacture of Vaquerías ceramics, the non-centralisation of their production, their wide geographic distribution and their use in a variety of functional contexts. The methodology is applicable elsewhere and illustrates the potential of this approach over traditional stylistic-morphological studies.
A new species of Creptotrematina Yamaguti, 1954 was collected from characid fishes, Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier, 1819) and Astyanax lacustris Lucerna & Soares, 2016 from the Batalha River in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The new species most closely resembles Creptotrematina aguirrepequenoi, but differs by the elongated shape of vitelline follicles, the extension of these follicles in the posterior end of body and the fact that they are not confluent. The morphological differences were confirmed through molecular data. Three specimens were sequenced, and molecular analyses were based on the internal transcribed spacers 2 and D1–D3 domains of the 28S ribosomal RNA gene. The obtained topologies showed the new species as a sister taxon of C. aguirrepequenoi, a species originally described from Astyanax mexicanus in Mexico, and later found in Astyanax aeneus in Costa Rica. Isolates of the new species are reciprocally monophyletic, and genetic distance values are similar to those observed in other species pairs within Allocreadiidae. These findings corroborate that the genus Creptotrematina is mostly a parasite of characids, and widely extended across the Americas, with representative species occurring between Argentina and northern Mexico.
A new species, Huriella flakusii, is described from the arid region of the Colca Canyon in southern Peru, and is characterized by squamulose, orange thalli and abundant, crowded and aggregated, usually flexuous when compressed, reddish apothecia. The thalline cortex, proper margin and hypothecium are paraplectenchymatous. The ascospores are broadly ellipsoid, 10‒15 × 5.0‒9.5 µm, with rather thin septa, 2‒4 µm. Phylogenetic analyses of the DNA sequences of ITS, nuLSU and mrSSU rDNA markers revealed that the new species is nested within the Amundsenia-Squamulea subclade in the subfamily Xanthorioideae, and has a sister group relationship to Huriella loekoesiana from South Korea.
The panpipe is a musical instrument composed of end-blown tubes of different lengths tied together. They can be traced back to the Neolithic, and they have been found at prehistoric sites in China, Europe and South America. Panpipes display substantial variation in space and time across functional and aesthetic dimensions. Finding similarities in panpipes that belong to distant human groups poses a challenge to cultural evolution: while some have claimed that their relative simplicity speaks for independent inventions, others argue that strong similarities of specific features in panpipes from Asia, Oceania and South America suggest long-distance diffusion events. We examined 20 features of a worldwide sample of 401 panpipes and analysed statistically whether instrument features can successfully be used to determine provenance. The model predictions suggest that panpipes are reliable provenance markers, but we found an unusual classification error in which Melanesian panpipes are predicted as originating in South America. Although this pattern may be signalling a diffusion event, other factors such as convergence and preservation biases may play a role. Our analyses show the potential of cultural evolution research on music that incorporates material evidence, which in this study includes both archaeological and ethnographic samples preserved in museum collections.
Currently, many cities in Colombia are starting to embrace and promote urban art even though in the recent past the police-or even worse, social-cleansing groups-have persecuted graffiti and street art artists. However, cities like Barranquilla, Valledupar, Medellin, Cali, Bucaramanga, Pereira, and Ibague have welcomed graffiti, designating places, mainly walls, for artists to express themselves via graffiti and street art. Fairs, seminars, and museum exhibitions of urban art are being held in various Colombian cities and these art forms are even boosting local tourism. Amidst this growing collection of street art, one question remains: what protection does street art-particularly lettering-based graffiti-enjoy and what kind of rights do their artists hold over them?
Fasciola hepatica is a trematode parasite that affects mammals, including humans. In Brazil, fascioliasis, a disease caused by the parasite, is of great importance. The disorder affects the welfare of the Brazilian population through impairing the agricultural production of cattle, where the disease causes weight loss as a result of liver damage. This study aimed to evaluate the genetic diversity of F. hepatica throughout Southern Brazil to determine its geographic origin and estimate the colonization route of the parasite. To accomplish these aims, flukes were collected from slaughterhouses in three endemic areas of Rio Grande do Sul and Paraná states. DNA was isolated using the phenol–chloroform protocol from single flukes and two mitochondrial genes, cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and nicotinamide dehydrogenase subunit 1 (Nad1), were amplified and sequenced. Ten haplotypes of COI were found from 75 isolated parasites and the total haplotype and nucleotide diversity observed were 0.475 and 0.002, respectively. Using the Nad1 gene, we found 24 haplotypes from 79 samples, resulting in haplotype and nucleotide diversity values of 0.756 and 0.004, respectively. An analysis of molecular variance showed that 57.4% and 77.5% of variation was within populations (FST), while 9.0 and 36.8% of variation was among groups (FCT) when considering COI and Nad1 genes, respectively. For COI, the fixation index values of 0.425 and 0.368 were obtained for FST and FCT, respectively, while analysis of Nad1 0.225 and 0.089 index values were obtained for FST and FCT, respectively. We have determined that F. hepatica found in the two distinct areas originated from several geographical regions, since we found haplotypes that were shared with at least three different continents. These data are in accordance with the recent colonization of Brazil, and the recent import of cattle from South American, European and, possibly, some African countries. The observed FST and FCT values for COI and Nad1 genes of F. hepatica may be a result of limited movement of animals within states and support the lack of geographical structure of the parasite in Brazil, which are in agreement with the observed cattle production systems in this region.
Los índices de utilidad económica son aplicados en análisis zooarqueológicos desde hace más de cuatro décadas, lo que llevó al desarrollo de indicadores exclusivos para especies de mamíferos marinos. En Sudamérica se explotaron dos tipos de pinnípedos: Otaria flavescens y Arctocephalus australis; sin embargo, sólo para el primero fue derivado dicho índice. A partir de un individuo recolectado en el canal Beagle (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina) se presenta un índice de utilidad económica para A. australis basado en la medición de peso de carne para cada elemento o porción del esqueleto. Los resultados generales indican que O. flavescens presenta mayor desarrollo muscular en el sector de las costillas, mientras que los A. australis lo presentan en las vértebras cervicales. La aplicación del índice en conjuntos zooarqueológicos del canal Beagle con predominio de especímenes de A. australis ha mostrado un ajuste mejor respecto de las tendencias observadas previamente utilizando los valores generados para O. flavescens: (1) en el Segundo Componente de Imiwaia I (Holoceno medio) fue posible reconocer un perfil anatómico compatible con la selección de porciones de bajo valor económico; y (2) en Ajej I (Holoceno tardío) se identificó una tendencia similar, no identificada anteriormente.
IUI is often the first intervention offered for unexplained or mild to moderate male infertility and appears to be a safe method to prevent HIV transmission. Pregnancy and delivery rates per cycle remained stable for years. Factors influencing IUI results and studies evaluating if first line IVF rather than IUI could be a better option for couples with unexplained or mild male infertility will be discussed.
Increased risks compared to spontaneous conceptions have been described. However, data on comparison with IVF is limited and points to similar or lower perinatal risks. Multiple pregnancies are responsible for most of perinatal morbidities and are dependent on the use and aggressiveness of ovarian stimulation. Cost efficiency appears to be influenced by the indication, associated medications and perinatal complications mainly related to multiple pregnancies. While currently IUI with ovarian stimulation seems cost-effective, further studies are needed to confirm it in settings with advanced ART techniques.
Sherds of the San Pedro pottery complex found in situ in association with new radiocarbon dates at the Real Alto site provide new insights into the origin of pottery technology in South America and cultural diversity during the Early Formative period on the coast of Ecuador.
Eleven new species of crustose, lichenized fungi are described from the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas). Nine species are saxicolous, whereas Lecania vermispora occurs on the stems of Hebe elliptica and Tephromela lignicola is lignicolous on fence posts. The new species are: Bacidia marina, with a sordid blue-green K−, N+ violet epihymenium and acicular, multiseptate ascospores; B. pruinata, with pruinose apothecia and multiseptate ascospores; Buellia gypsyensis, with a thallus containing 5-O-methylhiascic acid and with Amandinea-type conidia; Cliostomum albidum, with pruinose apothecia lacking pigments; C. longisporum, with long narrow ascospores (c. 20 × 3 µm); Coccotrema rubromarginatum, with a placodioid thallus having a red-brown margin and lower surface; Hymenelia microcarpa, with minute, immersed apothecia (<0·1 mm diam.) and a trebouxioid photobiont; Lecania vermispora, with vermiform, 3–6 septate ascospores; Lepra argentea, with papillate isidia with dark caps; Rhizocarpon malvinae, which is similar to R. reductum but with a grey thallus, generally sessile apothecia with a thick raised margin and often with the Cinereorufa-green pigment in the epithecium and upper exciple; and Tephromela lignicola, a sterile, sorediate species on fence posts. Most of these species are reported only from the Falkland Islands although Coccotrema rubromarginatum is also reported from Isla de los Estados and Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. Ascoconidia are reported from Lepra argentea and cephalodia from Pertusaria pachythallina. Keys to the species reported from the Falkland Islands in the genera of the newly described species are also provided.
To assess the reliability and validity of body weight (BW) and body image (BI) perception reported by parents (in children) and by adolescents in a South American population.
Cross-sectional study. BW perception was evaluated by the question, ‘Do you think you/your child are/is: severely wasted, wasted, normal weight, overweight, obese?’ BI perception was evaluated using the Gardner scale. To evaluate reliability, BW and BI perceptions were reported twice, two weeks apart. To evaluate validity, the BW and BI perceptions were compared with WHO BMI Z-scores. Kappa and Kendall’s tau-c coefficients were obtained.
Public and private schools and high schools from six countries of South America (Argentina, Peru, Colombia, Uruguay, Chile, Brazil).
Children aged 3–10 years (n 635) and adolescents aged 11–17 years (n 400).
Reliability of BW perception was fair in children’s parents (κ=0·337) and substantial in adolescents (κ=0·709). Validity of BW perception was slight in children’s parents (κ=0·176) and fair in adolescents (κ=0·268). When evaluating BI, most children were perceived by parents as having lower weight. Reliability of BI perception was slight in children’s parents (κ=0·124) and moderate in adolescents (κ=0·599). Validity of BI perception was poor in children’s parents (κ=−0·018) and slight in adolescents (κ=0·023).
Reliability of BW and BI perceptions was higher in adolescents than in children’s parents. Validity of BW perception was good among the parents of the children and adolescents with underweight and normal weight.