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The first part of the chapter provides an overview of assessment as an integral element of undergraduate research’s continued success and sustainability. Building from this introduction, the remainder of the chapter explains the EvaluateUR method, a proven approach to assessing the skills and competencies of undergraduate research students and for improving student learning. The EvaluateUR method documents student growth in academic and workplace-related knowledge and skills and fosters meaningful student–mentor dialog to strengthen students’ awareness of their academic strengths and weaknesses. The chapter includes a summary of the findings from an independent evaluation of the method and concludes with remarks about how the method is being adapted to support the assessment of course-based undergraduate research experiences and students competing in remotely operated underwater vehicle competitions.
Part III comprises views on undergraduate research in a broad disciplinary variety of disciplines. The section is structured within five subject clusters and a list of disciplines that do not match with the clustering. In general, we find examples of undergraduate research in any discipline. In some cases, as in psychology, undergraduate research had always been a (potential) component of the undergraduate curriculum. Therefore, undergraduate research doesn't look new. In contrast, some university teachers, for instance in mathematics or law, are convinced that their discipline is too complicated to allow for undergraduate research. In the context of our handbook, by far the most common approach to undergraduate research is: just do research. When it comes to the implementation of undergraduate research, best practice arises with pioneering initiatives of engaged teachers or students and often results in organizational solutions, as in changed curricula, new research facilities, or a rethinking of research-based student–staff relationships.
In this chapter, we briefly discuss the higher education system in Israel, its various types, and the settings of undergraduate studies at its universities. We then explain why we focus on universities with strong emphasis on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) teaching and learning of undergraduate students. Finally, we explore several large-scale undergraduate research studies conducted at the Technion, the Israel Institute of Technology.
Many universities, commercial companies, and science organizations who use microscopy have outreach programs. The members of such generally love to share their enthusiasm and passion with the next generation. Content and confidence on providing such a program often comes from sharing ideas with like-minded scientists. These programs are typically delegated with the acronym STEM or STEAM: science, technology, engineering, art, and math. One of MSA's outreach programs is ProjectMICRO. Included are some STEAM ideas to share.
This paper is set against the backdrop of a rapidly changing world that brings considerable challenges and possibility for UK higher education. While the world of work is transitioning to Industrial Digitalisation (I4.0) technologies, the widespread lack of relevant skills among academics in a number of non-STEM disciplines is a fundamental impediment to harnessing the power of I4.0 in learning and teaching. Furthermore, there is no clear direction for how to start the process of curriculum innovation. To guide academics in non-STEM subjects, a three-step heuristic model for embedding core digitalisation competencies in the non-STEM curriculum is introduced. This chapter - as well as seeking to bring curricular change by empowering academics to make the first steps in embedding disciplinary relevant digitalisation competencies – intends to stimulate discussion about how universities can best produce graduates with the skillset and mind-set to critique, understand and find spaces to thrive in digitalisation-informed workplaces.
In recent years, atomic resolution imaging of two-dimensional (2D) materials using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) has become routine. Individual dopant atoms in 2D materials can be located and identified using their contrast in annular dark-field (ADF) STEM. However, in order to understand the effect of these dopant atoms on the host material, there is now the need to locate and quantify them on a larger scale. In this work, we analyze STEM images of MoS2 monolayers that have been ion-implanted with chromium at ultra-low energies. We use functions from the open-source TEMUL Toolkit to create and refine an atomic model of an experimental image based on the positions and intensities of the atomic columns in the image. We then use the refined model to determine the likely composition of each atomic site. Surface contamination stemming from the sample preparation of 2D materials can prevent accurate quantitative identification of individual atoms. We disregard atomic sites from regions of the image with hydrocarbon surface contamination to demonstrate that images acquired using contaminated samples can give significant atom statistics from their clean regions, and can be used to calculate the retention rate of the implanted ions within the host lattice. We find that some of the implanted chromium ions have been successfully integrated into the MoS2 lattice, with 4.1% of molybdenum atoms in the transition metal sublattice replaced with chromium.
Researchers on the vocabulary growth of native speakers of English, usually distinguish three main ways in which a learner’s vocabulary increases – through being taught or deliberately learning new words, through learning new words by meeting them in context, and through recognising and building new words by gaining control of the prefixes and suffixes and other word building devices. In this chapter we look at the extent to which word building affects vocabulary size, the psychological reality of the relationship between inflected and derived words and their stem form, and the teaching and learning options for gaining control of English word-building processes. There are two related but distinguishable reasons for focusing on word parts. First, prefixes and stems can work as mnemonic devices to help learners remember new words by relating them to the meanings of the known parts that they contain. Second, knowledge of prefixes and suffixes can help learners see the relationship between word family members where one or more of the members is already known. The chapter contains lists of useful word parts and describes a strategy for using word parts to help remember words.
In this study, binary as-cast Al–Cu alloys: Al25Cu (Al–25%Cu) and Al45Cu (Al–45%Cu) (in wt%) were severely plastically deformed by extrusion combined with a reversible torsion (KoBo) method to produce an ultrafine-grained structure (UFG). The binary Al–Cu alloys consist of α-Al and intermetallic Al2Cu phases. The morphology and volume fraction of α-Al and Al2Cu phases depend on the Cu content. The KoBo process was carried out using extrusion ratios of λ = 30 and λ = 98. The effect of phase refinement has been studied by means of scanning electron microscopy with electron backscattering diffraction and scanning transmission electron microscopy. The mechanical properties were assessed using compression tests. Detailed microstructural analysis shows that after the KoBo process, a large number fraction of high-angle boundaries (HABs) and a very fine grain structure (~2–4 μm) in both phases are created. An increase of λ ratio during the KoBo processing leads to a decrease in average grain size of α-Al and Al2Cu phases and an increase in fraction of HABs. UFG microstructure and high fraction of HABs provide the grain boundary sliding mechanism during KoBo deformation. UFG microstructure contributes to the enhanced mechanical properties. Compressive strength (Rc) of Al25Cu alloy increases from 172 to 340 MPa with an increase of λ. Compressive strain (Sc) for Al25Cu alloy increased from 35 to 67% with an increase of λ. High fraction of intermetallic phase in Al45Cu alloy was responsible for room temperature strengthening of alloy and low compressive strain. The deformed Al45Cu alloy with λ = 30 showed that Rc is 194 MPa and Sc is equal to 10%.
The exotic internal structure of polar topologies in multiferroic materials offers a rich landscape for materials science research. As the spatial scale of these entities is often subatomic in nature, aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is the ideal characterization technique. Software to quantify and visualize the slight shifts in atomic placement within unit cells is of paramount importance due to the now routine acquisition of images at such resolution. In the previous ~decade since the commercialization of aberration-corrected TEM, many research groups have written their own code to visualize these polar entities. More recently, open-access Python packages have been developed for the purpose of TEM atomic position quantification. Building on these packages, we introduce the TEMUL Toolkit: a Python package for analysis and visualization of atomic resolution images. Here, we focus specifically on the TopoTEM module of the toolkit where we show an easy to follow, streamlined version of calculating the atomic displacements relative to the surrounding lattice and thus plotting polarization. We hope this toolkit will benefit the rapidly expanding field of topology-based nano-electronic and quantum materials research, and we invite the electron microscopy community to contribute to this open-access project.
Precision and accuracy of quantitative scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) methods such as ptychography, and the mapping of electric, magnetic, and strain fields depend on the dose. Reasonable acquisition time requires high beam current and the ability to quantitatively detect both large and minute changes in signal. A new hybrid pixel array detector (PAD), the second-generation Electron Microscope Pixel Array Detector (EMPAD-G2), addresses this challenge by advancing the technology of a previous generation PAD, the EMPAD. The EMPAD-G2 images continuously at a frame-rates up to 10 kHz with a dynamic range that spans from low-noise detection of single electrons to electron beam currents exceeding 180 pA per pixel, even at electron energies of 300 keV. The EMPAD-G2 enables rapid collection of high-quality STEM data that simultaneously contain full diffraction information from unsaturated bright-field disks to usable Kikuchi bands and higher-order Laue zones. Test results from 80 to 300 keV are presented, as are first experimental results demonstrating ptychographic reconstructions, strain and polarization maps. We introduce a new information metric, the maximum usable imaging speed (MUIS), to identify when a detector becomes electron-starved, saturated or its pixel count is mismatched with the beam current.
Low-Z nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) grids have been developed to reduce spurious fluorescence and avoid X-ray peak overlaps or interferences between the specimen and conventional metal grids. The low-Z NCD grids are non-toxic and safe to handle, conductive, can be subjected to high-temperature heating experiments, and may be used for analytical work in lieu of metal grids. Both a half-grid geometry, which can be used for any lift-out method, or a full-grid geometry that can be used for ex situ lift-out or thin film analyses, can be fabricated and used for experiments.
This chapter offers a brief assessment of the scientific research system and higher education sector in four Asian countries: China, India, Singapore and Taiwan. The chapter provides readers with a brief history of each country and an overview of each country's higher education sector. The chapter then focuses on the state of science and technology in each country, with particular emphasis on the state of bioscience research, before ending with the specific challenges each country faces in trying to boost their standing in the global scientific field. In all four cases, the strong role of the state in channelling immense resources towards the sciences is highlighted. In the case of China and Singapore, the heavy investment made by both countries' governments in transforming many of their national universities into "world-class" research universities is noted. Taiwan's ongoing vulnerability because of its geopolitical position vis-a-vis China is also discussed. India is noted as the country with the least advanced research infrastructure of the four, but also the youngest population with growing numbers of students interested in the sciences. Singapore's small size is discussed as its key weakness.
This concluding chapter outlines the implications of the shifting scientific landscape in Asia for future generations of Asian scientists. The chapter reviews the theoretical implications of the key findings from the book, and revisits the new concepts and ideas introduced throughout the book, which have relevance for the fields of migration studies, science & technology studies and also gender studies. The chapter highlights what is yet to be studied on this topic, and lays out a future research agenda for scholars from these fields. Finally, the chapter highlights the policy implications of these developments for Asian and non-Asian countries, and ends with a set of policy recommendations for government officials and research leaders in these countries as they seek to make themselves attractive destinations for native (and nonnative) research scientists and raise their relative profile in the global scientific field.
Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) allows for imaging, diffraction, and spectroscopy of materials on length scales ranging from microns to atoms. By using a high-speed, direct electron detector, it is now possible to record a full two-dimensional (2D) image of the diffracted electron beam at each probe position, typically a 2D grid of probe positions. These 4D-STEM datasets are rich in information, including signatures of the local structure, orientation, deformation, electromagnetic fields, and other sample-dependent properties. However, extracting this information requires complex analysis pipelines that include data wrangling, calibration, analysis, and visualization, all while maintaining robustness against imaging distortions and artifacts. In this paper, we present py4DSTEM, an analysis toolkit for measuring material properties from 4D-STEM datasets, written in the Python language and released with an open-source license. We describe the algorithmic steps for dataset calibration and various 4D-STEM property measurements in detail and present results from several experimental datasets. We also implement a simple and universal file format appropriate for electron microscopy data in py4DSTEM, which uses the open-source HDF5 standard. We hope this tool will benefit the research community and help improve the standards for data and computational methods in electron microscopy, and we invite the community to contribute to this ongoing project.
Around the world, some schools are starting to shift from funnelling young people towards a job or profession towards preparing them to navigate an uncertain future of work. Many such schools are found in the United States, where charter schools, magnet schools and regular public schools have taken the opportunity to develop their curriculum and pedagogy around a specific purpose. Some schools shape their currriculum with a focus on STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics), using this concept to shift away from discrete school subejcts towards a more integrated understanding of how knowledge and skills are combined in rapidly changing fields of work. Other schools extend this focus to STEAM, including the Arts, emphasising that creativity, diversity and humanity are core parts of innovation. Others take a different tack entirely, focusing on democracy or social justice. These schools demonstrate what it looks like to not only teach young peple about these concepts but give them a chance to practise democracy and justice in their daily decision-making.
STEM Education in the Primary School introduces pre-service teachers to the theory, skills and practice of teaching STEM through a project-based learning approach. Science, technology, engineering and mathematics are presented as professions, mindsets and practices, and each element of STEM is integrated with the Australian Curriculum through a school garden project case study. Popular STEM topic areas, such as health, shelter and space, are explored using tested and age-appropriate project examples that illustrate the translation of STEM ideas to classroom practice. This textbook connects current research in STEM education to teaching practice through detailed discussion of topics including assessment, learning spaces, community and STEM futures. Encouraging readers to consolidate their knowledge, the text is supported by short-answer and reflection questions, information boxes and real-world scenarios. Suggested activities and downloadable templates in the VitalSource enhanced eBook provide guidance for readers when implementing projects and practices in their classroom.
Assessments need to demonstrate that students have achieved the intended outcomes as anticipated. For students to succeed, they also need to be assessed in ways that support their learning and for tasks to be structured in a way that is ongoing, so they can learn and grow from the feedback. Thus, assessment is meant to be more than an exam or an assignment that is given at the end of the unit. An integrated STEM project draws upon multiple disciplines. This chapter is about assessment, project based-learning, integrated STEM, the Australian Curriculum and the connections between them. It also raises some of the issues and challenges that have been highlighted in the literature on these areas. The chapter also focuses on how diagnostic, formative and summative assessments can be administered. Connections are made between these assessment strategies and how they can be situated in some of the projects that are presented in this book. The chapter also presents some suggestions on how the General Capabilities of the Australian Curriculum can be incorporated into integrated STEM projects.
In this chapter, we first introduce reades to the book and recommend how it could be used. The ‘reverse’ sequencing of content and activities throughout the book – early introduction of classroom-ready activities rather than theory and other considerations – is unlike most textbooks in the STEM education genre and is a deliberate strategy designed to provide you with the most useful sections that are hands-on and engaging before we explain the literature behind these ideas. Second, we discuss the importance of STEM education in today’s primary classrroms and how the approach we present in this book will help you to implement engaging learning experiences for students. Third, we provide some information about project-based learning and why we feel this is the most useful approach to adopt when planning integrated STEM learning and teaching experiences. Finally, we present a Garden Challenge as an example of an integrated STEM project.
Human health in primary school contexts is a perfect launching pad for integrating STEM as well as health and physical education learning outcomes, and should focus on promoting and sustaining students' emotional, physical and social wellbeing. The environment, lifestyle choices, accidents and disease are significant factors influencing human health, and for primary-aged children it is important that learning opportunities link these areas to their out-of-school lives. Cross-cultural understandings are understood and reinforced when in-school and out-of-school experiences are integrated, and they also provide opportunities for developing students' future decision-making capabilities. This chapter presents some common alternative conceptions associated with human health, and describes three integrated STEM projects linked to current issues in primary school. The F–2 project looks at designing and producing a hat for a pet, the 3–4 project involves an optimal exercise program, and the 5–6 project focuses on developing an online social media platform for tweens.
This chapter is about mathematics and how it is taught in Australian primary schools. Teachers in the current education landscape need to reinvent the wheel by bringing about a change to some existing classroom practices in mathematics, and must make the subject-matter as meaningful to students’ lives as possible. The first section of this chapter presents an overview of mathematics as a discipline and how it is applied in the real world. The second sections deals with mathematics education, with some key details on the intentions and expectations of the Australian Curriculum: Mathematics. The next section shows the connections between learning theories and how they can be applied to concepts from the Australian Curriculum. The chapter concludes with some ideas on how the curriculum can be applied through a Garden Challenge project.