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The name Polycoccum opulentum proves to have been wrongly applied to a lichenicolous fungus belonging to the genus Lichenothelia, and which differs from the type material of P. opulentum in having non-ostiolate broadly stipitate ascomata and narrow ascospores with a conspicuous gelatinous sheath. The Lichenothelia represents an hitherto undescribed species, named here as L. renobalesiana, sp. nov. which is associated with verrucarialean lichens on hard limestones in temperate regions. The true P. opulentum is known only from the original collection on Polyblastia hyperborea from Sweden.
Zwackhiomyces cervinae Calat., Triebel & Pérez-Ortega is described as new to science from Spain and Iran. This lichenicolous species grows on the lateral side of the squamules of Acarospora cervina, and it is characterized by its relatively large ascospores, which are brown when overmature. It is compared with several Zwackhiomyces species and with other taxa sharing some of its characters. A key to all the known species of the genus is also provided.
Comments on and a key to the 13 Polycoccum species known in Spain are presented, including synopses of their world distributions. Amongst these is P. rubellianae sp. nov., a lichenicolous fungus growing on thalli of Caloplaca rubelliana in eastern Spain (Valencia). It has relatively small ascomata, the lower part pale brown, and also small ascospores which are coarsely verrucose and have a thick gelatinous sheath when young. The new species is associated with a Phoma-like anamorph. The identity and systematic position of P. opulentum requires further study as the name has been applied to different species, and the occurrence of P. marmoratum in Spain is in need of confirmation. The Spanish record of P. arnoldii on Lecania cyrtella probably refers to another yet undescribed species.
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