High-speed free-shear-flow turbulence, laden with droplets or particles, can radiate weaker pressure fluctuations than its unladen counterpart. In this study, Eulerian–Lagrangian simulations of high-speed temporally evolving shear layers laden with monodisperse, adiabatic, inertial particles are used to examine particle–turbulence interactions and their effect on radiated pressure fluctuations. An evolution equation for gas-phase pressure intensity is formulated for particle-laden flows, and local mechanisms of pressure changes are quantified over a range of Mach numbers and particle mass loadings. Particle–turbulence interactions alter the local pressure intensity directly via volume displacement (due to the flow of finite-size particles) and drag coupling (due to local slip velocity between phases), and indirectly through significant turbulence changes. The sound radiation intensity near subsonic mixing layers increases with mass loading, consistent with existing low Mach number theory. For supersonic flows, sound levels decrease with mass loading, consistent with trends observed in previous experiments. Particle-laden cases exhibit reduced turbulent kinetic energy compared to single-phase flow, providing one source of their sound changes; however, the subsonic flow does not support such an obvious source-to-sound decomposition to explain its sound intensity increase. Despite its decrease in turbulence intensity, the louder particle-laden subsonic flows show an increase in the magnitude and time-rate-of-change of fluid dilatation, providing a mechanism for its increased sound radiation. Contrasting this, the quieter supersonic particle-laden flows exhibit decreased gas-phase dilatation yet its time-rate-of-change is relatively insensitive to mass loading, supporting such a connection.