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Shock-tube experiments on Richtmyer–Meshkov (RM) instability at a perturbed SF$_6$ layer surrounded by air, induced by a cylindrical divergent shock, are reported. To explore the effects of reverberating waves and interface coupling on instability growth, gas layers with various shapes are created: unperturbed inner interface and sinusoidal outer interface (case US); sinusoidal inner and outer interfaces that have identical phase (case IP); sinusoidal inner and outer interfaces that have opposite phase (case AP). For each case, three thicknesses are considered. Results show that reverberating waves inside the layer dominate the early-stage instability growth, while interface coupling dominates the late-stage growth. The influences of waves on divergent RM instability are more pronounced than the planar and convergent counterparts, which are estimated accurately based on gas dynamics theory. Both the wave influence and interface coupling depend heavily on the layer shape, leading to diverse growth rates: the quickest growth for case AP, medium growth for case US, the slowest growth for case IP. In particular, for the IP case, there exists a critical thickness below which the instability growth is suppressed by both the reverberating waves and interface coupling. This provides an efficient way to modulate the growth of divergent RM instability. It is found that divergent RM instability involves weak nonlinearity and strong interface coupling such that the linear theory of Mikaelian (Phys. Fluids, vol. 17, 2005, 094105) can well reproduce the instability growth at late stages for all cases. This constitutes the first experimental confirmation of the Mikaelian theory.
Underground Nuclear Astrophysics in China (JUNA) will take the advantage of the ultra-low background in Jinping underground lab. High current accelerator with an ECR source and detectors were commissioned. JUNA plans to study directly a number of nuclear reactions important to hydrostatic stellar evolution at their relevant stellar energies. At the first period, JUNA aims at the direct measurements of 25Mg(p,γ)26 Al, 19F(p,α) 16 O, 13C(α, n) 16O and 12C(α,γ) 16O near the Gamow window. The current progress of JUNA will be given.
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