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Mutation in CFAP43 leads to severe asthenozoospermia and multiple morphological abnormalities of the sperm flagellum (MMAF) in both human and mouse. Previous studies have shown that disruption of intra-manchette transport (IMT) caused failure of flagellum assembly and sperm head shaping. In a previous study, therefore, we postulated that disruption of IMT may contribute to the failure of sperm flagellum formation and result in MMAF, however the mechanisms underlying these defects are still poorly understood. Cfap43-deficient mice were studied here to reveal the cellular mechanisms of abnormal sperm head morphology and MMAF. Depletion of Cfap43 led to abnormal spermiogenesis and caused MMAF, sperm head abnormality and oligozoospermia. Furthermore, both abnormal manchette and disorganized ectoplasmic specialization (ES) could be observed at the elongated spermatids in Cfap43-deficient mice. Therefore, our findings demonstrated that, in mice, CFAP43-mediated IMT is essential for sperm head shaping and sperm flagellum formation.
The North Qilian orogenic belt in North China has been defined as a subduction–collision zone between the Alxa Block and the Qilian Block. We present petrography, zircon U–Pb geochronology, major- and trace-element geochemistry, and Sr–Nd–Pb–Hf isotope analysis for the Yushigou diabase from the Longshoushan area, which is located SW of the Alxa Block, aiming to understand its petrogenetic link to subduction processes. The Yushigou diabase belongs to the tholeiite series, and shows enrichment in light rare earth and large-ion lithophile elements, and a depletion in heavy rare earth and high-field-strength elements. Laser ablation – inductively coupled plasma – mass spectrometry U–Pb zircon dating yielded an emplacement age of 414 ± 9 Ma, with an ϵHf(t) value in the range of −10.3 to 1.8. The whole-rock initial 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb ratios of the diabase range over 16.811–17.157, 15.331–15.422 and 37.768–37.895, respectively. The (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios vary between 0.7086 and 0.7106, and ϵNd(t) values vary between −14.4 and −13.4, which are significantly higher than the ϵHf(t) value (Nd–Hf decoupling). An interpretation of the elemental and isotopic data suggests that the Yushigou diabase was derived from partial melting of an enriched mantle I (EM-I) -type lithospheric mantle in the spinel–garnet transitional zone. Based on the geochemical features and previous regional geological data, we propose that the Silurian magmatism was most likely triggered by slab break-off after the closure of the North Qilian Ocean, and ancient continental materials from the subduction slab metasomatized the overlying lithospheric mantle during exhumation.
To investigate the cumulative effects of maternal supplementation with nucleotides in the form of uridine (UR) on fatty acid and amino acid constituents of neonatal piglets, fifty-two sows in late gestation were assigned randomly into the control (CON) group (fed a basal diet) or UR group (fed a basal diet with 150 g/t UR). Samples of neonates were collected during farrowing. Results showed that supplementing with UR in sows’ diet significantly decreased the birth mortality of pigs (P = 0·05), and increased serum total cholesterol, HDL and LDL of neonatal piglets (P < 0·05). Moreover, the amino acid profile of serum and liver of neonatal piglets was affected by the addition of UR in sows’ diets (P < 0·05). Furthermore, an up-regulation of mRNA expression of energy metabolism-related genes, including fatty acid elongase 5, fatty acid desaturase 1, hormone-sensitive lipase and cholesterol-7a-hydroxylase, was observed in the liver of neonates from the UR group. Additionally, a decrease in placental gene expression of excitatory amino acid transporters 2, excitatory amino acid transporter 3 and neutral AA transporter 1 in the UR group was concurrently observed (P < 0·05), and higher protein expression of phosphorylated protein kinase B, raptor, PPARα and PPARγ in placenta from the UR group was also observed (P < 0·05). Together, these results showed that maternal UR supplementation could regulate placental nutrient transport, largely in response to an alteration of mTORC1–PPAR signalling, thus regulating the nutrition metabolism of neonatal piglets and improving reproductive performance.
This trial was conducted to study the effects of dietary rapeseed cake (RSC) containing high glucosinolates (GLS) on rumen fermentation, nutrient digestion and the rumen microbial community in steers. Eight growing steers and four rations containing RSC (GLS 226·1 μmol/g DM) at 0·00, 2·65, 5·35 and 8·00 % DM were assigned in a replicate 4 × 4 Latin square design. The results indicated that increasing RSC levels increased the ruminal concentration of thiocyanate (SCN) (P < 0·01), decreased the ruminal concentration of ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and the molar proportion of isovalerate (P < 0·05), did not affect the ruminal concentration of total volatile fatty acids (P > 0·05), decreased the crude protein (CP) digestibility (P < 0·05) and increased the ether extract (EE) digestibility (P < 0·01). Increasing RSC levels tended to decrease the abundances of ruminal Ruminobacter amylophilus (P = 0·055) and Ruminococcus albus (P = 0·086) but did not affect methanogens, protozoa, fungi and other bacteria (P > 0·05). Increasing RSC levels in the ration did not affect the ruminal bacterial diversity (P > 0·05), but it increased the operational taxonomic units and the bacterial richness (P < 0·05) and affected the relative abundances of some bacteria at the phylum level and genus level (P < 0·05). In conclusion, RSC decreased the ruminal concentration of NH3-N and the CP digestibility, increased the EE digestibility and partly affected the ruminal bacterial community. SCN, as the metabolite of GLS, could be a major factor affecting these indices.
Schizotypy refers to schizophrenia-like traits below the clinical threshold in the general population. The pathological development of schizophrenia has been postulated to evolve from the initial coexistence of ‘brain disconnection’ and ‘brain connectivity compensation’ to ‘brain connectivity decompensation’.
In this study, we examined the brain connectivity changes associated with schizotypy by combining brain white matter structural connectivity, static and dynamic functional connectivity analysis of diffusion tensor imaging data and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data. A total of 87 participants with a high level of schizotypal traits and 122 control participants completed the experiment. Group differences in whole-brain white matter structural connectivity probability, static mean functional connectivity strength, dynamic functional connectivity variability and stability among 264 brain sub-regions of interests were investigated.
We found that individuals with high schizotypy exhibited increased structural connectivity probability within the task control network and within the default mode network; increased variability and decreased stability of functional connectivity within the default mode network and between the auditory network and the subcortical network; and decreased static mean functional connectivity strength mainly associated with the sensorimotor network, the default mode network and the task control network.
These findings highlight the specific changes in brain connectivity associated with schizotypy and indicate that both decompensatory and compensatory changes in structural connectivity within the default mode network and the task control network in the context of whole-brain functional disconnection may be an important neurobiological correlate in individuals with high schizotypy.
An artificial intelligence (AI) control system is developed to maximize the mixing rate of a turbulent jet. This system comprises of six independently operated unsteady minijet actuators, two hot-wire sensors placed in the jet and genetic programming for the unsupervised learning of a near-optimal control law. The ansatz of this law includes multi-frequency open-loop forcing, sensor feedback and nonlinear combinations thereof. Mixing performance is quantified by the decay rate of the centreline mean velocity of the jet. Intriguingly, the learning process of AI control discovers the classical forcings, i.e. axisymmetric, helical and flapping achievable from conventional control techniques, one by one in the order of increased performance, and finally converges to a hitherto unexplored forcing. Careful examination of the control landscape unveils typical control laws, generated in the learning process, and their evolutions. The best AI forcing produces a complex turbulent flow structure that is characterized by periodically generated mushroom structures, helical motion and an oscillating jet column, all enhancing the mixing rate and vastly outperforming others. Being never reported before, this flow structure is examined in various aspects, including the velocity spectra, mean and fluctuating velocity fields and their downstream evolution, and flow visualization images in three orthogonal planes, all compared with other classical flow structures. Along with the knowledge of the minijet-produced flow and its effect on the initial condition of the main jet, these aspects cast valuable insight into the physics behind the highly effective mixing of this newly found flow structure. The results point to the great potential of AI in conquering the vast opportunity space of control laws for many actuators and sensors and in optimizing turbulence.
Rosa x odorata (sect. Chinenses, Rosaceae) is an important species distributed only in Yunnan Province, China. There is an abundance of wild variation within the species. Using 22 germplasm resources collected from the wild, as well as R. chinensis var. spontanea, R. chinensis ‘Old Blush’ and R. lucidissima, this study involved morphological variation analysis, inter-trait correlation analysis, principal component analysis and clustering analysis based on 16 morphological traits. This study identified a high degree of morphological diversity in R. x odorata germplasm resources and the variation coefficients had a distribution range from 18.00 to 184.04%. The flower colour had the highest degree of variation, while leaflet length/width had the lowest degree of variation. Inter-trait correlation analysis revealed that there was an extremely significant positive correlation between leaflet length and leaflet width. There was also a significant positive correlation between the number of petals and duration of blooming, and the L* and a* values of flower colour were significantly negatively correlated. Principal component analysis screened five principal components with the highest cumulative contribution rate (81.679%) to population variance. Among the 16 morphological traits, style length, sepal width, flower diameter, flower colour, leaflet length and leaflet width were important indices that influenced the morphology of R. x odorata. This study offers guidance for the further development and utilization of R. x odorata germplasm resources.
In this paper, the generation of relativistic electron mirrors (REM) and the reflection of an ultra-short laser off the mirrors are discussed, applying two-dimension particle-in-cell simulations. REMs with ultra-high acceleration and expanding velocity can be produced from a solid nanofoil illuminated normally by an ultra-intense femtosecond laser pulse with a sharp rising edge. Chirped attosecond pulse can be produced through the reflection of a counter-propagating probe laser off the accelerating REM. In the electron moving frame, the plasma frequency of the REM keeps decreasing due to its rapid expansion. The laser frequency, on the contrary, keeps increasing due to the acceleration of REM and the relativistic Doppler shift from the lab frame to the electron moving frame. Within an ultra-short time interval, the two frequencies will be equal in the electron moving frame, which leads to the resonance between laser and REM. The reflected radiation near this interval and corresponding spectra will be amplified due to the resonance. Through adjusting the arriving time of the probe laser, a certain part of the reflected field could be selectively amplified or depressed, leading to the selective adjustment of the corresponding spectra.
Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) is one of the most serious food-borne parasites, which can lead to liver fibrosis or cholangiocarcinoma. Effective measures for clonorchiasis prevention are still urgently needed. Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) is an effective antigen delivery platform for oral vaccines. Chonorchis sinensis serpin (CsSerpin) was proved to be potential vaccine candidates. In this study, CsSerpin3 was displayed on the surface of B. subtilis spore and recombinant spores were orally administrated to BALB/C mice. CsSerpin3-specific IgA levels in faecal, bile and intestinal mucous increased at 4–8 weeks after the first administration compared with those in control groups. The mucus production and the number of goblet cells in intestinal mucosa elevated in B.s-CotC-CsSerpin3 (CotC, coat protein of B. subtilis spore) spores treated group compared to those in blank control. No significant difference in the activities of glutamic-pyruvic transaminase/ alanine aminotransferase and glutamic oxalacetic transaminase/aspartate aminotransferase were observed between groups. There was no side effect inflammation and observable pathological damage in the liver tissue of mice after administration. Moreover, collagen deposition and Ishak score were statistically reduced in B.s-CotC-CsSerpin3 spores treated mice. In conclusion, B. subtilis spores displaying CsSerpin3 could be investigated further as an oral vaccine against clonorchiasis.
To explore the association between dietary Na intake and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in a nationally representative sample of the US population.
In this cross-sectional study, the associations between Na intake and NAFLD, defined by the hepatic steatosis index (HSI) and the fatty liver index (FLI), were assessed through multivariable logistic regression models.
Communities in the USA from 2007 to 2014.
Men and women aged 20 years and older.
A total of 11 022 participants were included in the HSI-defined NAFLD analysis, and a subsample of 5320 participants was included in the FLI-defined NAFLD analysis. Compared with the lowest quartile of Na intake, the highest quartile had a multivariate-adjusted OR and 95 % CI of 1·46 (1·29, 1·65) for NAFLD as defined by HSI, and 1·41 (1·18, 1·69) for NAFLD as defined by FLI. This association was, to some degree, attenuated but remained significant after adjusting for several related metabolic parameters, including BMI, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, and diabetes.
Findings from the current study indicate that dietary Na intake is positively associated with NAFLD in US adults.
Increasing evidence indicates that major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with cognitive as well as mood disturbances.
To evaluate cognitive function and white matter structure, resting-state brain function in first-episode, treatmentnaive patients with MDD.
To explore brain structure and function mechanisms of cognitive impairment in MDD.
46 Han Chinese MDD patients aged 18–45 year and 46 controls were assessed by a series of validated test procedures.Then, 30 patients and 30 controls were obtained by MRI scan.White matter abnormalities evaluated using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were analyzed using tract based spatial statistics (TBSS) and resting-state brain function was evaluated using regional homogeneity (ReHo) analysis.
Cognitive impairment in patients with MDD was demonstrated by reduced accuracy in the Wisconsin Card Sorting test (WSCT) and to a lesser extent the Continuous Performance test (CPT) and Trail Making tests (TMT). White matter abnormalities found in the left cerebellum, and resting-state abnormalities present in the left inferior parietal gyrus, left anterior cingulate nucleus and left hippocampal gyrus were associated with impaired performance in the WSCT and CPT tests. We also showed that poor WSCT performance was associated with increased interconnectivity between the left ventral anterior cingulate nucleus and the medial frontal lobe areas.
The present study indicates cognitive disturbances in patients with MDD are associated with white matter and resting-state changes and altered interconnections in specific brain areas.
The X chromosome is known to play an important role in many sex-specific diseases. However, only a few single-nucleotide polymorphisms on the X chromosome have been found to be associated with diseases. Compared to the autosomes, conducting association tests on the X chromosome is more intractable due to the difference in the number of X chromosomes between females and males. On the other hand, X-chromosome inactivation takes place in female mammals, which is a phenomenon in which the expression of one copy of two X chromosomes in females is silenced in order to achieve the same gene expression level as that in males. In addition, imprinting effects may be related to certain diseases. Currently, there are some existing approaches taking X-chromosome inactivation into account when testing for associations on the X chromosome. However, none of them allows for imprinting effects. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a robust test, ZXCII, which accounts for both X-chromosome inactivation and imprinting effects without requiring specifying the genetic models in advance. Simulation studies are conducted in order to investigate the validity and performance of ZXCII under various scenarios of different parameter values. The simulation results show that ZXCII controls the type I error rate well when there is no association. Furthermore, with regards to power, ZXCII is robust in all of the situations considered and generally outperforms most of the existing methods in the presence of imprinting effects, especially under complete imprinting effects.
Bloodstream infection (BSI), caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae, is associated with high morbidity and mortality, where the pks gene cluster plays a major role in their occurrence and prevalence. Information on the prevalence and characteristics of this gene cluster in K. pneumoniae is currently limited in mainland China. We therefore undertook a multicentre longitudinal study which revealed the prevalence, overall, community-onset and hospital-acquired BSI to be 20.5%, 28.3% and 13.0%, respectively. Compared to pks-negative, pks-positive isolates were significantly more susceptible to antimicrobial agents with a low incidence (5.1%) of multidrug-resistance and with infrequent extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production. Among pks-positive isolates, ST23 (78/117) and ST65 (20/117) were the dominant sequence types, and the majority harboured virulence genes. Community-onset BSI patients infected with pks-positive isolates had a higher proportion of liver abscesses and a lower proportion of biliary obstructions (P < 0.05). The pks-positive isolates were mostly sporadic in the phylogenetic tree, with a 65.8 and 47.0 average allele difference between Clade 1 and Clade 2, respectively. We concluded that although pks-positive K. pneumoniae were generally susceptible to antimicrobials, the high prevalence of such isolates in community cases and the genotoxicity, merits further investigation.
The X-ray emissions in the interaction of 3–6 MeV Xe23+ ions into thick solid In target are measured. The projectile-to-target and target Lα/Lβ X-ray production intensity ratios are observed to strongly depend on the projectile energy. The dependence deviates from Coulomb ionization predictions, which implies the important roles of coupling between subshells and the activation of 4fσ rotational couplings for projectile energy larger than 5 MeV.
The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term survival and risk factors associated with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patient survival in Central China. Between December 2006 and June 2011, incident and retreatment adult MDR-TB patients were enrolled in the present study. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to evaluate the risk factors affecting survival. The total follow-up period was 270 person-years (PY) for 356 MDR-TB cases in Wuhan. Of the 356 cases, 103 patients died, yielding an average case fatality rate of 381.2 per 1000 TB patients per year. Using adjusted Cox regression analysis, older age (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) >3.0 starting from 30 years) and low education level (primary and middle school; aHR 1.67 (95% CI 1.01–2.77)) were independently associated with lower survival. Diabetes mellitus profoundly affected the survival of MDR-TB patients (aHR 1.95 (95% CI 1.30–2.93)). Our data demonstrate that coexistent diabetes significantly and negatively impacted MDR-TB patient survival. In addition, MDR-TB patients aged 60 years or older exhibited a greater risk of mortality during follow-up. Our findings emphasise that MDR-TB patients with comorbidities that increase their risk of death require additional medical interventions to reduce mortality.
A new fast-growing mycobacterium, designated strain QGD101T, was isolated from the sputum of an 84-year-old man suspected of tuberculosis in Wuhan Medical Treatment Center, Hubei, China. This strain was a gram-staining-negative, aerobic, non-spore-forming and catalase-positive bacterium, which was further identified as the NTM by PNB and TCH tests. The moxifloxacin and levofloxacin exhibited strong suppressing function against QGD101T with MIC values of 0.06 and 0.125 µg/ml after drug susceptibility testing of six main antimicrobial agents on mycobacteria. Based on the sequence analysis of 16S rRNA, rpoB, hsp65 and 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer, the strain QGD101T could not be identified to a species level. Mycobacterium moriokaense ATCC43059T that shared the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (98%) with strain QGD101T was actually different in genomes average nucleotide identity (78.74%). In addition, the major cellular fatty acids of QGD101T were determined as C18:1ω9c, C16:0 and C18:2ω6c. The DNA G + C content was 64.9% measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Therefore, the phenotypic and genotypic characterisation of this strain led us to the conclusion that it represents a novel species of mycobacteria, for which the name Mycobacterium hubeiense sp. nov. (type strain QGD101T = CCTCCAA 2017003T = KCTC39927T) was proposed. Thus, the results of this study are very significant for the clinical diagnosis of tuberculosis and future personalised medicine.