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The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of porcine follicular fluid (pFF) from large-sized (LFF; >8 mm in diameter) and medium-sized (MFF; 3–6 mm in diameter) follicles on the maturation and developmental competence of porcine oocytes. Cumulus–oocyte complexes (COCs) were collected from follicles 3–6 mm in diameter. The collected COCs were incubated for 22 h with LFF or MFF (in vitro maturation (IVM)-I stage) and were incubated subsequently for 22 h with LFF or MFF (IVM-II stage). Cumulus expansion was confirmed after the IVM-I stage and nuclear maturation was evaluated after the IVM-II stage. Intracellular glutathione (GSH) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were measured and embryonic development was evaluated. Relative cumulus expansion and GSH levels were higher in the LFF group compared with in the MFF group after the IVM-I stage (P < 0.05). After the IVM-II stage, the numbers of oocytes in metaphase-II were increased in the LFF group and GSH content was higher in all of the LFF treatment groups compared with in the MFF treatment groups during both IVM stages (P < 0.05). ROS levels were reduced by LFF treatment regardless of IVM stage (P < 0.05). Blastocyst formation and the total numbers of cells in blastocysts were increased in all LFF treatment groups compared with the control group (P < 0.05). These results suggested that pFF from large follicles at the IVM stage could improve nucleic and cytoplasmic maturation status and further embryonic development through reducing ROS levels and enhancing responsiveness to gonadotropins.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients were classified into four clinical stages (uncomplicated illness, mild, severe and critical pneumonia) depending on disease severity. We aim to investigate the corresponding clinical, radiological and laboratory characteristics between different clinical stages. A retrospective, single-centre study of 101 confirmed patients with COVID-19 at Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University from 2 January to 28 January 2020 was enrolled; follow-up endpoint was on 8 February 2020. Clinical data were collected and compared during the course of illness. The median age of the 101 patients was 51.0 years and 33.6% were medical staff. Fever (68%), cough (50%) and fatigue (23%) are the most common symptoms. About 26% patients underwent the mechanical ventilation and 98% patients were treated with antibiotics. Thirty-seven per cent patients were cured and 11 died. On admission, the number of patients with uncomplicated illness, mild, severe and critical pneumonia were 2 [2%], 86 [85%], 11 [11%] and 2 [2%]. Forty-four of the 86 mild pneumonia progressed to severe illness within 4 days, with nine patients worsened due to critical pneumonia within 4 days. Two of the 11 severe patients improved to mild condition while three others deteriorated. Significant differences were observed among groups of different clinical stages in numbers of influenced pulmonary segments (6 vs. 12 vs. 17, P < 0.001). A significantly upward trend was witnessed in ground-glass opacities overlapped with striped shadows (33% vs. 42% vs. 55% vs. 80%, P < 0.001), while pure ground-glass opacities gradually decreased as disease progressed (45% vs. 35% vs. 24% vs. 13%, P < 0.001) within 12 days. Lymphocytes, prealbumin and albumin showed a downtrend as disease progressed from mild to severe or critical condition, an uptrend was found in white blood cells, C-reactive protein, neutrophils and lactate dehydrogenase. The proportions of serum amyloid A > 300 mg/l in mild, severe and critical conditions were 18%, 46% and 71%, respectively.
Glyphosate is easily translocated from shoots to roots and released into the rhizosphere. The objective of this study was to clarify the influence of glyphosate residues in the root tissue of glyphosate-treated weeds on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) growth and shikimate accumulation. Foliar application to 5-leaf downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.) planted in sandy loam soil reduced wheat (‘Tubbs 06’) shoot fresh weight by 37% to 46% compared with the control when seeds were planted 0 and 1 d after applications. With Italian ryegrass [Lolium perenne L. ssp. multiflorum (Lam.) Husnot], wheat shoot fresh weight was inhibited by 20% to 34% compared with the control at 0, 1, 3, and 5 d after applications to 1.5- and 5-leaf-stage plants. Using a different wheat cultivar (‘Stephens’), shoot fresh weight was inhibited by 19% to 43% when seeds were planted 0 d after glyphosate applications to 1.5-, 2-, and 5-leaf-stage B. tectorum and L. perenne planted in sandy loam soil compared with control. In contrast, some studies using treated L. perenne and B. tectorum planted in clay loam soil resulted in increases in wheat shoot fresh weight. Lolium perenne planted in water-saturated sandy loam soil showed no differences in either shoot or root fresh weight or shikimate accumulation in shoots or roots. Compared with the control plants, shikimate accumulation in roots increased 51- to 59-fold in wheat planted in sandy loam soil that previously contained B. tectorum and 13- to 49-fold in soil that previously contained L. perenne. In both studies, glyphosate was applied at the 1.5-leaf stage, and wheat seeds were sown 0, 1, and 3 d after glyphosate applications. Thus, plant damage caused by glyphosate was associated with increased shikimate accumulation in the root tissue. Overall, crop damage caused by glyphosate residue to target plants was strongly influenced by soil type, soil water conditions, glyphosate sensitivity, target weed species identity, and weed densities.
Image stitching is important for the perception and manipulation of undersea robots. In spite of a well-developed technique, it is still challenging for undersea images because of their inevitable appearance ambiguity caused by the limited light in the undersea environment, and local disturbance caused by moving objects, ocean current, etc. To get a clean and stable background panorama in the undersea environment, this paper proposes an undersea image-stitching method by introducing graph-based registration and blending procedures. Specifically, in the registration procedure, matching the features in each undersea image pair is formulated and solved by graph matching, to incorporate the structural information between features. In the blending procedure, an energy function on the indirect graph Markov random field is proposed, which takes both image consistency and neighboring consistency into consideration. Coincidentally, both graph matching and energy minimization can be mathematically formulated by integer quadratic programming problems with different constraints; the recently proposed graduated nonconvexity and concavity procedure is used to optimize both problems. Experiments on both synthetic images and real-world undersea images witness the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Novel NiMoO4-integrated electrode materials were successfully prepared by solvothermal method using Na2MoO4·2H2O and NiSO4·6H2O as main raw materials, water, and ethanol as solvents. The morphology, phase, and structure of the as-prepared materials were characterized by SEM, XRD, Raman, and FT-IR. The electrochemical properties of the materials in supercapacitors were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, constant current charge–discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. The effects of volume ratio of water to ethanol (W/E) in solvent on the properties of the product were studied. The results show that the pure phase monoclinic crystal NiMoO4 product can be obtained when the W/E is 2:1. The diameter and length are 0.1–0.3 µm and approximately 3 µm, respectively. As an active material for supercapacitor, the NiMoO4 nanorods material delivered a discharge specific capacitance of 672, 498, and 396 F/g at a current density of 4, 7, and 10 A/g, respectively. The discharge specific capacitance slightly decreased from 815 to 588 F/g with a retention of 72% after 1000 cycles at a current density of 1 A/g. With these superior capacitance properties, the novel NiMoO4 integrated electrode materials could be considered as promising material for supercapacitors.
In a rice (Oryza sativa L.)–wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) rotation system, a study was conducted to determine the effects of different fertilization regimens (no fertilization, replacement of a portion of chemical fertilizer with composted pig manure, chemical fertilizer only, and straw return combined with chemical fertilizer) on the weed communities and wheat yields after 4 and 5 yr. The impact of the long-term recurrent fertilization regimen initiated in 2010 on the composition and diversity of weed communities and the impact of the components and total amount of fertilizer on wheat yields were assessed in 2014 and 2015. Totals of 19 and 16 weed species were identified in experimental wheat fields in 2014 and 2015, respectively, but the occurrence of weed species varied according to the fertilization regimen. American sloughgrass [Beckmannia syzigachne (Steud.) Fernald], water starwort [Myosoton aquaticum (L.) Moench], and lyrate hemistepta (Hemistepta lyrata Bunge.) were adapted to all fertilization treatments and were the dominant weed species in the experimental wheat fields. The greatest number of weed species were observed under the no-fertilization treatment, in which 40% of the weed community was composed of broadleaf weeds and the lowest wheat yields were obtained. With fertilizer application, the number of weed species was reduced, the height of weeds increased significantly, the density of broadleaf weeds was significantly reduced, the biodiversity indices of weed communities decreased significantly, and higher wheat yields were obtained. Only the chemical fertilizer plus composted pig manure treatment and the chemical fertilizer–only treatment increased the density of grassy weeds and the total weed community density. The treatment with chemical fertilizer only also resulted in the highest density of B. syzigachne. Rice straw return combined with chemical fertilizer yielded the lowest total weed density, which suggests that it inhibited occurrence of weeds. The different fertilizer regimens not only affected the weed species composition, distribution, and diversity, but also the weed density. Our study provides new information from a rice–wheat rotation system on the relationship between soil amendments and agricultural weed infestation.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Patients with undiagnosed obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) will often present to an otolaryngologist with symptoms of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Differentiating CRS from OSA may help obviate unnecessary and costly work-up for CRS. This study analyzes symptom profiles of such patients to help identify which require polysomnography. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: This is a three-year retrospective analysis of adult patients seen in an academic practice with a rhinologic chief complaint. The 22-Item Sinonasal Outcomes Test (SNOT-22) survey, which is a validated patient-reported outcome measure widely adopted for CRS featuring a symptom scale of 1 (least severe) to 5 (most severe), was completed by patients with untreated OSA confirmed on polysomnography without CRS (OSA group) and a control group of CRS patients (CRS group). Results were compared using Chi-square test (categorical) and Wilcoxon rank-sum test (continuous) with Bonferroni correction, and multiple logistic regression. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: 43 patients were included in the OSA group [mean apnea-hypopnea index: 27.9 (SD: 21.2)] and 124 patients were included in the CRS group. The CRS group demonstrated significantly higher scores in nasal (p < 0.001), extra-nasal (p < 0.001) and ear/facial symptom domains (p = 0.001) while the OSA group reported higher psychological (p = 0.028) and sleep symptom domain scores (p = 0.052). As for the cardinal symptoms of CRS, nasal discharge and loss of smell were significantly higher in the CRS group (both p < 0.001), whereas facial pain (p = 0.117) and nasal obstruction (p = 0.198) were not significantly different between the two groups. After adjustment, for every 1-point increase in a patient’s score for ear pain, thick nasal discharge and loss of smell or taste, their odds of having CRS increased by a factor of 3.18 [(95% CI 1.61-6.29), p = 0.001], 1.60 [(95% CI 1.22-2.10], p = 0.001] and 1.36 [(95% CI 1.04-1.78), p = 0.025], respectively, compared to having OSA. OSA patients were more likely to choose a sleep-related symptom as a “most important complaint” (MIC) (p < 0.001). Facial pain and nasal obstruction were the most common MIC in the rhinologic domain for OSA patients, whereas thick nasal discharge and post-nasal discharge were the most common MIC for CRS patients. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: For patients presenting with rhinologic symptoms, the SNOT-22 can help identify those with undiagnosed OSA. OSA should be suspected in patients with sleep and psychological dysfunction as their primary complaints without the significant nasal drainage and anosmia that characterizes CRS.
Compared with commercial polyolefin membranes, polyacrylonitrile (PAN) membrane prepared by electrostatic spinning has higher porosity, electrolyte uptake, thermal stability, and lithium-ion conductivity, etc. However, poor mechanical performance has largely limited the application of electrospun PAN separators. In this study, PAN/polyimide (PI) composite membrane is prepared by electrostatic spinning to improve the mechanical and electrochemical performances. Scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis method, and electrochemical methods were used for evaluation of the electrospun composite membrane. The results show that the composite membrane possesses good thermal stability and exhibits better mechanical performance than pristine PAN membrane (increasing by 1.1 times in tension strength). The addition of PI can increase porosity and fluid absorption rate obviously. In addition, the composite membrane has high ionic conductivity (18.77 × 10−4 S/cm), wide electrochemical window (about 4.0 V), and excellent cycling performance. It can retain a discharge specific capacity of 153 mA h/g even after 50 cycles at 0.5 C. The electrospun PAN/PI membrane may be a promising candidate for lithium-ion battery separators.
The trace elements in quartz, Al and Ti, contain considerable information about mineral genesis, and determining their concentrations is of great importance in geology. Electron probe microanalysis has the advantages of non-destructive testing and high spatial resolution; however, it is a challenge to improve the accuracy and precision of trace element detection using this method. The important factors affecting accuracy include the fragility of quartz lattices at high beam currents and the methods used to determine the background. In this paper, the peaks of Al-Kα and Ti-Kα, and their backgrounds, were found to exhibit intensity variations at high beam currents and small beam diameters; therefore, it is necessary to select a large beam diameter (up to 20 µm) to avoid variations in intensity at high currents (500 nA). For background determination of Al, a multipoint background method is proposed to determine the background value, which greatly improves the accuracy of the results. For Ti, the choice of background measurement does not affect the result. In addition, it is verified that the background obtained from other quartz samples can be used as the background of an unknown quartz sample, which reduces the analysis time and minimizes sample damage.
Thank you very much for your interest in our paper (Kawada, 2018). First, the patients in our study were from one single medical center, while Bonanni's study was a nationwide multicenter research project. Therefore, we do not think it is appropriate to compare these two studies directly. Regarding the sample size, each of the three groups were eligible for statistical analysis, and it is of course better to pursue the same issue with bigger sample sizes, especially, for FTD and DLB in future studies.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The incidence of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) has sharply increased in recent decades. Though thyroid resection is the best treatment modality, there is significant variation in practice involving use of prophylactic central lymph node dissection (PCLND) at time of thyroidectomy. Recently, a threshold number for lymph node (LN) yield was determined to assure adequacy of lymphadenectomy in evaluating occult nodal disease via PCLND for pathologic T3, clinical N0, M0 PTC patients, for whom guidelines recommend PCLND. This study assesses the prevalence of adequate prophylactic LN dissection (APLND) and determines its association with patient, and disease characteristics. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Adult patients receiving surgery for pT3 cN0 M0 PTC >1 cm were identified from the National Cancer Data Base, 2004–2015. APLND for pT3 stage was defined as removing 8 or more LNs, based on recent literature. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were employed to determine factors associated with APLND and inadequate prophylactic LN dissection (IPLND). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: In total, 18,755 patients were included: 2905 (10.1%) had APLND; 15,849 (89.9%) had IPLND. Rate of APLND increased from 4.9% to 17.9% over the decade. Patients receiving APLND were younger than those receiving IPLND (47 vs. 52 years, respectively, p<0.001). The proportion of cases found to be LN positive in the APLND group was 64.5%, while that in the IPLND group was 18.2% (p<0.001). After adjustment, Whites were more likely than Blacks to receive APLND [OR 1.86 (95% CI 1.51–2.30), p<0.001]. The adjusted OR of receiving APLND was higher at academic centers [1.76 (1.29–2.41), p<0.001] and at integrated centers [1.77 (1.25–2.51), p<0.001], compared with community facilities. After adjustment, patients with multifocal tumors were more likely to receive APLND than those with unifocal tumors [1.28 (1.17–1.41), p<0.001]. Unplanned 30-day readmission rate was higher in the APLND group (2.4%) compared to the IPLND group (1.7%, p<0.001); this remained significant after adjustment [OR for APLND 1.80 (1.31–2.47), p<0.001]. There was no significant difference in the likelihood of receiving radioactive iodine between patients who underwent APLND Versus IPLND [1.00 (0.90–1.00), p=0.6]. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: APLND is associated with a higher likelihood of finding metastatic LNs, and an increased risk of unplanned short-term readmissions. The rate of APLND has increased over time, but still only a minority of thyroid cancer patients undergo adequate prophylactic surgery. Disparities exist based on patient, facility, and disease characteristics. Further work is needed to study the association between adequacy of dissection and disease recurrence.
Very few recent studies are available that compare caregiver burden, sleep quality, and stress in caregivers of different types of dementia. We aimed to investigate caregiver burden, sleep quality, and stress in caregivers of patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration and dementia with Lewy bodies, as compared with caregivers of patients with Alzheimer's disease.
This study was carried out from March 2011 to January 2014. In total, 492 dyads of patient and caregiver (frontotemporal lobar degeneration, n = 131; dementia with Lewy bodies, n = 36; Alzheimer's disease, n = 325) participated in this study. We compared patients with respect to the Neuropsychiatric Inventory and caregivers with respect to the Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale.
Frontotemporal lobar degeneration and dementia with Lewy bodies patients presented significantly more neuropsychiatric symptoms compared to Alzheimer's disease patients. Caregivers of frontotemporal lobar degeneration and dementia with Lewy bodies patients experienced significantly more burden compared to Alzheimer's disease caregivers. Furthermore, among caregivers of both frontotemporal lobar degeneration and dementia with Lewy bodies patients burden was predicted by the neuropsychiatric symptoms, PHQ-9 scores, and GAD-7 scores.
The frequency and severity of behavioral disturbances in patient and caregiver stress accounted for the increased caregiver burden, which suggests that frontotemporal lobar degeneration and dementia with Lewy bodies caregivers should receive more support than is currently available.
A 336-cm-long sediment core spanning the last 130 ka was recovered from Lake Xingkai on the northeastern margin of the East Asian summer monsoon domain to reveal the linkage between lacustrine depositional processes and environmental changes. Bayesian end member modeling analysis was conducted to partition and interpret the grain-size distributions of Lake Xingkai sediments. Our results suggest that the sedimentary system is characterized by three end members (EMs). EM1 and EM2, with a modal value of 13 and 10 μm, respectively, indicate the variation of local hydraulic conditions. EM3, with a modal value of 5 μm, reflects the background atmospheric dust loading. High atmospheric dust concentration generally occurred during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5d, MIS 4, and early MIS 3, when the climate in the Asian dust source region was cold and dry. In contrast, low dust concentration prevailed during MIS 2, likely due to the southward shift of the westerlies driven by maximum ice volume in the high latitudes.
We first investigate spectral properties of the Neumann–Poincaré (NP) operator for the Lamé system of elasto-statics. We show that the elasto-static NP operator can be symmetrized in the same way as that for the Laplace operator. We then show that even if elasto-static NP operator is not compact even on smooth domains, it is polynomially compact and its spectrum on two-dimensional smooth domains consists of eigenvalues that accumulate to two different points determined by the Lamé constants. We then derive explicitly eigenvalues and eigenfunctions on discs and ellipses. Using these resonances occurring at eigenvalues is considered. We also show on ellipses that cloaking by anomalous localized resonance takes place at accumulation points of eigenvalues.
To investigate the effect of Mn on antioxidant status and on the expressions of heat shock proteins/factors in tissues of laying broiler breeders subjected to heat challenge, we used a completely randomised design (n 6) with a factorial arrangement of 2 environmental temperatures (normal, 21±1°C, and high, 32±1°C)×3 dietary Mn treatments (a Mn-unsupplemented basal diet (CON), or a basal diet supplemented with 120 mg Mn/kg diet, either as inorganic Mn sulphate (iMn) or as organic Mn proteinate (oMn)). There were no interactions (P>0·10) between environmental temperature and dietary Mn in any of the measured indices. High temperature decreased (P<0·003) Mn content, and also tended (P=0·07) to decrease Cu Zn superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) activity in the liver and heart. However, an increased Mn superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity (P<0·05) and a slight increase in malondialdehyde level (P=0·06) were detected in breast muscle. Up-regulated (P<0·05) expressions of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) and HSF3 mRNA and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) mRNA and protein were found in all three tissues. Broiler breeders fed either iMn or oMn had higher tissue Mn content (P<0·0001), heart MnSOD and CuZnSOD activities (P<0·01) and breast muscle MnSOD protein levels (P<0·05), and lower (P<0·05) breast muscle HSP70 mRNA and protein levels compared with those fed CON. Broiler breeders fed oMn had higher (P<0·03) bone Mn content than those fed iMn. These results indicate that high temperature decreases Mn retention and increases HSP70, HSF1 and HSF3 expressions in the tissues of laying broiler breeders. Furthermore, dietary supplementation with Mn in either source may enhance the heart’s antioxidant ability and inhibit the expression of HSP70 in breast muscle. Finally, the organic Mn appears to be more available than inorganic Mn for bone in laying broiler breeders regardless of environmental temperatures.