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The upsurge in the number of people affected by the COVID-19 is likely to lead to increased rates of emotional trauma and mental illnesses. This article systematically reviewed the available data on the benefits of interventions to reduce adverse mental health sequelae of infectious disease outbreaks, and to offer guidance for mental health service responses to infectious disease pandemic. PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, PsycINFO, WHO Global Research Database on infectious disease, and the preprint server medRxiv were searched. Of 4278 reports identified, 32 were included in this review. Most articles of psychological interventions were implemented to address the impact of COVID-19 pandemic, followed by Ebola, SARS, and MERS for multiple vulnerable populations. Increasing mental health literacy of the public is vital to prevent the mental health crisis under the COVID-19 pandemic. Group-based cognitive behavioral therapy, psychological first aid, community-based psychosocial arts program, and other culturally adapted interventions were reported as being effective against the mental health impacts of COVID-19, Ebola, and SARS. Culturally-adapted, cost-effective, and accessible strategies integrated into the public health emergency response and established medical systems at the local and national levels are likely to be an effective option to enhance mental health response capacity for the current and for future infectious disease outbreaks. Tele-mental healthcare services were key central components of stepped care for both infectious disease outbreak management and routine support; however, the usefulness and limitations of remote health delivery should also be recognized.
A scalable battery recycling strategy to recover and regenerate solid electrolytes and cathode materials in spent all solid-state batteries, reducing energy consumption and greenhouse gases.
With the rapidly increasing ubiquity of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), sustainable battery recycling is a matter of growing urgency. The major challenge faced in LIB sustainability lies with the fact that the current LIBs are not designed for recycling, making it difficult to engineer recycling approaches that avoid breaking batteries down into their raw materials. Thus, it is prudent to explore new approaches to both fabricate and recycle next-generation batteries before they enter the market. Here, we developed a sustainable design and scalable recycling strategy for next-generation all solid-state batteries (ASSBs). We use the EverBatt model to analyze the relative energy consumption and environmental impact compared to conventional recycling methods. We demonstrate efficient separation and recovery of spent solid electrolytes and electrodes from a lithium metal ASSB and directly regenerate them into usable formats without damaging their core chemical structure. The recycled materials are then reconstituted to fabricate new batteries, achieving similar performance as pristine ASSBs, completing the cycle. This work demonstrates the first fully recycled ASSB and provides critical design consideration for future sustainable batteries.
The microbiota–gut–brain axis, especially the microbial tryptophan (Trp) biosynthesis and metabolism pathway (MiTBamp), may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, studies on the MiTBamp in MDD are lacking. The aim of the present study was to analyze the gut microbiota composition and the MiTBamp in MDD patients.
We performed shotgun metagenomic sequencing of stool samples from 26 MDD patients and 29 healthy controls (HCs). In addition to the microbiota community and the MiTBamp analyses, we also built a classification based on the Random Forests (RF) and Boruta algorithm to identify the gut microbiota as biomarkers for MDD.
The Bacteroidetes abundance was strongly reduced whereas that of Actinobacteria was significantly increased in the MDD patients compared with the abundance in the HCs. Most noteworthy, the MDD patients had increased levels of Bifidobacterium, which is commonly used as a probiotic. Four Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) orthologies (KOs) (K01817, K11358, K01626, K01667) abundances in the MiTBamp were significantly lower in the MDD group. Furthermore, we found a negative correlation between the K01626 abundance and the HAMD scores in the MDD group. Finally, RF classification at the genus level can achieve an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.890.
The present findings enabled a better understanding of the changes in gut microbiota and the related Trp pathway in MDD. Alterations of the gut microbiota may have the potential as biomarkers for distinguishing MDD patients form HCs.
Disturbances in lipid metabolism are at the core of several health issues facing modern society, including fatty liver and obesity. The sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP-1) is one important transcription factor regulating lipid metabolism, but the relevant mechanism still remains unknown. The present study determined the transcriptional regulation of SREBP-1 and its target genes (including acetyl-CoA carboxylase α (accα), fatty acid synthase (fas) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (scd1)) in a freshwater teleost, grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. We cloned and characterised the 1988 bp, 2043 bp, 1632 bp and 1889 bp sequences of srebp-1, accα, scd1 and fas promoters, respectively. A cluster of putative binding sites of transcription factors, such as specific protein, yin yang 1, nuclear factor Y, sterol response elements (SRE) and enhancer box (E-box) element, were predicted on their promoter regions. Overexpression of nSREBP-1 reduced srebp-1 promoter activity, increased scd1 and fas promoter activity but did not influence accα promoter activity. The site-mutation and electrophoretic mobility shift assay analysis indicated that srebp-1, fas and scd1 promoters, but not accα promoter, possessed SRE. In Ctenopharyngodon idella kidney (CIK) cells of grass carp, nSREBP-1 overexpression significantly reduced srebp-1 mRNA expression and up-regulated miR-29 mRNA expression. The 3′UTR of srebp-1 possessed the potential miR-29 binding site and miR-29 up-regulated the luciferase activity of srebp-1 3′UTR and srebp-1 mRNA expression, implying a self-activating loop of SREBP-1 and miR-29 in grass carp. Based on the above-mentioned results, we found two novel transcriptional mechanisms for SREBP-1 in grass carp: (1) the auto-regulation sited on the SREBP-1 promoter regions was suppressive and (2) there was a self-activating loop of SREBP-1 and miR-29.
Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), characterized by deficits in memory and cognition and by behavioral impairment, is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that influences more than 47 million people worldwide. Currently, no available drug is able to stop AD progression. Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies need to be investigated.
We analyzed the RNA sequencing data (RNA-seq) derived from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database to identify the differentially expressed mRNAs in AD. The AD mouse model Tg2576 was used to verify the effects of IGF-2. The Morris Water Maze was administered to test the role of IGF-2 in memory consolidation. In addition, we quantified cell apoptosis by the TUNEL assay. The levels of amyloid plaques and the levels of Aβ40 and Aβ42 in the hippocampus were also determined by immunohistochemistry and ELISA, respectively.
RNA-seq analysis revealed that IGF-2 was remarkably reduced in AD. The expression of the upstream genes PI3K and AKT and the downstream gene CREB in the PI3K signaling pathway was significantly increased in the hippocampus of Tg2576 mice cells treated with IGF-2. The Morris water maze test showed that IGF-2 improved memory consolidation in Tg2576 mice. The activity of caspase-3 was decreased in Tg2576 mice treated with IGF-2. Amyloid plaques in the hippocampus were reduced, and the levels of Aβ40 and Aβ42 were decreased. The above effects of IGF-2 on AD were blocked when the PI3K signaling pathway inhibitor wortmannin was added.
IGF-2 attenuates memory decline, oxidative stress, cell apoptosis and amyloid plaques in the AD mouse model Tg2576 by activating the PI3K/AKT/CREB signaling pathway.
Monosized spherical Cu–20% Sn (wt%) alloy particles with diameter ranging from 70.6 to 334.0 μm were prepared by the pulsated orifice ejection method (termed “POEM”). Fully dense without pores and bulk inclusions, the cross-sectional micrographs of the spherical alloy particles indicate an even distribution of Cu and Sn. These spherical Cu–Sn alloy particles exhibit a good spherical shape and a narrow size distribution, suggesting that the liquid Cu–Sn alloy can completely break the balance between the surface tension and the liquid static pressure in the crucible micropores and accurately control the volume of the droplets. Furthermore, the cooling rate of spherical Cu–20% Sn alloy particles is estimated by a Newton’s cooling model. The cooling rate of the Cu–20% Sn alloy particle decreases gradually with the particle diameter increasing. Smaller particles have higher cooling rates and when the particle diameter is less than 70 μm, the cooling rate of particles can reach more than 3.3 × 104 K/s. The secondary dendrite arm spacing has strong dependence on particle diameter which increases gradually with the increase of particle diameter. The results demonstrate that POEM is an effective route for fabrication of high-quality monosized Cu–20% Sn alloy particles.
The objective of this study was to explore the clinical effect of the transcatheter closure of congenital perimembranous ventricular septal defect using the Amplatzer duct occluder 2.
Between February 2012 and December 2016, 51 patients were subjected to Amplatzer duct occluder 2 for transcatheter closure of perimembranous ventricular septal defect. A total of 51 patients with perimembranous ventricular septal defect who underwent transcatheter closure by the conventional membranous ventricular septal occluder comprised the control group. The success rate and complications were compared, and indications of Amplatzer duct occluder 2 for perimembranous ventricular septal defect were explored.
The success rate of the interventional procedure was 98.0% (50/51) in the group of Amplatzer duct occluder 2 versus 100% in the group of conventional membranous ventricular septal occluder. The mean age of the patients of Amplatzer duct occluder group was 5.0±3.7 years (range: 1.5–25.0), and the mean weight was 19.3±8.1 kg (range: 11.0–52.0). The mean outlet diameter of the defects was 2.8±0.6 mm (range: 1.8–5.1) as measured by transthoracic echocardiography. The device was implanted by a retrograde approach in 40 patients and antegrade approach in 10 patients. No statistical significance was observed in the incidence of complication and hospitalisation duration between the two groups; however, the Amplatzer duct occluder 2 group was cost-effective (p<0.05) and required less fluoroscopy time (p<0.05). Neither deaths nor new onset of aortic and tricuspid insufficiency occurred during the median 26.2 months (range: 3–65) of follow-up.
Amplatzer duct occluder 2 has advantages of simple manipulation and less medical costs compared with conventional device in transcatheter closure of small type perimembranous ventricular septal defect.
Although many studies worldwide have focused on the relationship between vitamin D and insulin resistance, results remain controversial. Furthermore, concentrations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in the Chinese population are unclear. We aimed to investigate vitamin D status and its correlation with insulin resistance among a Chinese adult population.
Serum 25(OH)D, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, glycated Hb (HbA1c) and other metabolic parameters were assessed. Neck circumference, waist circumference, hip circumference, weight and height were also measured. Lifestyle factors including smoking and drinking status were obtained. Diabetes mellitus was diagnosed by HbA1c according to the 2010 American Diabetes Association criteria.
Of 7200 residents included, 6597 individuals were ultimately analysed.
We enrolled 2813 males (mean age 52·7 (sd 13·5) years) and 3784 females (52·3 (sd 13·5) years); mean serum 25(OH)D concentration was 43·1 (sd 11·6) and 39·6 (sd 9·8) nmol/l, respectively. Additionally, 83·3 % of participants were 25(OH)D deficient. A significant difference in 25(OH)D was observed between males and females in winter and spring (P<0·001). Furthermore, 25(OH)D concentrations were inversely associated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in the overweight and pre-diabetic populations. After adjusting for several variables, 25(OH)D was significantly associated with HOMA-IR in winter. When 25(OH)D values were categorized into quartiles, HOMA-IR was significantly associated with decreasing 25(OH)D.
The majority of the Chinese population was vitamin D deficient and this deficiency was negatively associated with insulin resistance, particularly in the overweight and pre-diabetic populations. Moreover, these associations might be more evident in the winter.
Objectives: Huntington’s disease (HD) is a debilitating genetic disorder characterized by motor, cognitive and psychiatric abnormalities associated with neuropathological decline. HD pathology is the result of an extended chain of CAG (cytosine, adenine, guanine) trinucleotide repetitions in the HTT gene. Clinical diagnosis of HD requires the presence of an otherwise unexplained extrapyramidal movement disorder in a participant at risk for HD. Over the past 15 years, evidence has shown that cognitive, psychiatric, and subtle motor dysfunction is evident decades before traditional motor diagnosis. This study examines the relationships among subcortical brain volumes and measures of emerging disease phenotype in prodromal HD, before clinical diagnosis. Methods: The dataset includes 34 cognitive, motor, psychiatric, and functional variables and five subcortical brain volumes from 984 prodromal HD individuals enrolled in the PREDICT HD study. Using cluster analyses, seven distinct clusters encompassing cognitive, motor, psychiatric, and functional domains were identified. Individual cluster scores were then regressed against the subcortical brain volumetric measurements. Results: Accounting for site and genetic burden (the interaction of age and CAG repeat length) smaller caudate and putamen volumes were related to clusters reflecting motor symptom severity, cognitive control, and verbal learning. Conclusions: Variable reduction of the HD phenotype using cluster analysis revealed biologically related domains of HD and are suitable for future research with this population. Our cognitive control cluster scores show sensitivity to changes in basal ganglia both within and outside the striatum that may not be captured by examining only motor scores. (JINS, 2017, 23, 159–170)
The new Vancouver Chest Pain (VCP) Rule recommends early discharge for chest pain patients who are at low risk of developing acute coronary syndrome (ACS), and thus can be discharged within 2 hours of arrival at the emergency department (ED). This study aimed to assess the performance of the new VCP Rule for Asian patients presenting with chest pain at the ED.
This prospective cohort study involved patients attended to at the ED of a large urban centre. Patients of at least 25 years old, presenting with stable chest pain and a non-diagnostic ECG, and with no history of active coronary artery disease were included in the study. The main outcome measures were cardiac events, angioplasty, or coronary artery bypass within 30 days of enrolment.
The study included 1690 patients from 27 August 2000 to 1 May 2002, with 661 patients fulfilling the VCP criteria. Of those for early discharge, 24 had cardiac events and 13 had angioplasty or bypass at 30 days, compared to 91 and 41, respectively, for those unsuitable for discharge. This gave the rule a sensitivity of 78.1% for cardiac events, including angioplasty and bypass. Specificity was 41.0%, and negative predictive value (NPV) was 94.4%.
We found the new VCP Rule to have moderate sensitivity and poor specificity for adverse cardiac events in our population. With an NPV of less than 100%, this means that a small proportion of patients sent home with early discharge would still have adverse cardiac events.
By introducing a modified F-shaped feeding strip and dual parasitic shorted strips, a small-size wireless wide area network/long-term evolution (WWAN/LTE) printed antenna is proposed and embedded in the 4 G mobile phone with octa-band operation. The operating impedance bandwidths (RL ≥ 6 dB) of 263/1093 MHz can be obtained across the LTE/WWAN bands, respectively. The overall antenna size of the proposed printed monopole antenna (MA) is only 35 × 10 × 0.8 mm3. Meanwhile, this small-size MA provides the measured peak gains and antenna efficiencies of 2.0/3.6 dBi and 80/75% for the LTE/WWAN bands, respectively.
Recent studies have suggested an association between vitamin D and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, some results are subject to debate. This study was carried out to evaluate the correlation between NAFLD and vitamin D in men and women in East China. The data were obtained from a cross-sectional study that focused on the health and metabolic status of adults in sixteen areas of East China. According to ultrasonic assessments, the patients were divided into normal and NAFLD groups. Demographic characteristics and biochemical measurements were obtained. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to explore the association. In total, 5066 subjects were enrolled, and 2193 (43·3 %) were diagnosed with NAFLD; 84·56 % of the subjects showed vitamin D deficiency. Subjects with high vitamin D levels had a lower prevalence of NAFLD, particularly male subjects. Within the highest quartile of vitamin D levels, the prevalence of NAFLD was 40·8 %, whereas the lowest quartile of vitamin D levels showed a prevalence of 62·2 %, which was unchanged in women across the vitamin D levels. Binary logistic analysis showed that decreased vitamin D levels were associated with an increased risk of NAFLD (OR 1·54; 95 % CI 1·26, 1·88). This study suggests that vitamin D levels are significantly associated with NAFLD and that vitamin D acts as an independent factor for NAFLD prevalence, particularly in males in East China. Vitamin D interventional treatment might be a new target for controlling NAFLD; elucidating the mechanism requires further research.
This study develops a Zero-Inflated Negative Binomial (ZINB) regression model to evaluate the factors influencing the loss of human life in shipping accidents using ten years' ship accident data in the South China Sea. The ZINB regression model results show that the expected loss of human life is higher for collision, fire/explosion, contact, grounding, hull damage, machinery damage/failure and capsizing accidents occurring in adverse weather conditions during night periods. Sinking can cause the highest loss of life compared to all other accident types. There are fewer fatalities and missing people when the ship involved in an accident is moored or docked. The results also reveal that the loss of human life is associated with shipping accidents occurring far away from the coastal area/harbour/ports. The results of this study are beneficial for policy-makers in proposing efficient strategies to reduce shipping accident casualties in the South China Sea.
Previous evidence has shown positive associations between post-traumatic
stress disorder (PTSD) and hypertension, dyslipidaemia and diabetes
mellitus, which are all risk factors for stroke, but the role of PTSD in
the subsequent development of stroke is still unknown.
To investigate the temporal association between PTSD and the development
Identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database,
5217 individuals aged 18 years, with PTSD but with no history of stroke,
and 20 868 age- and gender-matched controls were enrolled between 2002
and 2009, and followed up until the end of 2011 to identify the
development of stroke.
Individuals with PTSD had an increased risk of developing any stroke
(hazard ratio (HR) 3.37, 95% CI 2.44–4.67) and ischaemic stroke (HR =
3.47, 95% CI 2.23–5.39) after adjusting for demographic data and medical
comorbidities. Sensitivity tests showed consistent findings (any stroke
HR = 3.02, 95% CI 2.13–4.28; ischaemic stroke HR = 2.89, 95% CI
1.79–4.66) after excluding the first year of observation.
Individuals with PTSD have an increased risk of developing any stroke and
ischaemic stroke. Further studies are required to investigate the
We investigated the boron isotopic composition in loess–paleosol sequences in five different profiles in the Chinese Loess Plateau. Three possible boron sources are identified: atmospheric input, carbonates, and weathered silicate rocks. Variations of [Sr], [B], δ11B and the magnetic susceptibility correlate well with the pedogenetic intensity in three out of the five studied profiles, where pedogenesis under a cold–dry climate indicates lower δ11B, lower [B], lower magnetic susceptibility and higher [Sr] values. Exceptions to the variations between the δ11B and other known proxies were observed in arenaceous soils and the Red Clay sequence: the former suggested that vertical redistribution probably occurred with the boron migration, and the latter indicated an unknown mechanism of susceptibility enhancement. A better correlation between the δ11B and magnetic susceptibility and the quantitative estimation of boron budget from each source confirms the influence of paleoenvironmental changes on boron geochemical cycle. Significant positive correlations in Sr/Ca vs. B/Ca and Mg/Ca vs. B/Ca reflect consistent enrichment behavior of those mobile elements into calcium carbonate. The preliminary results imply that boron isotopic compositions in soils can be a potential geochemical proxy to reconstruct the paleoenvironmental changes in loess–paleosol sequences.
The three tropical species Gomphandra luzoniensis, Nothapodytes nimmoniana and Goniothalamus amuyon contain important cancer-fighting drugs; however, little is known about how to propagate these species from seeds. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the germination requirements of seeds of each of these three species in order to provide an effective protocol to produce plants. Fresh seeds of G. luzoniensis germinated up to 73% at high temperatures in light in 4 weeks, and embryos were underdeveloped. Most seeds had morphological dormancy (MD), but a proportion of them had morphophysiological dormancy (MPD). Fresh seeds of N. nimmoniana germinated up to 50% in light in 4 weeks, embryo length increased by 17% before radicle emergence and ≥ 89% of the seeds had germinated after incubation for 6 weeks in light at high temperatures. Thus, about 50% of the seeds have MD and about 50% MPD. Fresh seeds of G. amuyon incubated at 30°C in light for 4 weeks germinated to 69%, whereas at the other incubation temperatures germination took longer than 4 weeks. Embryo length increased 213% before radicle emergence, and after 8 weeks of incubation at high temperatures ≥ 80% of the seeds had germinated. As in the other two species, the seed population consisted of a mixture of MD and MPD. Incubation of seeds of these three species at high temperatures (e.g. 25, 30 and 30/20°C) for up to 2 months is recommended for germination and thus seedling production.
This paper presents two uniformly convergent numerical schemes for the two dimensional steady state discrete ordinates transport equation in the diffusive regime, which is valid up to the boundary and interface layers. A five-point node-centered and a four-point cell-centered tailored finite point schemes (TFPS) are introduced. The schemes first approximate the scattering coefficients and sources by piecewise constant functions and then use special solutions to the constant coefficient equation as local basis functions to formulate a discrete linear system. Numerically, both methods can not only capture the diffusion limit, but also exhibit uniform convergence in the diffusive regime, even with boundary layers. Numerical results show that the five-point scheme has first-order accuracy and the four-point scheme has second-order accuracy, uniformly with respect to the mean free path. Therefore a relatively coarse grid can be used to capture the two dimensional boundary and interface layers.
The studies of differences in life history and suitability of both water temperatures and trophic levels among rotifer sibling species improve our understanding of speciation, sibling species coexistence and possible niche differentiation over space and time, and consequences for the functioning of ecosystems induced by climate change and eutrophication. We collected Brachionus calyciflorus from Lake Baixiang and Lake Kongque, two tropical shallow lakes, in Xishuangbanna city, Yunnan, China, clonally cultured them in laboratory, and found that the B. calyciflorus complex contains two sibling species named sibling species BNA13 and BNB3 by phylogenetic analysis, and investigated the life-table parameters of the two sibling species BNA13 and BNB3 at four temperatures (16, 20, 24 and 28°C) and four algal densities (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0×106 cells.mL−1). The results showed that the responses to increasing temperature and algal density for each of the life-table parameters differed with rotifer sibling species. Sibling species, temperature, algal density and their interactions almost all significantly affected the durations of juvenile period, embryonic development, reproductive period, post-reproductive period, mean lifespan, net reproductive rate, generation time and intrinsic rate of population growth. Sibling species significantly affected the age-specific survivorship. Temperature, algal density and their interaction and the interaction of sibling species and temperature significantly affected the age-specific fecundity. Regardless of the effects of temperature and algal density, the durations of juvenile period, embryonic development, reproductive period, post-reproductive period and mean lifespan, age-specific survivorship, net reproductive rate and generation time of the B. calyciflorus sibling species BNA13 were greater than those of BNB3, but the intrinsic rate of population growth of BNA13 was lower than those of BNB3. This suggests that the two B. calyciflorus sibling species adopted variable life history strategies, low population growth and high survivorship for sibling species BNA13, and high population growth and low survivorship for sibling species BNB3. Both the intrinsic rates of population growth of BNA13 and BNB3 were the highest at 28°C and 4.0×106 cells.mL−1 algal density, indicating that some adaptations of the B. calyciflorus sibling species BNA13 and BNB3 in tropical shallow lakes to water temperatures and trophic levels were similar, and they have the potential for coexistence in single waterbody of higher temperature and higher trophic level.
The rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus often occurs simultaneously with the cladoceran Moina macrocopa in tropical water bodies. We studied the effects of temperature (20, 25 and 30°C) and algal density (0.5, 1.0 and 3.0×106 cells.mL−1Scenedesmus obliquus) on the outcome of competition and duration of coexistence between B. calyciflorus and M. macrocopa using population growth experiments. The results showed that regardless of temperature, M. macrocopa outcompeted B. calyciflorus at the lowest algal density (0.5×106 cells.mL−1), whereas B. calyciflorus outcompeted M. macrocopa at the higher algal densities (1.0 and 3.0×106 cells.mL−1). The duration of coexistence shortened with increasing temperature when M. macrocopa outcompeted B. calyciflorus, and those with increasing temperature and algal density when B. calyciflorus outcompeted M. macrocopa. Our results suggested that the competitive outcome between the rotifer B. calyciflorus and the cladoceran M. macrocopa was dependent on algal density but not temperature, the duration of coexistence between them was dependent on algal density and temperature, and the exploitative competition of M. macrocopa over B. calyciflorus may be more important than the interference competition.