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Toxigenic Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) carriers represent an important source in the transmission of C. difficile infection (CDI) during hospitalisation, but its prevalence and mode in patients with hepatic cirrhosis are not well established. We investigated longitudinal changes in carriage rates and strain types of toxigenic C. difficile from admission to discharge among hepatic cirrhosis patients. Toxigenic C. difficile was detected in 104 (19.8%) of 526 hepatic cirrhosis patients on admission, and the carriage status changed in a portion of patients during hospitalisation. Approximately 56% (58/104) of patients lost the colonisation during their hospital stay. Among the remaining 48 patients who remained positive for toxigenic C. difficile, the numbers of patients who were positive at one, two, three and four isolations were 10 (55.6%), three (16.7%), two (11.1%) and three (16.7%), respectively. Twenty-eight patients retained a particular monophyletic strain at multiple isolations. The genotype most frequently identified was the same as that frequently identified in symptomatic CDI patients. A total of 25% (26/104) of patients were diagnosed with CDI during their hospital stay. Conclusions: Colonisation with toxigenic C. difficile strains occurs frequently in cirrhosis patients and is a risk factor for CDI.
This study aims to investigate the prevalence and genotype distribution of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among men with different sexual orientations with or without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in China. A cross-sectional study was conducted during 2016–2017 in Taizhou City, Zhejiang Province. Convenient sampling was used to recruit male participants from HIV voluntary counselling and testing clinics and Center for Disease Control and Prevention. A face-to-face questionnaire interview was administered and an anal-canal swab was collected for HPV genotyping. A total of 160 HIV-positive and 113 HIV-negative men participated in the study. The prevalence of any type HPV was 30.6% for heterosexual men, 74.1% for homosexual and 63.6% for bisexual men among HIV-positive participants, while the prevalence was 8.3%, 29.2% and 23.8% respectively among HIV-negatives. The most prevalent genotypes were HPV-58 (16.9%), HPV-6 (15.6%) and HPV-11 (15.0%) among HIV-positive men, and were HPV-16 (4.4%), HPV-52 (4.4%) and HPV-6 (3.5%) among HIV-negative men. Having ever had haemorrhoids and having ever seen blood on tissue after defaecation was associated with HPV infection. One-fourth of the HPV infections in this study population can be covered by the quadrivalent vaccine in market. The highly prevalent anal HPV infection among men especially HIV-infected men calls for close observation and further investigation for anal cancer prevention.
Conventional underwater navigation and positioning methods for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) either require the installation of acoustic arrays, which make AUVs less independent, or result in cumulative errors. This paper proposes an Underwater Terrain Positioning Method (UTPM) using Maximum a Posteriori (MAP) estimation and a Pulse Coupled Neural Network (PCNN) model for highly accurate navigation by AUVs. The PCNN model is used as a secondary discriminant to effectively identify pseudo-anchor points in flat terrain feature areas and to find the true positioning point, which significantly improves the matching positioning accuracy in these areas. Simulation results show that the proposed method effectively corrects Inertial Navigation System (INS) cumulative errors and has high matching positioning accuracy, which satisfy the requirements of AUV underwater navigation and positioning.
The margination and adhesion of micro-particles (MPs) have been extensively investigated separately, due to their important applications in the biomedical field. However, the cascade process from margination to adhesion should play an important role in the transport of MPs in blood flow. To the best of our knowledge, this has not been explored in the past. Here we numerically study the margination behaviour of elastic MPs to blood vessel walls under the interplay of their deformability and adhesion to the vessel wall. We use the lattice Boltzmann method and molecular dynamics to solve the fluid dynamics and particle dynamics (including red blood cells (RBCs) and elastic MPs) in blood flow, respectively. Additionally, a stochastic ligand–receptor binding model is employed to capture the adhesion behaviours of elastic MPs on the vessel wall. Margination probability is used to quantify the localization of elastic MPs at the wall. Two dimensionless numbers are considered to govern the whole process: the capillary number
, denoting the ratio of viscous force of fluid flow to elastic interfacial force of MP, and the adhesion number
, representing the ratio of adhesion strength to viscous force of fluid flow. We systematically vary them numerically and a margination probability contour is obtained. We find that there exist two optimal regimes favouring high margination probability on the plane
. The first regime, namely region I, is that with high adhesion strength and moderate particle stiffness; the other one, region II, has moderate adhesion strength and large particle stiffness. We conclude that the existence of optimal regimes is governed by the interplay of particle deformability and adhesion strength. The corresponding underlying mechanism is also discussed in detail. There are three major factors that contribute to the localization of MPs: (i) near-wall hydrodynamic collision between RBCs and MPs; (ii) deformation-induced migration due to the presence of the wall; and (iii) adhesive interaction between MPs and the wall. Mechanisms (i) and (iii) promote margination, while (ii) hampers margination. These three factors perform different roles and compete against each other when MPs are located in different regions of the flow channel, i.e. near-wall region. In optimal region I, adhesion outperforms deformation-induced migration; and in region II, the deformation-induced migration is small compared to the coupling of near-wall hydrodynamic collision and adhesion. The finding of optimal regimes can help the understanding of localization of elastic MPs at the wall under the adhesion effect in blood flow. More importantly, our results suggest that softer MP or stronger adhesion is not always the best choice for the localization of MPs.
Given the global water challenges, solar-driven steam generation has become a renewed topic recently as an energy-efficient way for clean water production. Here, a hybrid plasmonic structure consisting of a top layer of TiN nanoparticles (NPs) and a bottom layer of mesoporous anodized alumina membrane (AAM) was rationally designed and fabricated. The top TiN NPs with broadband light absorption acted as a plasmonic heating layer, which converted the absorbed light to heat efficiently for interfacial water heating. The AAM acted as the mechanical support layer, guaranteeing the heat isolation and continuous water replenishment. With optimized thickness of the TiN top layer, a solar steam generation efficiency of 87.7% was achieved in this study. This efficiency is comparable or even higher than prior studies. The current work proves the capability of the TiN NPs as an alternative photothermal material.
Detailed knowledge of dissociation behavior and dissociation products is necessary to understand the stability, sensitivity, and the reactive mechanism of explosives under laser initiation. A time-of-flight mass spectrometer was utilized to detect the transient products of 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethylene (FOX-7) produced under 532 nm pulse laser ablation, the possible attribution of intermediate ion fragments were confirmed. The laser fluence threshold for detectable fragments is about 3.6 J/cm2. The peak intensities of main ions (CN, CNO/C2H4N, NO2, C2N2O, HCN, C2NH2, etc.) increase with the increasing of laser fluence, and reach the maximum at 11.5 J/cm2. Moreover, time-depend changes of ion intensity indicate that the type and degree of reactions are different in different periods. According to the molecular structure of FOX-7 and the intermediate ions, the laser-induced dissociation mechanisms were proposed to illustrate the cause of the fragments which might throw some light on the laser initiation of FOX-7.
The Chinese Great Famine caused widespread starvation in 1959–1961. Its long-term association with depressive symptoms has not been studied.
To estimate the burden of depressive symptoms and the association of famine exposure with depressive symptoms.
The China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study is a nationwide representative survey of 17 708 Chinese adults aged ≥45. Propensity score matching and modified Poisson regression were used to evaluate the association between self-reported famine exposure in early life and depressive symptoms among the overall participants. Such associations were also assessed by developmental stage using modified Poisson regression and logistic regression.
The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 26.2% (95% CI 25.1–27.3%) in 2011. As defined by loss of family members because of starvation, 11.6% (95% CI 10.1–13.1%) of this population experienced severe famine. When compared with participants who did not experience starvation, those who had experienced severe famine during fetal, mid-childhood, young-teenage and early-adulthood stages had 1.87 (95% CI 1.36–2.55), 1.54 (95% CI 1.23–1.94), 1.47 (95% CI 1.09–2.00) and 1.77 (95% CI 1.42–2.21) times higher odds of having depressive symptoms in late adulthood, respectively. The first two trimesters of pregnancy were a critical time window during the fetal stage when severe famine had a stronger association with depressive symptoms. Famine during infant, toddler, preschool or teenage stages was not associated with depressive symptoms. Overall, famine contributed to 13.6% of the depressive symptom burden in this population.
The Chinese Great Famine contributed substantially to the burden of depressive symptoms in China.
This study investigated concerns regarding the extensive use of hospitals by older people and subsequent long wait lists. We analysed complete individual-anonymous, 2014–2015 inpatient hospital data for all Canadian provinces and territories (except Quebec). People aged 65 and older accounted for 37.0 per cent of all hospital episodes and 41.5 per cent of all admissions to intensive or coronary care units. Similarly, of all admitted individuals, 32.8 per cent were older. The data also revealed only 14.3 per cent of older Canadians living outside of Quebec were admitted to hospital one or more times that year. This study indicates that issues other than hospital use by older people should be addressed in Canada for improved hospital accessibility. Improved care of older persons is also indicated, as their higher risk of hospital admission, longer hospital stays, and dying in hospital could be from a lack of age-informed hospital and community services.
Three types of multilayer flyer energy conversion elements (MFECEs) through integrating different laser pulse absorption/ablation layer of nano-film materials into a laser-driven flyer plates between thermal barrier of alumina and transparent substrate have been investigated in this study. The relationships among the velocity of flyer plates, initiation performance of hexanitrostilbene (HNS-IV), and initiation energy were analyzed, comparing with single-layer Al flyer plate. The photonics Doppler velocimetry and James criterion were utilized in the experiments to characterize the velocity of flyer plates and shock initiation of laser-driven flyer detonator, respectively. The surface reflectivity measurements of the Al, C/Al and Mg/Al layers were performed using laser reflectivity. HNS-IV without initiation was analyzed by scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectrometer. Caused by aluminum/alumina/aluminum (Al/Al2O3/Al) flyer plate, the residual fragments were found in the pit on the surface of charge. The results obtained were shows that three types of multilayer flyer plates can initiate HNS-IV successfully under the lower laser pulse energy, although all four kinds of flyer plates have successfully initiated HNS-IV with laser pulse energy in the range of 53.80–166.80 mJ. Changing the ablation layer structure and adding thermal insulation layer to the multilayer flyer plates, reduces the shock initiation laser pulse energy of HNS-IV to 53.80 mJ. The laser-driven flyer detonator has significant advantages in providing safety and reliability, especially in a strong electromagnetic environment. The MFECEs of laser-driven flyer detonator exhibited a high level of integration and proved to have promoted laser-driven energy coupling rate, which can significantly be used to improve the performance of the laser-driven flyer detonator in military and civilian applications.
Oxygen is known to have a significant impact on the strength of Ti alloys, whereas it can also reduce the ductility substantially. Thus, the usage of oxygen to strengthen Ti is restricted in the industry. In this study, we rekindled the research of oxygen behavior in Ti with the purpose of developing Ti alloys with high strength and suitable ductility by using no expensive and poisonous element. To this end, experiments of producing high performance commercially pure Ti using only oxygen solid solution were carried out. The oxygen element was introduced into the Ti by two different powder metallurgy methods. The microstructural examination and mechanical test were performed for the samples, which indicated a strong hardening effect of oxygen in spite of the processing routes. Most importantly, the results suggested that a high elongation to failure of over 20% can still be obtained in the samples having yield stress over 800 MPa, up to an oxygen content of 0.8 wt%, which is far beyond the previously recognized limit.
An experimental investigation into laser ablation of secondary explosives, cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX), has been carried out by using a solid-state laser at the wavelength of 1064 nm. The ion particles of decomposition were detected by using a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Possible attributions of both negative ions and positive ions were obtained. Some obvious peaks were found at m/z = 18, 28, 46, 60, and 106, corresponding to H2O, CO/N2/H2CN, NO2, CH2NO2/N2O2, and N(NO2)2/CH2(NO2)2, respectively. According to the distribution of the particles, three possible pathways were proposed to explain the process of particles. The results may shed some light on the possible decomposition mechanism of HMX under laser initiation.
As a kind of flash heat source, intense pulsed ion beam (IPIB) can be used for material surface modification. The ablation effect has important influence on interaction between IPIB and material. Therefore, the understanding of ablation mechanism is of great significance to IPIB application. In this work, pure zinc targets were irradiated and ablated by IPIB. In the ablation process under the different ion beam energy densities, the ablation products were collected by a monocrystalline silicon substrate. By analyzing the ablation products with scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive spectrometer, the surface morphology, and the spatial distribution of ablation products quantity were obtained. The results are useful for clearing the ablation process and the influence of beam parameter on the ablation effect.
Measurement bias and lack of terrain features often cause false peaks during underwater terrain matching positioning, that is, there is more than one peak near the real position. Previous methods to address this problem have increased the number of measurement beams, but this also increases the data processing time and energy consumption. At the same time, the ratio of measured information that is used does not increase. In other words, we should increase the ratio of measured information that is used, not simply increase the amount of information that is measured. Conventional matching algorithms only use the height of nodes without considering surface information, which is composed of height and the position of multiple nodes in three-dimensional space. Multi-beam sonar can obtain the three-dimensional distribution of terrain nodes. This node information is not just a height sequence, as it is used in previous methods. If we consider the nodes as a three-dimensional distribution of points with height and position information, this increases the matching position information and more of the terrain features can be extracted from the same measured data. Hence, in this paper, a terrain positioning method called the Node Multi-information Fusion (NMIF) is presented. This method focuses on improving the stability and accuracy degraded by bias in the Digital Elevation Map (DEM), terrain repeatability, and other factors. First, the concept of a Single Node Data Packet (SNDP) is introduced. The SNDP includes elevation and surface information surrounding the node, such as roughness, gradient, and slope. This additional topographic feature information improves the robustness and accuracy of the system. A computer simulation using actual ocean bottom topography verifies the advantages of the proposed NMIF algorithm.
We present results of a regional comparative study of surface mass changes from 2004 to 2008 based on Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), The Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) and CHINARE observations over the Lambert Glacier/Amery Ice Shelf system (LAS). Estimation of the ICESat mass change rates benefitted from the density measurements along the CHINARE traverse and a spatial density adjustment method for reducing the effect of spatial density variations. In the high-elevation inland region, a positive trend was estimated from both ICESat and GRACE data, which is in line with the CHINARE accumulation measurements. In the coastal region, there were areas with high level accumulations in both ICESat and GRACE trend maps. In many high flow-speed glacier areas, negative mass change rates may be caused by dynamic ice flow discharges that have surpassed the snow accumulation. Overall, the mass change rate estimate in the LAS of 2004–2008 from the GRACE, ICESat and CHINARE data is 5.41 ± 4.59 Gt a−1, indicating a balanced to slightly positive mass trend. Along with other published results, this suggests that a longer-term positive mass trend in the LAS may have slowed in recent years.
Environmental filtering and competitive interactions are important ecological processes in community assembly. The contribution of the two processes to community assembly can be evaluated by shifts in functional diversity patterns. We examined the correlations between functional diversity of six traits (leaf chlorophyll concentration, dry matter content, size, specific leaf area, thickness and wood density) and environmental gradients (topography and soil) for 92 species in the 20-ha Dinghushan forest plot in China. A partial Mantel test showed that most of the community-weighted mean trait values changed with terrain convexity and soil fertility, which implied that environmental filtering was occurring. Functional diversity of many traits significantly increased with increasing terrain convexity and soil fertility, which was associated with increased light and below-ground resources respectively. These results suggest that co-occurring species are functionally convergent in regions of strong abiotic stress under the environmental filtering, but functionally divergent in more benign environments due to resource partitioning and competitive interactions. Single-trait diversity and multivariate functional diversity had different relationships with environmental factors, indicating that traits were related to different niche axes, and associated with different ecological processes, which demonstrated the importance of focusing niche axes in traits selection. Between 9% and 41% of variation in functional diversity of different traits was explained by environmental factors in stepwise multiple regression models. Terrain convexity and soil fertility were the best predictors of functional diversity, which contributed 30.5% and 29.0% of total R2 to the model. These provided essential evidence that different environmental factors had distinguishing impacts on regulating diversity of traits.
This paper investigates properties of the percentile residual life (PRL) function for a single component and for a k-out-of-n system. The shape of the component PRL function can be determined by the component failure rate function. The intimate relations between these two functions are studied first. Then we generalize the results to a k-out-of-n system by assuming independent and identical components. We show that the behavior of the PRL for a k-out-of-n system is quite different from the component PRL. We also find that for series and parallel systems, the location of the change point of the PRL is monotone in the number of components in a system.
The electrical explosion characteristics of Schottky diode for one-shot switch applications were acquired by analysis of photographs of high speed camera and current-voltage histories. Four types of connections among Schottky diode, top electrode and discharge capacitor were studied. Results show that type B has the longest time (1.4 ms) of optical radiation and highest energy consumption, which makes it easier to turn on the switch. The charge flux of plasma was determined to be 24.5 Q/(s m2) by parallel electrode plates method. Atomic emission spectroscopic measurements were devoted to determine plasma temperature and density during electrical explosion. Results show that temperature is between 4000 K and 5000 K, and density is about 1024 m−3. The one-shot switch based on ceramics has been fabricated and characterized and the results show that the peak current and the rise time are about 963.77 A and 381.6 ns, respectively.
Reduced graphene oxide–nickel ferrite (RGO–NiFe2O4) has been successfully synthesized by the hydrothermal method in the presence of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA). PDDA is used both as a reducing agent and as a stabilizer. The prepared RGO–NiFe2O4 nanocomposites have been thoroughly characterized by spectroscopic (Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction) and thermogravimetric analysis. Microscopy techniques (scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy) were used to probe the morphological structures as well as to investigate the exfoliation of RGO sheets. It is interesting to find that RGO–NiFe2O4 nanocomposites exhibited much better electrochemical capability than NiFe2O4. In addition, the as-prepared RGO–NiFe2O4 nanocomposites can effectively remove methyl orange from water under ultraviolet light irradiation, which can be used as novel photocatalysts for environmental protection.
This study investigated the expression and functional effects, and related molecular mechanisms, of microRNA-519a in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.
MicroRNA-519a and HuR messenger RNA in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma were measured using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. MicroRNA-519a effects on the growth of human epithelial type 2 cells were tested using an MTT assay. The influence of microRNA-519a on the expression levels of HuR and other related genes in protein was tested by Western blotting. Cell cycle analyses were performed using flow cytometry. Associations between expression levels and patients' clinical parameters were analysed with Pearson correlation analysis.
Expression of microRNA-519a in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma tissues was significantly lower than in adjacent non-cancerous tissues. The expression of microRNA-519a was negatively associated with histological differentiation, tumour–node–metastasis stage, lymphatic metastasis and disease-free survival time. After increasing the level of microRNA-519a in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma human epithelial type 2 cells, cell growth was inhibited and cell cycle was arrested in the G2/M phase. MicroRNA-519a down-regulated HuR gene expression in protein levels without affecting messenger RNA levels.
MicroRNA-519a may function as a tumour suppressor by inhibiting HuR expression, and may serve as a therapeutic target for laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.
Al/MoOx nanoenergetic multilayer films (nEMFs) were deposited by magnetron deposition method. The samples with bilayer thicknesses of 75 nm and 225 nm were prepared, respectively, and the total thickness is 3 μm. The as-deposited Al/MoOx nEMFs were characterized with varied analytical techniques, including SEM, XRD, XPS and DSC. Results show that the MoOx films are amorphous, and are composed of MoO3, Mo2O5 and MoO2. The values of heat release in samples are 3524 J/g and 2508 J/g, respectively, and the final products are Mo, MoO2, and Al2O3. Finally, the reaction paths and reaction kinetics of Al/MoOx exothermic reactions were discussed.