To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Anatase phase NOx/S6+–TiO2 (x= 0, 1) film with high solar-driven activity has been successfully prepared via electro-assisted oxidation processes. The morphological and structural properties of the film were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction, while the optical property was detected by UV-vis-NIR absorption spectroscopy. The results showed that the NOx/S6+–TiO2 film was composed of “flower-like” microvoids structure and displayed broad and strong optical absorption at around 544 and 1500 nm. Transient photocurrent response, photoluminescence spectroscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy indicated that the generation and separation of photogenerated charges were significantly enhanced under simulated solar irradiation. The NOx/S6+–TiO2 film exhibited excellent photoelectrocatalytic activity for the degradation of methyl orange (MO), and the decoloration rate and TOC removal respectively reached 98.97 and 59.44% at 20 min under solar irradiation. The film still had good stability after reusing ten times. Furthermore, a possible mechanism of photoelectrocatalysis was suggested in MO degradation by using NOx/S6+–TiO2 film.
Whether borderline personality disorder (BPD) and bipolar disorder are the same or different disorders lacks consistency.
To detect whether grey matter volume (GMV) and grey matter density (GMD) alterations show any similarities or differences between BPD and bipolar disorder.
Web-based publication databases were searched to conduct a meta-analysis of all voxel-based studies that compared BPD or bipolar disorder with healthy controls. We included 13 BPD studies (395 patients with BPD and 415 healthy controls) and 47 bipolar disorder studies (2111 patients with bipolar disorder and 3261 healthy controls). Peak coordinates from clusters with significant group differences were extracted. Effect-size signed differential mapping meta-analysis was performed to analyse peak coordinates of clusters and thresholds (P < 0.005, uncorrected). Conjunction analyses identified regions in which disorders showed common patterns of volumetric alteration. Correlation analyses were also performed.
Patients with BPD showed decreased GMV and GMD in the bilateral medial prefrontal cortex network (mPFC), bilateral amygdala and right parahippocampal gyrus; patients with bipolar disorder showed decreased GMV and GMD in the bilateral medial orbital frontal cortex (mOFC), right insula and right thalamus, and increased GMV and GMD in the right putamen. Multi-modal analysis indicated smaller volumes in both disorders in clusters in the right medial orbital frontal cortex. Decreased bilateral mPFC in BPD was partly mediated by patient age. Increased GMV and GMD of the right putamen was positively correlated with Young Mania Rating Scale scores in bipolar disorder.
Our results show different patterns of GMV and GMD alteration and do not support the hypothesis that bipolar disorder and BPD are on the same affective spectrum.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a leading cause of disability worldwide and influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. Genetic studies of MDD have focused on common variants and have been constrained by the heterogeneity of clinical symptoms.
We sequenced the exome of 77 cases and 245 controls of Han Chinese ancestry and scanned their brain. Burden tests of rare variants were performed first to explore the association between genes/pathways and MDD. Secondly, parallel Independent Component Analysis was conducted to investigate genetic underpinnings of gray matter volume (GMV) changes of MDD.
Two genes (CSMD1, p = 5.32×10−6; CNTNAP5, p = 1.32×10−6) and one pathway (Neuroactive Ligand Receptor Interactive, p = 1.29×10−5) achieved significance in burden test. In addition, we identified one pair of imaging-genetic components of significant correlation (r = 0.38, p = 9.92×10−6). The imaging component reflected decreased GMV in cases and correlated with intelligence quotient (IQ). IQ mediated the effects of GMV on MDD. The genetic component enriched in two gene sets, namely Singling by G-protein coupled receptors [false discovery rate (FDR) q = 3.23×10−4) and Alzheimer Disease Up (FDR q = 6.12×10−4).
Both rare variants analysis and imaging–genetic analysis found evidence corresponding with the neuroinflammation and synaptic plasticity hypotheses of MDD. The mediation of IQ indicates that genetic component may act on MDD through GMV alteration and cognitive impairment.
This paper first investigates the influencing factors of between-receiver Differential Inter-System Bias (DISB) between overlapping frequencies of the Global Positioning System (GPS), Galileo and the Quasi-Zenith Satellite System (QZSS). It was found that the receiver reboot and the type of observations may have an impact on DISBs. The impact of receiver firmware upgrades and the activation of anti-multipath filters are also investigated and some new results are presented. Then a performance evaluation is presented of tightly combined relative positioning for a short baseline with GPS/Galileo/QZSS L1-E1-L1/L5-E5a-L5 observations with the current constellations, in which the recently launched Galileo and QZSS satellites will also be included. It is demonstrated that when DISBs are a priori calibrated and corrected, the tightly combined model can deliver a much higher empirical ambiguity resolution success rate and positioning accuracy with respect to the classical loosely combined model, especially under environments where the observed satellites for each system are limited and only single-frequency observations are available. The ambiguity dilution of precision, bootstrapping success rate, and ratio values are analysed to illustrate the benefits of the tightly combined model as well.
Health care workers performing rescue tasks in large-scale disaster areas are usually challenged in terms of physical and mental endurance, which can affect their lifestyles. Nevertheless, data on whether health care workers tend to adopt healthy lifestyles after disasters are limited. This paper compares the adoption of healthy lifestyle behaviors among health care workers with that among non–health care workers in a postdisaster area.
This cross-sectional observational study was conducted in August 2016. The Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II questionnaire was used to interview 261 health care workers and 848 non–health care workers.
Results of the multivariable linear models showed that health care workers had lower physical activity levels (ß=−1.363, P<.0001), worse stress management (ß=−1.282, P<.0001), slower spiritual growth (ß=−1.228, P=.002), and poorer interpersonal relationships (ß=−0.814, P=.019) than non–health care workers. However, no significant differences were found in either nutrition (ß=−0.362, P=.319) or health responsibility (ß=−0.421, P=.283).
Health care workers had less healthy lifestyle behaviors, including physical activity, stress management, spiritual growth, and interpersonal relationships. Further studies are needed to develop health-improving interventions for health care workers in postdisaster areas. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:230–235)
Paragonimiasis is an important infectious disease in Chongqing, China. However, no epidemiological surveys of paragonimiasis have been carried out in Chongqing since it became a municipality in 1997. We conducted a retrospective case review of 683 patients who were referred to our laboratory and diagnosed as having paragonimiasis during 2010–2015. Patients were diagnosed with paragonimiasis based on immunodiagnostic tests in addition to clinical and laboratory findings. Patient data extracted from the epidemiologic form were analysed. The majority of patients were distributed on the east side of the Wujiang River, which belongs to the Three Gorges Reservoir region. Consumption of raw or undercooked freshwater crab or crayfish in the family Cambaridae was the main reason for infection. Notably, more than 50·0% of patients were diagnosed between March and July, indicating that serious clinical symptoms only appear approximately 6 months post-infection. Paragonimiasis remains a public health issue in Chongqing, and an epidemiological study of Paragonimus in the Three Gorges region is strongly recommended.
In precise relative positioning applications, an effective approach to improve the interoperability of GNSS systems is the tightly combining or inter-system double-differencing of observations from the common frequencies that are shared by different constellations. As the BeiDou satellites are currently transmitting a B2 signal at 1207.14 MHz that is identical to the Galileo E5b signal, the inter-system double-differenced observations can also be created between observations from both systems at that particular frequency. In this paper, we will focus on the instantaneous ambiguity resolution performance analysis of tightly combining BeiDou B2 and Galileo E5b observations. The size and stability of phase and code Differential Inter-System Biases (DISBs) between BeiDou B2 and Galileo E5b signals are first investigated, in which the new BeiDou and Galileo satellites launched recently will also be included. Then, first results of the Tightly Combined Model (TCM) with a priori corrected DISBs (TCM_C) are evaluated in comparison to the Loosely Combined Model (LCM) and tightly combined model with unknown DISBs (TCM_F) in an instantaneous approach. It is demonstrated that the instantaneous integer ambiguity resolution performance can be improved using the TCM_C with respect to LCM and TCM_F.
Magnesium oxide aerogels were made by sol-gel process using magnesium methoxide as precursor, methanol and deionized water as solvent with ethanol supercritical fluid drying. The influences of the different factors on the gel time and the specific surface area of magnesium oxide aerogels were studied, and the structure and morphology were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), and the Small Angle X-ray Scatter (SAXS) was utilized to determine the fractural structure of the magnesium oxide aerogels. The results show that MgO aerogels belong to the typical mesoporous materials with rich network and highly developed pore structure, and the specific surface area is 904.9 m2/g, the apparent density is 0.055 g/cm3, the average pore size is 19.6 nm. The results of SAXS analysis show that the fractal dimension of the MgO aerogels is 2.32 in high q area which proves the existence of rough surface and pore fractal structure.
In view that most Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) users are still using single-frequency receivers due to the low costs, single-frequency Precise Point Positioning (PPP) has been attracting increasing attention in the GNSS community. For a long period, single-frequency PPP technology has mainly relied on the Global Positioning System (GPS). With the recent revitalisation of the Russian GLONASS constellation and two newly emerging constellations, BeiDou and Galileo, it is now feasible to investigate the performance of Four-Constellation integrated Single-Frequency PPP (FCSF-PPP) with GPS, GLONASS, BeiDou and Galileo measurements. In this study, a FCSF-PPP model is presented to simultaneously process observations from all four GNSS constellations. Datasets collected at 47 globally distributed four-system Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) stations on seven consecutive days and a kinematic experimental dataset are employed to fully assess the performance of FCSF-PPP. The FCSF-PPP solutions are compared to GPS-only and combined GPS/GLONASS single-frequency PPP solutions. The results indicate that the positioning performance is significantly improved by integrating multi-constellation signals.
TiO2 nanotubes have been demonstrated with promising future in photoelectrocatalytic (PEC)_ applications and deposition of Pt nanoparticles on TiO2 has been widely used to enhance their PEC activities. However, those Pt nanoparticles are normally randomly deposited on the surface of TiO2 nanotubes. Selective deposition of Pt nanoparticles is important to achieve better charge separation. In this study, we reported an electrochemical activation step to prepare TiO2 nanotubes deposited with Pt nanoparticles on their open ends. The “activation step” played a key role in achieving a clean surface of the TiO2 nanotubes, thus ensuring the uniform growth of Pt nanoparticles and efficient photogenerated electrons transportation. The Pt-A-TiO2 films have photocatalytic activities in hydrogen generation and methyl orange degradation with a high hydrogen generation rate of 0.74 mL/h/cm2, three times that of the pure TiO2 nanotubes (0.24 mL/h/cm2). Thus, this study demonstrated an effective method for improving the performance of Pt/TiO2 photocatalyst.
All over the world, high-altitude peatlands are the product of co-evolution between nature and pastoral communities. Over thousands of years, people, looking for subsistence and resources, have changed the character of fragile mountain landscapes and their peatlands through deforestation and livestock grazing (Trimble and Mendel 1995). Increasing population pressure, the quest for mineral resources and perverse policies have in recent times intensified these changes.
The character of high-altitude peatlands can be paraphrased as ‘cold and steep and wet and sheep’. The high altitude induces colder and more humid conditions and – upwind of the mountain – more precipitation. Excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation at high altitudes requires special adaptation of the biota, whereas the climatic island character explains the disjunct distribution of species and the high degree of endemism (Körner 2003, 2008; Spehn et al. 2010). The colder climate also discourages arable agriculture so that pastoralism – with a wide variety of livestock – is the principal form of subsistence. High rainfall and relatively steep slopes generate surface runoff, exposing the landscape and the sensitive peatlands to strong erosive forces (Evans and Warburton 2007).
The world's largest concentration of high-altitude peatlands is found in the northeastern part of the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau (China). There, in the provinces of Sichuan and Gansu right in the heart of China (Figure 13.1), the Ruoergai (or Zoige) Plateau is located at an altitude of about 3500 m a.s.l. In contrast to the drier western and central parts of Tibet, the Ruoergai Plateau, a plain glacial landscape with low mountain ranges of some hundred metres in height, has a humid climate with long winters and short summers (Lehmkuhl and Liu 1994) which have facilitated the development of 474 000 ha of peatlands (Schumann, Thevs and Joosten 2008).
In this chapter, we explore the history and drivers of peatland degradation on the Ruoergai Plateau, the loss of important ecosystem services and the impact of such loss on livelihoods. We discuss how integrated projects may facilitate the restoration of ecosystem services and biodiversity while contributing to poverty alleviation. Case studies present the various approaches and illustrate how participatory community involvement is integral to the successful implementation of peatland conservation and restoration programmes.
We have reported the chemical blending carbonization method to obtain microporous carbon with high surface area for application as electrode materials in supercapacitors. Aliphatic dicarboxylic acids with different methylene numbers (n = 2, 4, 6, and 8) react with phenolic resin (PF) during curing process. Abundant micropores are created in the carbon matrix after the decomposition of grafted or blocked diacids at temperature higher than 400 °C. The specific surface area (SSA) of the carbonized blending system increases with the diacid chain length, but decreases after n > 4 of the chain length. The maximum SSA of the blending system is up to 605.9 m2/g, which increased approximately 68% compared to that of the neat carbonized PF. Electrochemical investigation indicates that the highest specific capacitances of the blending system reaches 175 F/g at a specific current of 0.1 A/g in 30 wt% KOH aqueous electrolyte. Furthermore, the capacitance maintenance achieves 82.8% as the current density enlarged 55 times.
Hot deformation and dynamic recrystallization (DRX) behavior of the Cu–Cr–Zr–Ag alloy were studied by hot compressive tests in the 650–950 °C temperature and 0.001–10 s−1 strain rate ranges using Gleeble-1500D thermomechanical simulator. The activation energy of deformation was determined as Q = 343.23 kJ/mol by the regression analysis. The critical conditions, including the critical strain and stress, for the occurrence of DRX were determined based on the alloy strain hardening rate. The critical strain related to the onset of DRX decreases with temperature. The ratios of the critical to peak stress and critical to peak strain were also identified as 0.91 and 0.49, respectively. The evolution of DRX microstructure strongly depends on the deformation conditions in terms of temperature and strain rate. Dislocation generation and multiplication are the main hot deformation mechanisms for the alloy. The addition of Ag can refine the grain and effectively improve the DRX of the Cu–Cr–Zr alloy. It can also inhibit the growth of the DRX grains at 950 °C deformation temperature, making the microstructure much more stable.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has developed an approach to ventilator-associated events (VAE) surveillance. Using these methods, this study was performed to investigate VAE incidences and to test whether VAEs are associated with poorer outcomes in China.
A 4-month, prospective multicenter surveillance study between April and July 2013.
Our study included 15 adult intensive care units (ICUs) of 15 hospitals in China.
Patients admitted to ICUs during the study period
Patients on mechanical ventilation (MV) were monitored for VAEs: ventilator-associated conditions (VACs), infection-related ventilator-associated complications (IVACs), and possible or probable ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Patients with and without VACs were compared with regard to duration of MV, ICU length of stay (LOS), overall hospital LOS, and mortality rate.
During the study period, 2,356 of the 5,256 patients admitted to ICUs received MV for 8,438 ventilator days. Of these patients, 636 were on MV >2 days. VACs were identified in 94 cases (4.0%; 11.1 cases per 1,000 ventilator days), including 31 patients with IVACs and 16 with possible VAP but none with probable VAP. Compared with patients without VACs, patients with VACs had longer ICU LOS (by 6.2 days), longer duration on MV (by 7.7 days), and higher hospital mortality rate (50.0% vs 27.3%). The mortality rate attributable to VACs was 11.7%. Compared with those with VACs alone, patients with IVACs had longer duration on MV and increased ICU LOS but no higher mortality rates.
In China, surveillance of VACs and IVACs is able to identify MV patients with poorer outcomes. However, surveillance of possible and probable VAP can be problematic.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(12):1388–1395
In this paper, a novel multi-mode resonator is presented, which is formed by cascading several open-circuited transmission line sections with a coupled-line section. Owing to its symmetry, even- and odd-mode analysis methods are applied to analyze its resonance characteristic. Based on this resonator, a microstrip ultra-wide bandwidth (UWB) bandpass filter is designed, fabricated, and measured. The simulated and measured results show that its bandwidth can cover the desired UWB. Return loss in passband is better than −14 dB. This filter is featured by good selectivity and wide stopband. Stopband suppression as low as −40 dB can be achieved within frequency range from 12 to 16 GHz.
It has long been believed that the earliest ceramics in the central plain of China were produced by the Neolithic cultures of Jiahu 1 and Peiligang. Excavations at Lijiagou in Henan Province, dating to the ninth millennium BC, have, however, revealed evidence for the earlier production of pottery, probably on the eve of millet and wild rice cultivation in northern and southern China respectively. It is assumed that, as in other regions such as south-west Asia and South America, sedentism preceded incipient cultivation. Here evidence is presented that sedentary communities emerged among hunter-gatherer groups who were still producing microblades. Lijiagou demonstrates that the bearers of the microblade industry were producers of pottery, preceding the earliest Neolithic cultures in central China.
A prerequisite for a Global Positioning System (GPS) attitude determination is to calculate baselines between antennae with accuracy at the millimetre level simultaneously. However, in order to have a low cost attitude determination system, a set of Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) receivers with separate clocks are used. In this case, if the receiver clocks are not precisely synchronized, the baseline vector between antennae will be calculated from the GPS signals received at different times. This can be a significant error source for high-kinematic applications. In this paper, two equivalent and effective approaches are developed to compensate this significant bias for baseline estimation and attitude determination. Test results using real airborne GPS data demonstrate that the receiver time misalignment between the two receivers can result in a 5 cm baseline offset for an aircraft with a 50 m/s velocity; the corresponding attitude errors can reach about 0·50° in yaw and 0·10° in pitch respectively for the attitude determination system with a baseline length of 3·79 m. With the proposed methods, these errors can be effectively eliminated.
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy is characterised by progressive, fibrofatty replacement of myocardium, and ventricular arrhythmias, and its prognosis is usually poor. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy associated with atrial septal defect is very rare, and this combination may make the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis difficult. We present a case of a patient with this association who underwent interventional treatment with a septal defect occluder. Transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect in a patient with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy is hitherto unreported. During a 3-year follow-up he remained relatively stable. We also review the cases reported in the medical literature describing this uncommon association between arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy and atrial septal defect or patent foramen ovale.