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The North China Plain suffers excessive application of nitrogen (N) and soil degradation. Recently, biochar has been promoted as an agricultural soil amendment to ameliorate soil quality, increase crop yield and mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. However, most proofs on the positive effects of biochar addition have been based on small plots or short-term field studies located in tropical or subtropical regions with defective soils. A long-term field experiment was designed with five N levels and two biochar rates to observe the changes in crop (winter wheat and summer maize) growth and soil chemical quality. Notably, crop yield was strongly dependent upon N application, with both wheat and maize yields increasing with N application. Biochar addition increased crop yield but not significantly, although the increase in grain yield was 0.96 t/ha in a rotation. Correlation analysis revealed that the optimal root-layer soil mineral N (Nmin) for crop production was around N120, especially with biochar addition. The effect of fertilization on soil chemical quality was mainly reflected in the increase in soil organic carbon (SOC), and the highest value was obtained at N60 whether or not biochar was applied. Overall, biochar addition did not appear to promote wheat and maize growth or increase the yield on calcareous alluvial soils in temperate regions, but significantly enhanced SOC content, especially at N60, which may play an important role in sustainable agricultural production.
Dyeing wastewater has caused serious environmental problems nowadays. In this work, nickel–phosphorus plating–titanium dioxide (Ni-P-TiO2) electroless plating polyimide (PI) fabric was fabricated as an excellent visible light response composite. First, polyaniline (PANI) was in situ polymerized on the surface of the PI fabric. Second, PANI reduced palladium ions to be active seeds for initiating electroless plating of Ni-P-TiO2 layer. Finally, the Ni-P-TiO2/PANI/PI fabric with all-in-one structure was prepared, which can effectively overcome the drawbacks of poor loading fastness and insensitivity to visible light response. It was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and ultraviolet–visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by degrading reactive blue 19, methylene blue, and reactive red (M-3BE) under visible light irradiation. The results show that the degradation rates of the all three dyes were over 91% with robust cycle stability for repeated 5 cycles of use. The possible photocatalytic degradation mechanism of fabrics was also proposed based on free radical and hole removal experiments.
For underwater vehicle navigation sensors, the output signal periods are different and time-varying. This would result in the decline of precision, and even wrong results. To deal with the problem, this paper puts forward a multi-sensor, adjustable-period integrated navigation method based on multi-stage signal trigger. This method considers the valid signals of a Doppler Velocity Log (DVL) as the trigger signals of a Dead-Reckoning (DR) navigation program. It also considers the valid signals of an acoustic positioning sensor as the trigger signals of the integrated navigation program. In this method, it can adjust the filtering period in real time. According to the time label of signals, this method actualises the time-space alignment of sensors. Then it conducts DR navigation and integrated navigation. The method can not only utilise the valid signals of each sensor sufficiently but also fuses the data based on time-space alignment efficiently. Sea trial data shows that when the output signal periods are certain, navigation precision of the method in this paper is better than a non-adjustable-period filtering method. Moreover, in poor conditions, it can also attain a high precision.
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