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Although it is crucial to improve the treatment status of people with severe mental illness (SMI), it is still unknown whether and how socioeconomic development influences their treatment status.
To explore the change in treatment status in people with SMI from 1994 to 2015 in rural China and to examine the factors influencing treatment status in those with SMI.
Two mental health surveys using identical methods and ICD-10 were conducted in 1994 and 2015 (population ≥15 years old, n = 152 776) in the same six townships of Xinjin County, Chengdu, China.
Compared with 1994, individuals with SMI in 2015 had significantly higher rates of poor family economic status, fewer family caregivers, longer duration of illness, later age at first onset and poor mental status. Participants in 2015 had significantly higher rates of never being treated, taking antipsychotic drugs and ever being admitted to hospital, and lower rates of using traditional Chinese medicine or being treated by traditional/spiritual healers. The factors strongly associated with never being treated included worse mental status (symptoms/social functioning), older age, having no family caregivers and poor family economic status.
Socioeconomic development influences the treatment status of people with SMI in contemporary rural China. Relative poverty, having no family caregivers and older age are important factors associated with a worse treatment status. Culture-specific, community-based interventions and targeted poverty-alleviation programmes should be developed to improve the early identification, treatment and recovery of individuals with SMI in rural China.
Low-field magnetic stimulation (LFMS) has mood-elevating effect, and the increase of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is associated with antidepressant treatment. We evaluated the effects and association with BDNF of rhythmic LFMS in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD).
A total of 22 MDD patients were randomized to rhythmic alpha stimulation (RAS) or rhythmic delta stimulation (RDS), with 5 sessions per week, lasting for 6 weeks. Outcomes assessments included the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD–17), the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA), and the Clinical Global Impressions–Severity scale (CGI–S) at baseline and at weeks 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6. Serum BDNF level was measured at baseline and at weeks 2, 4, and 6.
HAMD–17, HAMA, and CGI–S scores were significantly reduced with both RAS and RDS. RAS patients had numerically greater reductions in HAMD–17 scores than RDS patients (8.9 ± 7.4 vs. 6.2 ± 6.2, effect size [ES]=0.40), while RDS patients had greater improvement in HAMA scores (8.2 ± 8.0 vs. 5.3 ± 5.8, ES=0.42). RAS was associated with clinically relevant advantages in response (54.5% vs. 18.2%, number-needed-to-treat [NNT]=3) and remission (36.4% vs. 9.1%, NNT=4). BDNF increased significantly during the 6-week study period (p<0.05), with greater increases in RAS at weeks 4 and 6 (ES=0.66—0.76) and statistical superiority at week 2 (p=0.034, ES=1.23). Baseline BDNF in the 8 responders (24.8±9.0 ng/ml) was lower than in the 14 nonresponders (31.1±7.3 ng/ml, p=0.083, ES=–0.79), and BDNF increased more in responders (8.9±7.8 ng/ml) than in nonresponders (1.8±3.5 ng/ml, p=0.044). The change in BDNF at week 2 was the most strongly predicted response (p=0.016).
Rhythmic LFMS was effective for MDD. BDNF may moderate/mediate the efficacy of LFMS.
An underwater shock loading experimental device is used to simulate underwater explosion shock waves. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of flyer momentum on the response of an aluminium plate to this underwater shock loading experimental device. The simulation accuracy can be verified by comparing theoretical data with the simulation and experimental results. Through simulations, an aluminium plate’s deformation and pressure specific impulse can be determined when flyers impact the piston at different velocities but at the same momentum. The aluminium plate's deformation and pressure specific impulse are constant when the flyers had constant momentum because both are directly proportional to the flyer momentum. The results have an important practical value for understanding and using this type of experimental device.
SG-III laser facility is now the largest laser driver for inertial confinement fusion research in China. The whole laser facility can deliver 180 kJ energy and 60 TW power ultraviolet laser onto target, with power balance better than 10%. We review the laser system and introduce the SG-III laser performance here.
The genetic influences in human brain structure and function and impaired functional connectivities are the hallmarks of the schizophrenic brain. To explore how common genetic variants affect the connectivities in schizophrenia, we applied genome-wide association studies assaying the abnormal neural connectivities in schizophrenia as quantitative traits.
We recruited 161 first-onset and treatment-naive patients with schizophrenia and 150 healthy controls. All the participants underwent scanning with a 3 T-magnetic resonance imaging scanner to acquire structural and functional imaging data and genotyping using the HumanOmniZhongHua-8 BeadChip. The brain-wide association study approach was employed to account for the inherent modular nature of brain connectivities.
We found differences in four abnormal functional connectivities [left rectus to left thalamus (REC.L–THA.L), left rectus to right thalamus (REC.L–THA.R), left superior orbital cortex to left thalamus (ORBsup.L–THA.L) and left superior orbital cortex to right thalamus (ORBsup.L–THA.R)] between the two groups. Univariate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based association revealed that the SNP rs6800381, located nearest to the CHRM3 (cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 3) gene, reached genomic significance (p = 1.768 × 10−8) using REC.L–THA.R as the phenotype. Multivariate gene-based association revealed that the FAM12A (family with sequence similarity 12, member A) gene nearly reached genomic significance (nominal p = 2.22 × 10–6, corrected p = 0.05).
Overall, we identified the first evidence that the CHRM3 gene plays a role in abnormal thalamo-orbital frontal cortex functional connectivity in first-episode treatment-naive patients with schizophrenia. Identification of these genetic variants using neuroimaging genetics provides insights into the causes of variability in human brain development, and may help us determine the mechanisms of dysfunction in schizophrenia.
The late Quaternary sedimentary sequence in the northwestern part of the Sichuan Basin consists of five lithological units and with increasing depth include the: Chengdu Clay; Brown Clay; Red Clay; Sandy Silt; and basal Muddy Gravel. The genesis, provenance and age of the sediments, as well as the possible presence of hiatuses within this sequence are debated. Measurements of grain-size, magnetic susceptibility, quartz content, quartz δ18O values, element composition, and Sr–Nd isotopic concentrations of samples from a typical sedimentary sequence in the area provides new insights into the genesis and history of the sequence. The new data confirm that the sediments in study site are alluvial–aeolian in origin, with basal alluvial deposits overlain by aeolian deposits. Like the uppermost Chengdu Clay, the underlying Brown Clay and Red Clay are aeolian in origin. In contrast, the Silty Sand, like the basal Muddy Gravel, is an alluvial deposit and not an aeolian deposit as previously thought. Moreover, the succession of the aeolian deposits very likely contains two significant sedimentary hiatuses. Sedimentological analysis demonstrates that the source materials for the aeolian deposits in the northwestern part of the Sichuan Basin and those on the eastern Tibetan Plateau are different. Furthermore, the loess deposits on the eastern Tibetan Plateau are derived from heterogeneous local sources.
In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D) model as a new module of LAP3D code is presented to study the crossed-beam energy transfer (CBET) process. This model is not limited by the paraxial approximation and can be used to deal with a large crossing angle case. Besides, this model is also appropriate for the multi-ion species conditions and even multi-beams problems, which will be very helpful in relevant experiment analysis and the target design. In our 3D simulations, we take the overlapped beams with a 60° crossing angle as an example, and observe obvious energy transfer process, which indicates CBET process might occur between the incident laser beams with a large crossing angle when the matching condition is satisfied. This large crossing angle CBET process also can change the spatial shape of the beam spot, and may have some potential important influence on other laser–plasma interaction instabilities and the energy symmetry in hohlraum.
The long-term outcome of never-treated patients with schizophrenia is
To compare the 14-year outcomes of never-treated and treated patients
with schizophrenia and to establish predictors for never being
All participants with schizophrenia (n = 510) in Xinjin,
Chengdu, China were identified in an epidemiological investigation of 123
572 people and followed up from 1994 to 2008.
The results showed that there were 30.6%, 25.0% and 20.4% of patients who
received no antipsychotic medication in 1994, 2004 and 2008 respectively.
Compared with treated patients, those who were never treated in 2008 were
significantly older, had significantly fewer family members, had higher
rates of homelessness, death from other causes, being unmarried, living
alone, being without a caregiver and poor family attitudes. Partial and
complete remission in treated patients (57.3%) was significantly higher
than that in the never-treated group (29.8%). Predictors of being in the
never-treated group in 2008 encompassed baseline never-treated status,
being without a caregiver and poor mental health status in 1994.
Many patients with schizophrenia still do not receive antipsychotic
medication in rural areas of China. The 14-year follow-up showed that
outcomes for the untreated group were worse. Community-based mental
healthcare, health insurance and family intervention are crucial for
earlier diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation in the community.
While oral antidepressants reach efficacy after weeks, single-dose intravenous (i.v.) ketamine has rapid, yet time-limited antidepressant effects. We aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of single-dose i.v. ketamine augmentation of escitalopram in major depressive disorder (MDD).
Thirty outpatients with severe MDD (17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression total score ⩾24) were randomized to 4 weeks double-blind treatment with escitalopram 10 mg/day+single-dose i.v. ketamine (0.5 mg/kg over 40 min) or escitalopram 10 mg/day + placebo (0.9% i.v. saline). Depressive symptoms were measured using the Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology – Self-Report (QIDS-SR). Suicidal ideation was evaluated with the QIDS-SR item 12. Adverse psychopathological effects were measured with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS)-positive symptoms, Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and Clinician Administered Dissociative States Scale (CADSS). Patients were assessed at baseline, 1, 2, 4, 24 and 72 h and 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Time to response (⩾50% MADRS score reduction) was the primary outcome.
By 4 weeks, more escitalopram + ketamine-treated than escitalopram + placebo-treated patients responded (92.3% v. 57.1%, p = 0.04) and remitted (76.9% v. 14.3%, p = 0.001), with significantly shorter time to response [hazard ratio (HR) 0.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.01–0.22, p < 0.001] and remission (HR 0.11, 95% CI 0.02–0.63, p = 0.01). Compared to escitalopram + placebo, escitalopram + ketamine was associated with significantly lower MADRS scores from 2 h to 2 weeks [(peak = 3 days–2 weeks; effect size (ES) = 1.08–1.18)], QIDS-SR scores from 2 h to 2 weeks (maximum ES = 1.27), and QIDS-SR suicidality from 2 to 72 h (maximum ES = 2.24). Only YMRS scores increased significantly with ketamine augmentation (1 and 2 h), without significant BPRS or CADSS elevation.
Single-dose i.v. ketamine augmentation of escitalopram was safe and effective in severe MDD, holding promise for speeding up early oral antidepressant efficacy.
The encapsulation failure is a serious problem which leads to power degradation and life time reduction of silicon based thin film solar module. Therefore, the encapsulation material and related technology research and development become more and more important. This article describes some different junction box and middle foil encapsulation technology of the silicon based thin film solar module, different encapsulation materials and processes are compared and their impact on the manufacturing cost and module performance are discussed. The aim of this study is to find an appropriate solution of module encapsulation failure.
The robust spines and sclerites of the early to middle Cambrian ‘mollusc’ Wiwaxia are ubiquitous in suitably preserved deposits, but are strikingly absent from the Chengjiang Lagerstätte (Cambrian Stage 3, Yunnan Province, SW China). Here we provide the first record of Wiwaxia sclerites from this rich deposit, extending the record of the genus to the earliest Cambrian Series 2. This reinforces the cosmopolitan distribution of this iconic Cambrian lophotrochozoan and demonstrates the strong faunal continuity that unites distant Cambrian Lagerstätten.
Convergent studies have highlighted the dysfunction of the amygdala, prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, only a few studies have investigated the functional connectivity between brain regions in PTSD patients during the resting state, which may improve our understanding of the neuropathophysiology of PTSD. The aim of this study was to investigate patterns of whole-brain functional connectivity in treatment-naive PTSD patients without co-morbid conditions who experienced the 8.0-magnitude earthquake in the Sichuan province of China.
A total of 72 PTSD patients and 86 trauma-exposed non-PTSD controls participated in the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study. All these subjects were recruited from the disaster zone of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake. Functional connectivities between 90 paired brain regions in PTSD patients were compared with those in trauma-exposed non-PTSD controls. Furthermore, Pearson correlation analysis was performed between significantly abnormal connectivities in PTSD patients and their clinician-administered PTSD scale (CAPS) scores.
Compared with non-PTSD controls, PTSD patients showed weaker positive connectivities between the middle prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the amygdala, hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus and rectus, as well as between the inferior orbitofrontal cortex and the hippocampus. In addition, PTSD patients showed stronger negative connectivity between the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the insula. The CAPS scores in PTSD patients correlated negatively with the connectivity between the amygdala and the mPFC.
PTSD patients showed abnormalities in whole-brain functional connectivity, primarily affecting the connectivities between the mPFC and limbic system, and connectivity between the PCC and insula.
We report here investigations on the superstructure modulation induced by the ordering of carbon vacancies in the nonstoichiometric zirconium carbide of ZrC0.61, which was prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS) of the mechanochemically synthesized ZrCx nanopowders. The sintered ZrC0.61 is found to exhibit an interesting microstructure of interlaced laminated sheets. In contrast to the previous long duration post annealing for realization of the ordered carbon vacancies in the rocksalt-structured transition metal carbide, the ordered carbon vacancies are directly obtained during the SPS process, and no post-annealing period is necessary. With the help of transmission electron microscopy, the superstructural nanodomains with the average size of ∼30 nm are identified.
Early Cretaceous glauconite from the Xiala section, southwestern Tibet, China, was investigated by petrographic microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). The investigations revealed that the glauconite in both sandstones and limestone is highly evolved. The glauconite in sandstone is autochthonous, but in limestone it may be derived from the underlying glauconitic sandstone. Based on analyses of the depositional environments and comparisons of glauconite-bearing strata in Zanda with sequences in adjacent areas, we conclude that the glauconitization at Zanda was probably associated with rising sea levels during the Late Albian, which represent the final separation of the Indian continent from the Australian-Antarctic continent. After the separation of the Indian continent from the Australian-Antarctic continent, cooling of the Indian continent resulted in subsidence and northward subduction of the Indian plate. A gradually rising sea level in Zanda, located along the northern margin of the Indian continent, was the cause of the low sedimentation rate. Continued transgression resulted in the occurrence of the highly evolved glauconite in this area.
The strain relaxation and the misfit dislocation density in micron size windows with different mask materials were studied. Experiments showed that the misfit dislocation density and the strain in the SiGe films would be affected not only by the size of the windows but the mask material. Experiments also showed that after annealing the SiGe films grown in the micron size windows would be much more stable than films grown in the large area on the same wafer.
The electrical induced structural transformation of Ge2Sb2Te5 thin film in phase change memory device was investigated using micro-Raman spectroscopy and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM). Selected area electron diffraction (SAD) pattern showed that the electrical-induced Ge2Sb2Te5 film was crystallized into a face-centered cubic structure. Micro-Raman spectra show that the Ge2Sb2Te5 active layer at the high resistance state exhibited two minor peaks superposed on the broad peak after several switch cycles, which is identical to those of the Ge2Sb2Te5 active layer at the low resistance state. This is most likely due to the accumulation of segregated crystallites. TEM results suggest that the existence of nano-sized nuclei clusters resulted in the reduced resistance for the Ge2Sb2Te5 active layer at the high resistance state after first several switches. The dependence of resistance on the cycle number indicates that the deterioration of the Ge2Sb2Te5 active layer is resulted from the incomplete amorphization process, which is consistent with the micro-Raman results.
Intense non-thermal radiation spikes were observed prior to energy quench in HT-7 tokamak. The dynamic properties of non-thermal electrons have been analyzed. Observation manifests that some non-thermal electrons are confined in the vicinity of q = 1 magnetic surface which results in hot spot phenomenon just before disruption.
To investigate whether genetic variants in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (MTHFD) genes are associated with risk of congenital cardiac disease.
Accumulative evidence suggests that hyperhomocysteinaemia is associated with risk of congenital cardiac disease. Inherited polymorphisms in key folate metabolic pathway genes, MTHFR and MTHFD, may influence the efficiency of folate metabolism and plasma level of homocysteine.
A two-stage case–control study of congenital cardiac disease was conducted by genotyping MTHFR c.1793G>A and four other variants – MTHFR c.677C>T, c.1298A>C, and MTHFD c.1958G>A, c.401C>T – in a Chinese population consisting of 1033 congenital cardiac disease patients and 1067 non-congenital cardiac disease patients.
The variant genotypes of MTHFR c.1793GA/AA were associated with a significantly decreased risk of congenital cardiac disease in two stages combined, with an adjusted odds ratio of 0.67 and a 95% confidence interval of 0.54–0.84 (p = 0.0004). In comparison with wild-type homozygote c.1793GG, the effect was significant in isolated perimembranous ventricular septal defect patients with an adjusted odds ratio of 0.60 and a 95% confidence interval of 0.43–0.83 (p = 0.0003).
These findings indicate that MTHFR c.1793G>A may have a role in susceptibility to sporadic congenital cardiac disease.
Dietary protein restriction is one major therapy in chronic kidney disease (CKD), and ketoacids have been evaluated in CKD patients during restricted-protein diets. The objective of the present study was to compare the efficacy of a low-protein diet supplemented with ketoacids (LPD+KA) and a low-protein diet alone (LPD) in halting the development of renal lesions in CKD. 5/6 Nephrectomy Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups, and fed with either 22 % protein (normal-protein diet; NPD), 6 % protein (LPD) or 5 % protein plus 1 % ketoacids (LPD+KA) for 24 weeks. Sham-operated rats were used as controls. Each 5/6 nephrectomy group included fifteen rats and the control group included twelve rats. Proteinuria, decreased renal function, glomerular sclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis were found in the remnant kidneys of the NPD group. Protein restriction ameliorated these changes, and the effect was more obvious in the LPD+KA group after 5/6 nephrectomy. Lower body weight and serum albumin levels were found in the LPD group, indicating protein malnutrition. Lipid and protein oxidative products were significantly increased in the LPD group compared with the LPD+KA group. These findings indicate that a LPD supplemented with ketoacids is more effective than a LPD alone in protecting the function of remnant kidneys from progressive injury, which may be mediated by ketoacids ameliorating protein malnutrition and oxidative stress injury in remnant kidney tissue.
Twins could play a crucial role in our understanding of genetic contributions to numerous etiologically complex disorders. In China, although adult twins are relatively rare, twins will become increasingly available due to increasing twin birth rates. Thus, child twin data will be a valuable resource to contribute to the field of child and adolescent psychopathology. The first twin database of children aged from 6 to 16 was established in Chongqing, R.P., China. In this article, we will discuss our experiences in establishing the twin database, completed in three steps — the first step being to search and identify twins, the second being to keep contact with the twins and the final being to seek cooperation with the twin families, and its future prospects. Our twin database has proven to be an efficient method for the investigation and data collection of twin children in China. The results of our present study suggest that the inclusion of twin information in the residence registration of the public security bureaus in the future may ensure a smooth run of research based on the demographic resources. We propose that school networks may be adopted as the preferred method of collection of twin records for future studies.