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Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) provides a means of rapid and highly accurate survey of archaeological excavations and structures at landscape scales, and is particularly valuable for documenting tidal environments. Here, the authors use TLS to record tidal fixed fishing structures and a tide mill within the Léguer Estuary at Le Yaudet, in north-west France. As part of a comprehensive resource-exploitation system, the early medieval (sixth to eighth centuries AD) structures lie within, and exploit different parts of, the tidal frame. The results are used to quantify production within an estuarine landscape associated with seignorial or monastic control of environmental resources.
The aim of this study is to assess prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in students of Keyano College 18 months after a wildfire and to determine the predictors of likely MDD, GAD, and PTSD in the respondents.
A quantitative cross-sectional survey was used to collect data through self-administered, paper-based questionnaires to determine likely MDD, GAD, and PTSD using the PHQ 9, GAD-7, and the PTSD Checklist for DSM 5, Part 3, respectively. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 20 (IBM Corp, Armonk, NY) using univariate analysis with chi-square tests.
Eighteen months after the wildfire, the 1-month prevalence rates for MDD, GAD, and PTSD among the college students were 23.4%, 18.7%, and 11.0%, respectively. There were statistically significant associations between multiple sociodemographic variables and the likelihood respondents presented with MDD, GAD, and PTSD 18 months after the wildfire. There were also associations between the likely MDD, GAD, and PTSD and abuse/dependence on alcohol and substances in respondents at 18 months.
Our study has established prevalence rates for MDD, GAD, and PTDS among college students 18 months after the Fort McMurray wildfires. Further studies are needed to explore the impact of college-based mental health interventions on the long-term mental health effects of the wildfires.
In the classical optimal dividends problem, dividend decisions are allowed to be made at any point in time — according to a continuous strategy. Depending on the surplus process that is considered and whether dividend payouts are bounded or not, optimal strategies are generally of a band, barrier or threshold type. In reality, while surpluses change continuously, dividends are generally paid on a periodic basis. Because of this, the actuarial literature has recently considered strategies where dividends are only allowed to be distributed at (random) discrete times — according to a periodic strategy.
In this paper, we focus on the Brownian risk model. In this context, the optimal continuous and periodic strategies have previously been shown (independently of one another) to be of barrier type. For the first time, we consider a model where both strategies are used. In such a hybrid strategy, decisions are allowed to be made either at any time (continuously), or periodically at a lower cost. This proves optimal in some cases. We also determine under which combination of parameters a pure continuous, pure periodic or hybrid (including both continuous and periodic dividend payments) barrier strategy is optimal. Interestingly, the hybrid strategy lies in-between periodic and continuous strategies, which provides some interesting insights. Results are illustrated.
In this paper, we reanalyze the glacier mass balance on Glaciar Antisana 15α over the 1995–2012 period. Annual glacier mass balances were quantified on the basis of monthly glaciological measurements using an adaptation of Lliboutry's statistical approach. The geodetic mass balance was computed between 1997 and 2009 giving a cumulative balance of −1.39 ± 1.97 m w.e. and a slightly negative adjusted annual glaciological mass balance (−0.12 ± 0.16 m w.e. a−1). Despite a careful analysis of uncertainties, we found a large discrepancy between the cumulative glaciological and the geodetic mass balances over the common period, of 4.66 m w.e. This discrepancy can mainly be explained by underestimated net accumulation in the glacier upper reaches, which could be due to the peculiar climate conditions of the equatorial zone with year round accumulation, thereby preventing clear identification of annual layers. An increase of ~70% in measured rates of net accumulation would be needed to balance the glaciological and geodetic mass balances; a hypothesis confirmed by estimated ice flux in the vicinity of the ELA. Consequently, the vertical gradient of precipitation may be higher than previously estimated and the accumulation processes (including the role of frost deposition) need to be carefully analyzed.