To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
No-till planting organic soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] into roller-crimped cereal rye (Secale cereale L.) can have several advantages over traditional tillage-based organic production. However, suboptimal cereal rye growth in fields with large populations of weeds may result in reduced weed suppression, weed–crop competition, and soybean yield loss. Ecological weed management theory suggests that integrating multiple management practices that may be weakly effective on their own can collectively provide high levels of weed suppression. In 2021 and 2022, a field experiment was conducted in central New York to evaluate the performance of three weed management tactics implemented alone and in combination in organic no-till soybean planted into both cereal rye mulch and no mulch: (1) increasing crop seeding rate, (2) interrow mowing, and (3) weed electrocution. A nontreated control treatment that did not receive any weed management and a weed-free control treatment were also included. Cereal rye was absent from two of the five fields where the experiment was repeated; however, the presence of cereal rye did not differentially affect results, and thus data were pooled across fields. All treatments that included interrow mowing reduced weed biomass by at least 60% and increased soybean yield by 14% compared with the nontreated control. The use of a high seeding rate or weed electrocution, alone or in combination, did not improve weed suppression or soybean yield relative to the nontreated control. Soybean yield across all treatments was at least 22% lower than in the weed-free control plot. Future research should explore the effects of the tactics tested on weed population and community dynamics over an extended period. Indirect effects from interrow mowing and weed electrocution should also be studied, such as the potential for improved harvestability, decreased weed seed production and viability, and the impacts on soil organisms and agroecosystem biodiversity.
Cropping system characteristics such as tillage intensity, crop identity, crop-livestock integration and the application of off-farm synthetic inputs influence weed abundance, plant community composition and crop-weed competition. The resulting plant community, in turn, has species-specific effects on soil microbial communities which can impact the growth and competitive ability of subsequent plants, completing a plant–soil feedback (PSF) loop. Farming systems that minimize the negative impacts of PSFs on subsequent crop growth can increase the sustainability of the farming enterprise. This study sought to assess the individual and combined impact of the cropping system (certified organic-grazed, certified organic till and conventional no-till) and crop sequence [pairwise rotations with safflower (Carthamus tinctorius), yellow sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis) and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum)] on the PSF magnitude and direction. All cropping systems followed the same 5-year rotation and had completed one full rotation before soil was sampled. In a greenhouse setting, a sterile soil mix was inoculated with field soil collected from all systems and three crops. The PSF study consisted of two stages (conditioning and response phases) that mimicked the rotation stages occurring in the field. PSFs were calculated by comparing the biomass of the response phase plants grown in inoculated and uninoculated soils. The farm management system affected PSFs, inferring that tillage reduction can encourage more positive PSFs. Crop sequence did not affect PSF but interacted strongly with the farm system. As such, the effects of the farming system on PSFs are best illustrated when taken into account with the identity of the previous and current crops of a cropping sequence.
Hoary alyssum [Berteroa incana (L.) DC.] is a nonnative invasive forb that is noxious in California, Idaho, Michigan, Montana, Oregon, Washington, Wyoming, Alberta, British Columbia, and Saskatchewan. Managing B. incana is difficult, because it has an extended flowering period, during which plants simultaneously flower and produce seeds. Consequently, poorly timed herbicide applications may kill B. incana flowers but not prevent viable seed production. We examined how different herbicide management practices used by invasive plant managers affected B. incana seed production and viability the year of application as well as population density 1 yr after application. Professional invasive plant managers sprayed B. incana with various herbicides as part of their current management practices at six sites in southwestern Montana in summer 2016. We collected B. incana plants at 4 wk postapplication for seed biology analyses. Across the six sites, nonsprayed B. incana produced 5 to 1,855 seeds plant−1 and averaged 429 seeds plant−1. Seed production was reduced by 64% to 99% with 7 of the 11 herbicide applications. Berteroa incana seed viability in nonsprayed areas averaged 53% and ranged from 36% to 73% across the sites. Nine of the 10 herbicide applications used by invasive plant managers reduced seed viability 49% to 100%. Few of the herbicide management practices reduced B. incana’s population density the following growing season, suggesting that managers should expect reoccurring infestations at least 1 yr after application. Our results show that invasive plant managers can reduce B. incana viable seed production even when spraying plants that have flowered and formed seed pods. However, sites may need to be monitored for additional years to treat reoccurring infestations.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.