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This study aimed to investigate the uncertainty in organ delineation of low-dose computed tomography (CT) images using a high-strength iterative reconstruction (IR) during radiotherapy planning for the treatment of prostate cancer.
Two CT datasets were prepared with different dose levels by adjusting the reconstruction slice thickness. Two observers independently delineated the prostate, seminal vesicles, bladder and rectum on both images without referring to other modality images. The delineated organ volumes were compared between both images. Observer delineation variability was assessed using Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and mean distance to agreement.
No significant differences regarding the delineated organ volumes were observed between the low- and standard-dose images for all organs. Regarding inter-observer variability, the DSC was relatively high for both images, whereas mean distance to agreement was not significantly different between images (p > 0·05 for all). Intra-observer variability for each observer showed high DSC (>0·8 and >0·9 for seminal vesicles and other organs, respectively) but no significant differences in the mean distance to agreement (p > 0·05 for all).
Our results indicate that low-dose CT images with high-strength IR would be available for organ delineation in the radiotherapy treatment planning for prostate cancer.
Self-reported energy intake (EI) estimation may incur systematic errors that could be attenuated through biomarker calibration. We aimed to confirm whether calibrated EI was comparable to total energy expenditure (TEE) measured using the doubly labelled water (DLW) technique.
General older population from the Kyoto–Kameoka Study, Japan.
This study included sub- and main cohorts of 72 and 8058 participants aged≥ 65 years, respectively. EI was evaluated using a validated FFQ, and calibrated EI was obtained using a previously developed equation based on the DLW method. TEE was considered representative of true EI and also measured using the DLW method. We used a Wilcoxon signed-rank test and correlation analysis to compare the uncalibrated and calibrated EI with TEE.
In the sub-cohort, the median TEE, uncalibrated EI and calibrated EI were 8559 kJ, 7088 kJ and 9269 kJ, respectively. The uncalibrated EI was significantly lower than the TEE (median difference = –1847 kJ; interquartile range (IQR): –2785 to –1096), although the calibrated EI was not (median difference = 463 kJ; IQR: –330 to 1541). The uncalibrated (r = 0·275) and calibrated EI (r = 0·517) significantly correlated with TEE. The reproducibility was higher for calibrated EI (interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0·982) than for uncalibrated EI (ICC = 0·637). Similar findings were observed when stratifying the sample by sex. For medians, uncalibrated EI was lower (about 17 %) than calibrated EI in the main cohort.
Biomarker calibration may improve the accuracy of self-reported dietary intake estimation.
Although better diet quality is inversely related to the risk of geriatric disorders, the association of adherence to dietary guidelines with oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) is unclear. We aimed to investigate this association in older Japanese adults. This cross-sectional study included 7984 Japanese participants aged ≥ 65 years from the population-based Kyoto–Kameoka study. Dietary intake was estimated using a validated self-administered FFQ. The scores for adherence to the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top (range: 0 (worst) to 80 (best)) were calculated. These scores were stratiﬁed into quartiles (Qs). Poor OHRQoL was defined as a score ≤ 50 using a 12-item Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index. The OR and 95 % CI were calculated using multivariable logistic regression and the spline model. Higher adherence score was associated with a lower prevalence of poor OHRQoL (Q1–Q4:36·0 %, 32·1 %, 27·9 % and 25·1 %, respectively). An inverse association was found between the score for adherence to the food-based Japanese dietary guidelines and the OR of poor OHRQoL among all the participants (Q1: reference; Q2: OR, 0·87 (95 % CI: 0·75, 1·00); Q3: OR, 0·77 (95 % CI: 0·66, 0·90); Q4: OR, 0·72 (95 % CI: 0·62, 0·85); Pfor trend < 0·001). These relationships were similar to the results in the spline model. Higher adherence to the food-based Japanese dietary guidelines is inversely associated with the prevalence of poor OHRQoL in older adults. Our results may provide useful insights to improve and maintain oral health.
The three-dimensional distribution of melt in partially molten synthetic samples compositionally corresponding to diopside (90 wt.%)–anorthite (10 wt.%) and doped with PbO, WO3, MoO3, or Cs2O to enhance contrast was studied by X-ray computed tomography (CT) with synchrotron radiation. The heavy elements were strongly concentrated in the melt and contributed to an increase of the X-ray linear attenuation coefficient (LAC) of it. PbO was found to be compatible with silicate melt (>20 wt.% in solution) and incompatible with diopside crystals. Other oxides WO3 (∼10 wt.%), MoO3 (∼5 wt.%) and Cs2O (< 5 wt.%) are also soluble only in the melt. Such doping is useful not only for LAC control in X-ray CT measurements, but also for systematic control of the structure (wetting properties, distribution and connectivity) of partial melt. This technique gives basic information for discussion of the 3D distribution of partial melt having different wetting properties. As PbO was most effective in visualization of the diopside–anorthite partially molten system, CT images of the PbO-bearing sample were used for further 3D investigation of distribution. A distribution of dihedral angles at solid-melt-solid triple junctions ranging from 22 to 55° was observed with the 3D data. This range in angle distribution was probably caused by anisotropy of crystals and the result supports the argument that there is some limitation in a theoretical framework of stereology which estimates the 3D structure based on 2D observations. Investigators have begun to apply X-ray CT to the study of the 3D distribution of partial melts in rocks using synchrotron radiation. Our study on the effect of doping is one approach for developing a technique to investigate 3D melt distribution.
Adsorption behavior of eosinY on ZnO and its complex formation with Zn2+ were studied in detail, changing the Zn2+ concentration, temperature, and pH of mixed solutions. While eosinY undergoes typical Langmuir type adsorption when the solution contains only eosinY, co-presence of Zn2+ lead to a formation of multilayer of eosinY. Red precipitates of mixed aggregates were obtained when ZnCl2 was added to a concentrated eosinY solution. Aggregation was further promoted when the temperature was elevated. While increase of pH resulted in a decrease of monolayer adsorption of eosinY in the absence of Zn2+, it promoted the formation of mixed aggregates in its presence. These aggregation behaviors of eosinY reasonably explained the changes of nanostructures of the electrodeposited ZnO/eosinY hybrid thin films.
ZnO and ZnO/EosinY hybrid materials were electrodeposited from aqueous zinc salt solutions on (0001) GaN and on (0001) ZnO. Crystalline ZnO was deposited as proven by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The intensity pattern for ZnO/EosinY showed a preferential orientation with the c- plane of ZnO parallel to GaN (0001) or ZnO (0001). XRD rocking curves with FWHM=0.25° indicated a high level of in-plane orientation of the deposited ZnO crystalline domains. The peak position of (0002) ZnO was shifted by 2Θ=1.3°. This difference and the corresponding simultaneous shift of (0004) ZnO were explained by a lattice expansion by 3.6 % in the c- direction. This clearly indicated the strong influence of the Eosin Y molecules adsorbed during the electrodeposition of ZnO. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed the formation of domains with different crystal sizes pointing at a varying density of nucleation sites on the substrate.
Electrochemical thin film deposition in aqueous mixtures containing Cd2+, Zn2+, and thioacetamide has been investigated. It has been found that the atom-by-atom growth of well-crystallized CdS thin film preferentially takes place at the early stage of the reaction, followed by the cluster-by-cluster growth of the poorly crystallized ZnS outer layer, thus resulting in the formation of CdS/ZnS bilayer by a one-step synthesis.
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