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Antarctica's ice shelves modulate the grounded ice flow, and weakening of ice shelves due to climate forcing will decrease their ‘buttressing’ effect, causing a response in the grounded ice. While the processes governing ice-shelf weakening are complex, uncertainties in the response of the grounded ice sheet are also difficult to assess. The Antarctic BUttressing Model Intercomparison Project (ABUMIP) compares ice-sheet model responses to decrease in buttressing by investigating the ‘end-member’ scenario of total and sustained loss of ice shelves. Although unrealistic, this scenario enables gauging the sensitivity of an ensemble of 15 ice-sheet models to a total loss of buttressing, hence exhibiting the full potential of marine ice-sheet instability. All models predict that this scenario leads to multi-metre (1–12 m) sea-level rise over 500 years from present day. West Antarctic ice sheet collapse alone leads to a 1.91–5.08 m sea-level rise due to the marine ice-sheet instability. Mass loss rates are a strong function of the sliding/friction law, with plastic laws cause a further destabilization of the Aurora and Wilkes Subglacial Basins, East Antarctica. Improvements to marine ice-sheet models have greatly reduced variability between modelled ice-sheet responses to extreme ice-shelf loss, e.g. compared to the SeaRISE assessments.
A novel ionic liquid/α-ZrP (C16MIM/α-ZrP) lamellar nanocomposite was fabricated via the electrostatic self-assembly deposition technique by using exfoliated α-ZrP nanosheets and guest molecules (1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide) as building blocks under mild conditions. C16MIM/α-ZrP nanocomposite was characterized by various analytical techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and synchronous thermal analyzer. The net interlayer spacing of α-ZrP determined by XRD confirmed that the C16MIM cations formed a monolayer arrangement between the α-ZrP nanosheets. The morphology and microstructure of C16MIM/α-ZrP composite were observed using SEM and TEM. The C16MIM/α-ZrP modified glass carbon electrode exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidation of nitrite in weak base media. The results obtained with differential pulse voltammetry demonstrated that the C16MIM/α-ZrP hybrid detected nitrite linearly in the concentration range from 7.3 μM to 1.25 mM with the detection limit of 1.26 μM (S/N = 3). Additionally, the prepared sensor showed outstanding reproducibility, high stability, and anti-interference capability.
The effect of coffee consumption on functional disability has been scarcely investigated. Thus, this study aimed to examine the association between coffee consumption and functional disability in older American adults. Participants (≥60 years old, n 7704) were from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2016. Coffee consumption was assessed through two 24-h dietary recall interviews. Five domains of functional disability including lower extremity mobility (LEM), general physical activity (GPA), leisure and social activities (LSA), activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) were self-reported. Age- and multivariate-adjusted logistic regression models and restricted cubic spline analyses were used. Total coffee consumption was inversely associated with LEM, GPA, LSA and IADL disability. Compared with non-drinkers of total coffee, those who consumed ≥2 cups/d reported lower odds of LEM (OR 0·67, 95 % CI 0·50, 0·91), GPA (OR 0·65, 95 % CI 0·47, 0·88), LSA (OR 0·61, 95 % CI 0·45, 0·83) and IADL (OR 0·59, 95 % CI 0·44, 0·78) disability. The dose–response analyses confirmed these relationships. Intake of ≥2 cups/d caffeinated coffee was also inversely linked to GPA (OR 0·67, 95 % CI 0·48, 0·92), LSA (OR 0·66, 95 % CI 0·46, 0·93) and IADL (OR 0·57, 95 % CI 0·43, 0·75) disability, whereas the inverse association of 2+ cups/d decaffeinated coffee was only on LEM (OR 0·43, 95 % CI 0·23, 0·81) and LSA (OR 0·39, 95 % CI 0·16, 0·94) disability. The present study suggested that coffee consumption was inversely associated with functional disability in older American adults. Those associations of diverse coffee types differed across domains of functional disability.
The gut microbiota is directly influenced by dietary components, and it plays critical roles in chronic diseases. Excessive consumption of trans-fatty acids (TFA) is associated with obesity induced by alterations in gut microbiota, but the links between obesity and gut microbiota remain unclear. Therefore, studies examining the impact of TFA on intestinal microflora are essential. In our study, we performed 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing on faecal samples from Sprague–Dawley rats fed a basal diet (control (CON) group), high-fat (HF) diet (diet-induced obesity (DIO) group) or TFA diets (1 % TFA group and 8 % TFA group) for 8 weeks to investigate the effects of TFA/HF diets on obesity and gut microbiota composition. We found that the TFA/HF diets significantly induced obesity and changes in blood and brain physiological parameters of the rats. The relative abundance of the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes was inversely altered in the three test groups compared with the CON group. Proteobacteria increased slightly in the DIO, 1 % TFA and 8 % TFA groups. The genus Bacteroides increased in the DIO and 1 % TFA groups, but Muribaculaceae decreased in all experimental groups compared with the CON group. Moreover, significant differences were observed among clusters of orthologous group functional categories of the four dietary groups. Our observations suggested that the TFA/HF diets induced obesity and dysfunction of gut microbiota. Gut dysbiosis might mediate the obesity effects of TFA/HF diets.
The current study aimed to evaluate the association of major dietary patterns with anxiety in middle-aged adults in eastern China.
Dietary intake was assessed using a semi-quantitative FFQ. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to estimate OR and 95 % CI for anxiety according to quartiles of each dietary pattern score.
Evidence regarding the relationship between dietary patterns and anxiety in the Chinese population is scarce.
The study participants were 1360 Chinese adults aged 45–59 years, who participated in a health survey at the time of periodic check-up in the city of Linyi, Shandong Province, China.
Four major dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis: traditional Chinese, western, grains–vegetables and high-salt diets. After adjusting for potential confounders, participants in the highest quartile of the western pattern had greater odds for anxiety, compared with those in the lowest quartile (OR 1·35, 95 % CI 1·000, 3·086, P < 0·05). In contrast, participants in the highest quartile of the grains–vegetables pattern had lower odds for anxiety than did those in the lowest quartile (OR 0·78, 95 % CI 0·574, 1·000, P < 0·05). Moreover, no significant associations were observed between the traditional Chinese and high-salt patterns and the risk of anxiety.
Our findings indicate that the western pattern is associated with an increased risk, and the grains–vegetables pattern is associated with a decreased risk of anxiety.
The personalization of products and services has become an inevitable trend in the manufacturing and service industry, but it is very difficult to identify users' personalized requirements accurately. This paper solves this problem by constructing an identifying model for personalized requirement based on user profiling. Firstly, the framework of the proposed model and the process of identifying the user's personalized requirements with this model are introduced, and then an experimental scheme for obtaining users' profiling data is designed. On this basis, an experiment is performed by investigating users' requirements for the computer to obtain the data, and the data are used for the analysis based on the proposed model. The analysis result shows that the model can reveal the difference among heterogeneous users well, find out the implicit requirements of users, and identify the gap between existing products and users' personalized requirements, which provides support to the subsequent improvement of product design.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is an autosomal dominant hereditary disease characterised by left ventricular asymmetry hypertrophy. However, our knowledge of the genetic background in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy cases is limited. Here, we aimed to evaluate pathogenic gene mutations in a family with high-risk hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and analyse the genotype/phenotype relationships in this family.
The proband, her parents, and her niece underwent whole-exome sequencing, and the genotypes of family members were identified using Sanger sequencing. mRNA expression was detected using reverse transcription sequencing. Structural impairments were predicted by homologous modelling. A family survey was conducted for patients with positive results to obtain information on general clinical symptoms, electrocardiography, ambulatory electrocardiography, echocardiography, and 3.0T cardiac magnetic resonance findings. Regular follow-up was performed for up to 6 months.
Five family members, including the proband, carried a cleavage site mutation in the MYBPC3 gene (c.2737+1 (IVS26) G>T), causing exon 26 of the MYBPC3 gene transcript to be skipped and leading to truncation of cardiac myosin-binding protein C. Family survey showed that the earliest onset age was 13 years old, and three people had died suddenly at less than 40 years old. Three pathogenic gene carriers were diagnosed with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and all showed severe ventricular septal hypertrophy.
The c.2737+1 (IVS26) G>T mutation in the MYBPC3 gene led to exon 26 skipping, thereby affecting the structure and function of cardiac myosin-binding protein C and leading to severe ventricular hypertrophy and sudden death.
This study explored how internet queries vary in facilitating monitoring of pertussis, and the effects of sociodemographic characteristics on such variation by city in Shandong province, China. We collected weekly pertussis notifications, Baidu Index (BI) data and yearly sociodemographic data at the city level between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2017. Spearman's correlation was performed for temporal risk indices, generalised linear models and regression tree models were developed to identify the hierarchical effects and the threshold between sociodemographic factors and internet query data with pertussis surveillance. The BI was correlated with pertussis notifications, with a strongly spatial variation among cities in temporal risk indices (composite temporal risk metric (CTRM) range: 0.59–1.24). The percentage of urban population (relative risk (RR): 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03–1.07), the proportion of highly educated population (RR: 1.27, 95% CI 1.16–1.39) and the internet access rate (RR: 1.04, 95% CI 1.02–1.05) were correlated with CTRM. Higher RRs in the three identified sociodemographic factors were associated with higher stratified CTRM. The percentage of highly educated population was the most important determinant in the BI with pertussis surveillance. The findings may lead to spatially-specific criteria to inform development of an early warning system of pertussis infections using internet query data.
The Ordovician–Silurian (O–S) transition was a critical interval in geological history. Multiple geochemical methods are used to explore the changes in oceanic environment. The Nd isotopic compositions in the Yangtze Sea are controlled by two sources: the continental erosion and the Panthalassa Ocean. High εNd(t) values during the Katian, late Hirnantian and Rhuddanian intervals are associated with the high sea level, which resulted in less terrestrial input based on the low Ti/Al and Zr/Al ratios. In contrast, low εNd(t) values during the early Hirnantian interval are related to the sea-level fall; in this case, the exposure of submarine highs and the growth of Yangtze Oldlands could lead to more continental materials being transported into the Yangtze Sea based on high Ti/Al and Zr/Al ratios. In addition, the negative εNd(t) excursion can also be attributed to the weak circulation between the Yangtze Sea and Panthalassa Ocean when sea level was low. Furthermore, the sea-level eustacy plays a significant role in the changes in redox water conditions. The redox indices, mainly UEF, Ce/Ce* and Corg/PT, across the O–S transition show a predominance of anoxic ocean over the Yangtze Sea during the Katian, late Hirnantian and Rhuddanian intervals, and an oxygenated episode was briefly introduced during the early Hirnantian period because of the fall in sea level. The Late Ordovician biotic crisis was marked by two-phase extinction events, and the change in sea level and redox chemistry may be the important kill mechanisms.
We conducted active surveillance of acute respiratory viral infections (ARIs) among residents and healthcare personnel (HCP) at a long-term care facility during the 2015–2016 respiratory illness season. ARIs were observed among both HCP and patients, highlighting the importance of including HCP in surveillance programs.
Discovering knowledge from data is a quantum jump from quantity to quality, which is the characteristic and the spirit of the development of science. Symbolic regression (SR) is playing a greater role in the discovery of knowledge from data, specifically in this era of exponential data growth, because SRs are able to discover mathematical formulas from data. These formulas may provide scientifically meaningful models, especially when combined with domain knowledge. This article provides an overview of SR applications in the field of materials science and engineering. Integrating domain knowledge with SR is the key and a crucial approach, which allows gaining knowledge from data quickly, accurately, and scientifically. In the data-driven paradigm, SR allows for uncovering the underlying mechanisms of materials behavior, properties, and functions, in a wide range of areas from basic academic research to industrial applications, including experiments and computations, by providing explicit interpretable models from data, in comparison with other machine-learning “black-box” models. SR will be a powerful tool for rational and automatic materials development.
There is a genuine need to shorten the development period for new materials with desired properties. In this work, machine learning (ML) was conducted on a dataset of the elastic moduli of 219 bulk-metallic glasses (BMGs) and another dataset of the critical casting diameters (Dmax) of 442 BMGs. The resulting ML model predicted the moduli and Dmax of BMGs in good agreement with most experimentally measured values, and the model even identified some errors reported in the literature. This work indicates the great potential of ML in design of advanced materials with target properties.
Two wide band gap conjugated polymers, namely PBDT-TT25 and PBDT-TT36, derived from (4,8-bis(4,5-dioctyl-thiophen-2-yl)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-2,6-diyl)bis(trimethylstannane) with 2,5-dibromothieno[3,2-b]thiophene (TT25) or 3,6-dibromothieno[3,2-b]thiophene (TT36), have been synthesized by simply altering the linker positions of thieno[3,2-b]thiophene unit. The impact of linker positions on the energy levels, aggregation, active layer morphology, and optical and photovoltaic properties was evaluated systemically. We found that the absorption was greatly broadened, and the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy level was elevated as the result of the significantly reduced twist angle on the polymer backbone when the linker positions changed from 3,6-isomer to 2,5-isomer. Therefore, the optimal inverted polymer solar cells exhibited a 1.87 times enhancement in power conversion efficiencies (PCE), which was mainly ascribed to the higher short circuit current densities (JSC) and fill factor (FF) of the devices mainly benefited from the widened, stronger absorption, higher hole mobility, and more ordered structure.
The association between gestational weight gain (GWG) and exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) practices remains unclear. The present study evaluated the association between GWG and EBF in the first 6 months postpartum among primiparas in rural China.
The study population was drawn from a previous randomized controlled trial, and the relevant data were obtained from an electronic, population-based perinatal system and a monitoring system for child health care. GWG was categorized according to the guidelines of the Institute of Medicine.
Five rural counties in Hebei Province, China.
A total of 8449 primiparas.
Of the women, 58·7 % breast-fed exclusively for the first 6 months postpartum. Overweight women who gained either more or less weight than the recommended GWG tended to experience failure of EBF (OR=0·49; 95 % CI 0·34, 0·70; P<0·001 and OR=0·79; 95 % CI 0·63, 0·99; P=0·048, respectively). The same results were also observed among obese women; the OR for lower and greater weight gain were 0·28 (95 % CI 0·08, 0·94; P=0·04) and 0·55 (95 % CI 0·32, 0·95; P=0·03), respectively.
GWG that is below or above the Institute of Medicine recommendations is associated with EBF behaviour for the first 6 months postpartum in overweight and obese primiparas in rural China.
To investigate a Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) outbreak event involving multiple healthcare facilities in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; to characterize transmission; and to explore infection control implications.
Cases presented in 4 healthcare facilities in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: a tertiary-care hospital, a specialty pulmonary hospital, an outpatient clinic, and an outpatient dialysis unit.
Contact tracing and testing were performed following reports of cases at 2 hospitals. Laboratory results were confirmed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) and/or genome sequencing. We assessed exposures and determined seropositivity among available healthcare personnel (HCP) cases and HCP contacts of cases.
In total, 48 cases were identified, involving patients, HCP, and family members across 2 hospitals, an outpatient clinic, and a dialysis clinic. At each hospital, transmission was linked to a unique index case. Moreover, 4 cases were associated with superspreading events (any interaction where a case patient transmitted to ≥5 subsequent case patients). All 4 of these patients were severely ill, were initially not recognized as MERS-CoV cases, and subsequently died. Genomic sequences clustered separately, suggesting 2 distinct outbreaks. Overall, 4 (24%) of 17 HCP cases and 3 (3%) of 114 HCP contacts of cases were seropositive.
We describe 2 distinct healthcare-associated outbreaks, each initiated by a unique index case and characterized by multiple superspreading events. Delays in recognition and in subsequent implementation of control measures contributed to secondary transmission. Prompt contact tracing, repeated testing, HCP furloughing, and implementation of recommended transmission-based precautions for suspected cases ultimately halted transmission.
In this work, the negatively charged [NbMoO6]− nanosheets (NSs) were combined with positively charged [5,10,15,20-tetrakis (N-methylpyridinium-4-yl) porphyrinato cobalt] (CoTMPyP) to fabricate a sandwich-like CoTMPyP/[NbMoO6]− NSs intercalated material by a direct self-assembling process. The results confirmed that CoTMPyP cations formed an inclined monolayer between [NbMoO6]− NSs and the inclined angle was about 68°. The electrochemical properties of CoTMPyP/[NbMoO6]− NSs composite were also investigated by cyclic voltammetry and liner sweep voltammetry, which showed the enhanced electron transferred ability. The CoTMPyP/[NbMoO6]− NSs modified electrode displayed excellent electrocatalytic activity towards oxygen reduction with the reduction peak potential shifting from −0.681 to −0.235 V. And oxygen could be reduced to generate hydrogen peroxide with a two-electron process in neutral electrolytes. Moreover, the reduction peak current was linear relationship with the square root of scan rates, implying that the catalytic reaction depended on oxygen diffusion.
In this work, a N-doped CsTi2NbO7@g-C3N4 (NTCN) heterojunction nanocomposite was synthesized by a simple one-step calcination method. The as-prepared samples were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction patterns, scanning electron microscopy, high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that g-C3N4 was formed both on the surface and within the interlayers of CsTi2NbO7, in which CsTi2NbO7 was in situ doped by nitrogen atoms to form N–CsTi2NbO7. The NTCN composite displayed higher electrocatalytic activity toward the detection of nitrite than pure CsTi2NbO7 and g-C3N4. The main reasons could be attributed to the synergistic effects of morphology engineering, N-doping, and layered heterojunction. The NTCN-based electrochemical sensor expressed a good linear relationship range from 0.0999 to 3.15 mmol/L with a detection limit of 2.63 × 10−5 mol/L. The good recovery, stability, and reproducibility of this biosensor showed the potential application in environmental monitoring.
The composites were synthesized by the reaction of Bi(NO3)3·5H2O, KI, and MoS2 and were prepared with different molar ratios of Bi/Mo (1:5, 1:2, 1:1, and 4:1) by altering the amount of bismuth nitrate pentahydrate. The phase composition and chemical bonds of the composites were characterized via X-ray diffraction and FT-IR, and the morphologies of the samples were characterized via scanning electron microscopy. With the increase of lanthanum source, the lamellar structure of the sample surface became more and more obvious. The results showed that the phase composition of the composites with different ratios of Bi/Mo was different. When the Bi/Mo reached 4:1, the composite material was Bi2MoO6/BiOI. The heterojunction structure formed between Bi2MoO6 and BiOI effectively promotes the separation of photogenerated electrons and holes and improved the photocatalytic activity. Therefore, the effect of the composites on the degradation of RhB was better than pure BiOI under the irradiation of a 350-W xenon lamp.
A new acoustic positioning method for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV) that uses a single underwater hydrophone is proposed in this paper to solve problems of Long Baseline (LBL) array laying and communication synchronisation problems among all hydrophones in the traditional method. The proposed system comprises a Strapdown Inertial Navigation System (SINS), a single hydrophone installed at the bottom of the AUV and a single underwater sound source that emits signals periodically. A matrix of several virtual hydrophones is formed with the movement of the AUV. In every virtual LBL window, the time difference from the transmitted sound source to each virtual hydrophone is obtained by means of a Smooth Coherent Transformation (SCOT) weighting cross-correlation in the frequency domain. Then, the recent location of the AUV can be calculated. Simulation results indicate that the proposed method can effectively compensate for the position error of SINS. Thus, the positioning accuracy can be confined to 2 m, and the method achieves good applicability. Compared with traditional underwater acoustic positioning systems, the proposed method can provide great convenience in engineering implementation and can reduce costs.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To demonstrate that olanzapine recapitulates the effect of increased lateral hypothalamic (LH) GABAergic activity in the DRN and the DBB. This will provide a potential neural substrate for the observed increase in consumption of food and weight gain. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: (1) We will examine electrophysiological activity of the DRN and the DBB in response to optogenetic stimulation of LH fibers to these nuclei. (2) We will identify the behavioral phenotype of stimulating these same projections using optogenetic techniques. (3a) Identify the behavioral phenotype of mice possessing cre-loxp-dependent knockout (KO) of LH GABAergic activity, DRN serotonergic activity, and inhibition of DBB cholinergic activity. (3b) Using these mice, we will establish behavioral response to olanzapine in ad libitum feeding and fast-refeeding condition. (4) Using baseline and post-treatment body mass index (BMI), PANSS, and side effect profile scores from a recently completed prospective cohort study of treatment-naive schizophrenic patients receiving atypical antipsychotics for 1 year, we will sequence multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms and explore the correlation of serotonergic, dopaminergic, and cholinergic receptor mutations with the increase in BMI and changes in PANSS score and side effect scores. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: (1) Our preliminary data indicates that the LH exclusively sends GABAergic input to the DBB, and the large majority of its projections to the DRN are GABAergic. (2) We have identified that stimulating LH–>DBB projections produces intense feeding and drinking behavior, a real-time place preference for laser stimulation, and a conditioned place preference for laser stimulation. Preliminary data shows that the LH->DRN also produces feeding behavior. (3a) Our lab has demonstrated that transgenic mice with LH-specific GABA release KO are smaller, have increased anxiety-like behaviors such a repetitive grooming and open field aversion, and have reduced feeding after fasting conditions. We expect the DRN serotonergic KO mice to have increased body weight and reduced anxiety-like behaviors. (3b) Our pilot study demonstrated that the LH GABA KO mice administered olanzapine have a greater consumption of food over 1 hour than controls (n=7, 5, respectively; p=0.08). DRN serotonergic KO mice and mice with inhibition of choline will have an increased baseline feeding behavior, but will not be affected by olanzapine. (4) We believe that SNPs in serotonergic receptors such as 5HT2C, and those affecting dopaminergic and cholinergic receptors, will be more common in schizophrenic patients with increased BMI than those without. Further, we believe that a reduction in the PANSS items reflecting anxiety and aversiveness will correlate with increased BMI, since we postulate that mimicking LH GABAergic activity will produce its previously demonstrated anxiolytic effects. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Identifying the important role for a reward-oriented feeding center in the brain in producing antipsychotic weight gain will allow a more comprehensive, ethologically sound approach to behavioral modification therapy in these patients. It will lend mechanistic credence to weight control therapies which have used token economy, opioid antagonism, and other inhibition-promoting therapies. This study will also increase the validity for testing further the use of selective serotonin agonists which prevent weight gain such as lorcaserin.