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Drop-out from mental health services is a significant problem, leading to inefficient use of resources and poorer outcomes for clients. Adapted dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT), often termed Emotional Coping Skills (ECS) programmes, show some of the highest rates of drop-out from therapy recorded in the literature. The present study aimed to add to the evidence base, by evaluating predictors of drop-out from an ECS programme in a UK-based Community Mental Health Team (CMHT). An existing data set of 49 clients, consisting of clients’ responses on a number of questionnaires, was evaluated for predictors of drop-out. Predictors of drop-out included symptom severity, substance use and client demographics. Independent-samples t-tests and chi-square cross tabs analyses revealed no significant differences between drop-outs and completers of therapy on any of the variables. This suggests that contrary to common assumptions and previous findings, clients using substances, who are highly anxious, or who experience a greater degree of emotion dysregulation, are not more likely to drop out from ECS programmes compared with other individuals. The clinical implications of these findings and future research are discussed within the wider context of the evidence base.
Key learning aims
(1)To be familiar with common predictors of drop-out from psychological therapies, as indicated by the literature.
(2)To understand the theories underlying factors that impact drop-out and the associated consequences for mental health services.
(3)To understand the potential impact of staff assumptions of factors that affect drop-out on client retention.
(4)To have an understanding of initiatives and strategies that may improve client-retention and engagement in services.
We evaluated the impact of an electronic health record based 72-hour antimicrobial time-out (ATO) on antimicrobial utilization. We observed that 6 hours after the ATO, 21% of empiric antimicrobials were discontinued or de-escalated. There was a significant reduction in the duration of antimicrobial therapy but no impact on overall antimicrobial usage metrics.
Previous research suggests that CBT focusing on worry in those with persecutory delusions reduces paranoia, severity of delusions and associated distress. This preliminary case series aimed to see whether it is feasible and acceptable to deliver worry-focused CBT in a group setting to those with psychosis. A secondary aim was to examine possible clinical changes. Two groups totalling 11 participants were run for seven sessions using the Worry Intervention Trial manual. Qualitative and quantitative data about the experience of being in the group was also collected via questionnaires, as was data on number of sessions attended. Measures were delivered pre- and post-group and at 3-month follow-up. These included a worry scale, a measure of delusional belief and associated distress and quality of life measures. Of the 11 participants who started the group, nine completed the group. Qualitative and quantitative feedback indicated that most of the participants found it acceptable and helpful, and that discussing these issues in a group setting was not only tolerable but often beneficial. Reliable Change Index indicated that 6/7 of the group members showed reliable reductions in their levels of worry post-group and 5/7 at follow-up. There were positive changes on other measures, which appeared to be more pronounced at follow-up. Delivering a worry intervention in a group format appears to be acceptable and feasible. Further research with a larger sample and control group is indicated to test the clinical effectiveness of this intervention.
Key learning aims
(1)To understand the role of worry in psychosis.
(2)To learn about the possible feasibility of working on worry in a group setting.
(3)To be aware of potential clinical changes from the group.
(4)To consider acceptability for participants of working on worries in a group setting.
Objectives: Individuals with moderate–severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) experience a transitory state of impaired consciousness and confusion often called posttraumatic confusional state (PTCS). This study examined the neuropsychological profile of PTCS. Methods: Neuropsychometric profiles of 349 individuals in the TBI Model Systems National Database were examined 4 weeks post-TBI (±2 weeks). The PTCS group was subdivided into Low (n=46) and High Performing PTCS (n=45) via median split on an orientation/amnesia measure, and compared to participants who had emerged from PTCS (n=258). Neuropsychological patterns were examined using multivariate analyses of variance and mixed model analyses of covariance. Results: All groups were globally impaired, but severity differed across groups (F(40,506)=3.44; p<.001; ŋp2 =.206). Rate of forgetting (memory consolidation) was impaired in all groups, but failed to differentiate them (F(4,684)=0.46; p=.762). In contrast, executive memory control was significantly more impaired in PTCS groups than the emerged group: Intrusion errors: F(2,343)=8.78; p<.001; ŋp2=.049; False positive recognition errors: F(2,343)=3.70; p<.05; ŋp2=.021. However, non-memory executive control and other executive memory processes did not differentiate those in versus emerged from PTCS. Conclusions: Executive memory control deficits in the context of globally impaired cognition characterize PTCS. This pattern differentiates individuals in and emerged from PTCS during the acute recovery period following TBI. (JINS, 2019, 25, 302–313)
Following a cluster of serious pseudomonas skin infections linked to a body piercing and tattooing premises, a look-back exercise was carried out to offer clients a screen for blood-borne viruses. Of those attending for screening 72% (581/809) had a piercing procedure in the premises of interest: 94 (16%) were under 16 years of age at the time of screening. The most common site of piercing was ear (34%), followed by nose (27%), nipple (21%) and navel (21%). A small number (<5) tested positive for hepatitis B and C, with no evidence this was linked to the premises. However, 36% (211/581) of clients reported a skin infection associated with their piercing. Using data from client forms, 36% provided a false age. Those aged under 16 years (OR 4.5, 95% CI 2.7–7.7) and those receiving a piercing at an intimate site (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.3–3.6) were more likely to provide a false age. The findings from this exercise were used to support the drafting of the Public Health (Wales) Bill which proposed better regulation of piercing premises and the need to provide proof of being 18 years of age or over before having a piercing of an intimate site.