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We previously demonstrated decreased placental perfusion, reduced amniotic fluid protein content, and increased pregnancy loss in a nonhuman primate model of gestational protein restriction. Here, our objective was to link these detrimental findings with a functional placental assessment. As blood flow is critical to maternal-fetal exchange, we hypothesized that a protein-restricted diet would impair placental taurine uptake. Pregnant rhesus macaques were maintained on either control chow (CON, n = 5), a 33% protein-restricted diet (PR33, n = 5), or a 50% PR diet (PR50, n = 5) prior to and throughout pregnancy. Animals were delivered on gestational day 135 (G135; term is G168). Taurine activity was determined in fresh placental villous explants. Taurine transporter (TauT) protein expression, placental growth factor (PLGF), and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and IGF-2 protein concentrations were measured, and histological assessment was performed. Fetal body weights and placental weights were comparable between all three groups at G135. Placental taurine uptake was decreased in PR33- and PR50-fed animals compared to CON, yet TauT expression was unchanged across groups. PLGF was significantly increased in PR50 vs. CON, with no change in IGF-1 or IGF-2 expression in placental homogenate from PR-fed animals. Accelerated villous maturation was observed in all PR50 cases, three of five PR33, and was absent in CON. We demonstrate conserved fetal growth, despite a decrease in placental taurine uptake. Increased expression of PLGF and expansion of the syncytiotrophoblast surface area in the severely protein-restricted animals suggest a compensatory mechanism by the placenta to maintain fetal growth.
Community forestry has long been regarded as a way to achieve the sustainable management of forest and tree resources while maximizing benefits for those responsible for the custodianship of natural resources. Throughout much of the developing world, forests and the lands they occupy have been increasingly ceded to the management and control of Indigenous peoples and local communities. In the post-conflict environment of Liberia, community forestry has been identified as a means of maximizing the engagement of local communities in forest management initiatives. Liberia’s recent comprehensive National Forestry Policy is an important step forward in this process. The new legislative framework makes it clear that a major reorientation of the forestry sector is required if it is to successfully address the economic challenges facing the country. These challenges concern the need to substantially improve forest governance and to ensure that the forest sector contributes more effectively to the alleviation of poverty and livelihood improvement. While, on paper, the legal framework for community forestry is robust, implementation is falling short due to conflicts over land and resources that have pervaded the Liberian forestry sector for decades. Increased investment in oil palm expansion, artisanal agriculture and broader government-supported logging activities all threaten the implementation of community forestry. Concomitantly, a fundamental lack of capacity at the community level and at the level of the Forestry Department has curtailed early attempts to operationalize community forestry in the country. In this chapter we explore the evolution and development of community forestry in Liberia, and assess prospects for its future implementation. We provide a clear framework of recommendations to address potential constraints to its success.
Vomiting is common in children after minor head injury. In previous research, isolated vomiting was not a significant predictor of intracranial injury after minor head injury; however, the significance of recurrent vomiting is unclear. This study aimed to determine the value of recurrent vomiting in predicting intracranial injury after pediatric minor head injury.
This secondary analysis of the CATCH2 prospective multicenter cohort study included participants (0–16 years) who presented to a pediatric emergency department (ED) within 24 hours of a minor head injury. ED physicians completed standardized clinical assessments. Recurrent vomiting was defined as ≥ four episodes. Intracranial injury was defined as acute intracranial injury on computed tomography scan. Predictors were examined using chi-squared tests and logistic regression models.
A total of 855 (21.1%) of the 4,054 CATCH2 participants had recurrent vomiting, 197 (4.9%) had intracranial injury, and 23 (0.6%) required neurosurgical intervention. Children with recurrent vomiting were significantly more likely to have intracranial injury (odds ratio [OR], 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7–3.1), and require neurosurgical intervention (OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.5–7.9). Recurrent vomiting remained a significant predictor of intracranial injury (OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.9–3.9) when controlling for other CATCH2 criteria. The probability of intracranial injury increased with number of vomiting episodes, especially when accompanied by other high-risk factors, including signs of a skull fracture, or irritability and Glasgow Coma Scale score < 15 at 2 hours postinjury. Timing of first vomiting episode, and age were not significant predictors.
Recurrent vomiting (≥ four episodes) was a significant risk factor for intracranial injury in children after minor head injury. The probability of intracranial injury increased with the number of vomiting episodes and if accompanied by other high-risk factors, such as signs of a skull fracture or altered level of consciousness.
Rapid crop canopy formation is important to reduce weed emergence and selection for herbicide resistance. Field experiments were conducted in 2017 and 2018 in Fayetteville, AR, to evaluate the impacts of PRE applications of flumioxazin on soybean injury, soybean density, canopy formation, and incidence of soil-borne pathogens. Flumioxazin was applied at 0, 70, and 105 g ai ha−1 to predetermined flumioxazin-tolerant and -sensitive soybean varieties. Flumioxazin at 70 g ha−1 injured the tolerant and sensitive varieties from 0% to 4% and 14% to 15%, respectively. When averaged over flumioxazin rates, density of the sensitive variety was only reduced in 2017 when activation of flumioxazin was delayed 7 d. Compared to the tolerant soybean variety, flumioxazin at 70 g ha−1 delayed the sensitive variety from reaching 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80% groundcover by 15, 16, 11, and 5 d, respectively. No delay in canopy closure (95% groundcover) was observed with either variety. Consequently, no yield loss occurred for either variety following a flumioxazin application. Flumioxazin did not impact root colonization of Didymella, Fusarium, Macrophomina, or Rhizoctonia. Pythium colonization of the soybean stem was increased by flumioxazin in 2017, but not in 2018. Increased injury, delays in percent groundcover, and an increase in Pythium colonization of soybean following a flumioxazin application may warrant the need for other soil-applied herbicides at soybean planting. Alternatively, soybean injury and delays in percent groundcover following flumioxazin applications can be mitigated through appropriate variety selection; however, comprehensive screening is needed to determine which varieties are most tolerant to flumioxazin.
The annual abundance of chewing lice (Phthiraptera) was recorded on great horned owls (Bubo virginianus (Gmelin), Aves: Strigidae) from 1994 to 2015 in Manitoba, Canada. Kurodaia magna Emerson (Amblycera: Menoponidae) had a mean annual abundance about half that for Strigiphilus oculatus (Rudow) (Ischnocera: Philopteridae). Mean intensity, rather than prevalence, explained the variation in annual abundance. Temporal variation (measured as population variability) in abundance and mean intensity were high and similar (0.62–0.67), but lower for nymph to female ratio (0.36–0.38). Temporal variation of prevalence and sex ratio were higher for K. magna (0.34–0.35) than for S. oculatus (0.21–0.22), and typical for other louse species. The high temporal variability for abundance and mean intensity suggest lower year-to-year stability than exhibited by other chewing lice, but over 80% of this variability was due to sampling error resulting from small sample sizes in some years and extreme intensities in the aggregated distributions of intensity. The remaining variation, < 20%, revealed no significant differences in annual abundance or mean intensity among years, and therefore stable populations over 22 years. Populations of 12 species of chewing lice show lower temporal variability and therefore greater stability than three other insect taxa.
Specimens (n = 508) of eight species of owl (Aves: Strigiformes) collected from 1994 to 2017 in Manitoba, Canada, were weighed and examined for chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Amblycera, Ischnocera). The relationship between host body mass and infestation by 12 species of lice was examined. Host body mass explained 52% (P = 0.03) of the variation in mean intensity of louse infestation among hosts, due primarily to a high abundance of lice on the heaviest owl species. The relationship was due to the mean intensity of lice, and neither species richness nor the prevalence of lice was related to host body mass. For individual louse species, the relationship was due primarily to Kurodaia acadicae Price and Beer, Kurodaia magna Emerson, and an undetermined species of Kurodaia Uchida (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae) (R2 = 0.997), but not the nine Strigiphilus Mjöberg (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae) species (R2 = 0.27). Louse intensity did not increase with body size for individual birds of any of the owl species. Mean intensity is expected to increase in proportion with the size, specifically the surface area, of the host. Why that relationship holds only for one louse genus, and not for the most abundant genus of lice on owls, and weakly compared with other families of birds, has yet to be determined.
Eleven of the 12 species of owls (Aves: Strigidae, Tytonidae) known to occur in Manitoba, Canada, were examined for chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Amblycera, Ischnocera) from 1976 to 2015: barn owl (Tyto alba (Scopoli); Aves: Tytonidae) (n = 2), snowy owl (Bubo scandiacus (Linnaeus); Aves: Strigidae) (n = 77), great horned owl (Bubo virginianus (Gmelin); Aves: Strigidae) (n = 262), great grey owl (Strix nebulosa Förster; Aves: Strigidae) (n = 142), barred owl (Strix varia Barton; Aves: Strigidae) (n = 10), northern hawk owl (Surnia ulula (Linnaeus); Aves: Strigidae) (n = 18), short-eared owl (Asio flammeus (Pontoppidan); Aves: Strigidae) (n = 74), long-eared owl (Asio otus (Linnaeus); Aves: Strigidae) (n = 67), eastern screech owl (Megascops aslo (Linnaeus); Aves: Strigidae) (n = 59), boreal owl (Aegolius funereus (Linnaeus); Aves: Strigidae) (n = 47), and northern saw-whet owl (Aegolius acadicus (Gmelin); Aves: Strigidae) (n = 44), a total of 802 owls. No lice were found infesting barn owl (Tyto alba (Scopoli); Aves: Tytonidae) or eastern screech owl (Megascops asio (Linnaeus); Aves: Strigidae). We collected a total of 113 810 lice of 12 species: Kurodaia Uchida (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae) – three species; and Strigiphilus Mjöberg (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae) – nine species. Overall prevalence of infestation ranged from 10.0% to 88.9%. Mean intensity for total lice ranged from 22.4 to 506.5. Infestation parameters for each louse–host combination are provided; prevalence and mean intensity were not related for louse–host species combinations. Distribution of louse infestations was highly aggregated. In all louse–host combinations but one, either females were more prevalent than males or there was no significant deviation from 50:50. Male Strigiphilus ceblebrachys Denny significantly outnumbered females in snowy owls. There was a tendency for louse species to co-occur on the same host specimen. Where sample sizes for owls were large enough, no seasonal patterns in abundance of lice were detected.
Drawing on a landscape analysis of existing data-sharing initiatives, in-depth interviews with expert stakeholders, and public deliberations with community advisory panels across the U.S., we describe features of the evolving medical information commons (MIC). We identify participant-centricity and trustworthiness as the most important features of an MIC and discuss the implications for those seeking to create a sustainable, useful, and widely available collection of linked resources for research and other purposes.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: In an effort to elucidate the role of potentially cancer chemopreventive drugs, we leveraged the Mayo Clinic-Karolinska Institute collaboration to create a multidisciplinary team that included an epidemiologist, statisticians, and physicians. We performed a population-based cohort study to examine the association between low dose aspirin, non-aspirin NSAIDs, statins, metformin, other risk factors and the risk of biliary tract cancer (BTC), while assessing confounding by sex. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We conducted a nationwide Swedish population-based cohort study using the Swedish Prescribed Drug Registry, which virtually completely enumerates use of prescribed medications nationwide since 2005. BTC diagnosis (intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma [iCCA], extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma [eCCA] or gallbladder cancer [GBC]) was ascertained from the Swedish Cancer Registry. Age-scaled Cox models, with exposure as time-varying covariates, were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs), separately for men and women. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: In the 5.7 million person cohort, the risk of iCCA was significantly lower in men using statins (HR 0.62,95%CI 0.39-1.00, p = 0.05), with a non-significant reduction in women. Statin use was associated with a significantly decreased risk of eCCA in both women (HR 0.60,0.38-0.94, p = 0.03) and men (HR 0.47,0.28-0.80, p = 0.01). Low dose aspirin (HR 0.76,0.60-0.97, p = 0.03) was associated with a lower risk of GBC only in women, while statins (HR 0.72,0.55-0.93, p = 0.01) showed a significantly decreased risk of GBC in women and a non-significant reduction in men. For all BTC subtypes, combined use of low dose aspirin and statins did not confer additional risk reductions beyond those achieved by statins alone. Male and female users of non-aspirin NSAIDs appeared to be at increased risk of BTC and its subtypes. Metformin did not significantly affect risk of BTC. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Our collaborative efforts allowed us to develop the largest population-based cohort evaluating risk and protective factors for BTC. Our results provide strong evidence in favor of the chemopreventive roles of low dose aspirin and statins in a subtype- and sex-specific manner. Individual risk factors contribute to development of BTC subtypes in different magnitudes. The next steps to translate these findings into clinical practice require randomized clinical trials that validate our results and provide a more complete picture of the risk-benefit ratio.
Absorbed residue studies have been used in subsistence research for decades. Only more recently have the chemical methods employed been used to explore the consumption of ritual concoctions such as those including cacao, yaupon holly, and alcohol. In this article we use mass spectrometry to identify Datura residues in prehistoric contexts from western Mexico and the American Southeast. Datura is a genus of flowering plants that contain hallucinogenic alkaloids. Their use in both regions is known historically and still continues today. This study sampled 55 pottery vessels and 18 shell vessels using both a traditional burr method and a water-based sonicator sampling method. Datura residues were found in 13 pottery vessels and 14 shell vessels using both sampling approaches. These results demonstrate that it is possible to identify Datura residue in pottery and shell vessels and that the use of Datura extends back into prehistory in both regions. The form and decoration of pottery vessels with Datura residues show correlations with specific motifs and themes. Historically, shell vessels were used in the Southeast for the consumption of another ritual beverage, called the Black Drink. The presence of Datura shows that those vessels were used for other kinds of beverages as well.
Strain rates are fundamental measures of ice flow and are used in a wide variety of glaciological applications including investigations of bed properties, calculations of basal mass balance on ice shelves, and constraints on ice rheological models. However, despite their extensive application, strain rates are calculated using a variety of methods and length scales and the details are often not specified. In this study, we compare the results of nominal and logarithmic strain-rate calculations based on a satellite-derived velocity field of the Antarctic ice sheet generated from Landsat 8 satellite data. Our comparison highlights the differences between the two common approaches in the glaciological literature. We evaluate the errors introduced by each approach and their impacts on the results. We also demonstrate the importance of choosing and specifying a length scale over which strain-rate calculations are made, which can strongly influence other derived quantities such as basal mass balance on ice shelves. Finally, we present strain-rate data products calculated using an approximate viscous length-scale with satellite observations of ice velocity for the Antarctic continent.
The annual abundance of chewing lice (Phthiraptera) was recorded from 1996 to 2015 in Manitoba, Canada, on two species of woodpeckers (Piciformes: Picidae). Yellow-bellied sapsuckers (Sphyrapicus varius (Linnaeus)) were infested with Menacanthus pici (Denny) (Amblycera: Menoponidae) and Penenirmus auritus (Scopoli) (Ischnocera: Philopteridae); northern flickers (Colaptes auratus (Linnaeus)) were also infested with M. pici, as well as two other Ischnocera, Penenirmus jungens (Kellogg) and Picicola porisma Dalgleish. The mean annual abundance varied from nine to 51 lice per bird for the four species, with prevalence, mean intensity, sex ratio, and nymphs per female also varying among louse species. Menacanthus pici populations on both hosts were unstable: abundance rose over two decades because of increasing prevalence, whereas the abundance of the other three louse species fluctuated around a mean. Population variability was similar for the lice on both hosts, with the metric, PV, ranging from 0.41 to 0.51 on a 0–1 scale, once the effect of the trend in abundance for M. pici had been removed. Although the population dynamics for species of lice on these two woodpeckers were distinct, inter-specific differences in population stability were less pronounced than observed in the few other species of bird lice studied in this way.
Specimens of five species of woodpeckers (Piciformes: Picidae) from Manitoba, Canada, were weighed and examined for chewing lice, 1998–2015: downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens (Linnaeus), n=49), hairy woodpecker (Picoides villosus (Linnaeus), n=23), pileated woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus (Linnaeus), n=10), northern flicker (Colaptes auratus (Linnaeus), n=170), and yellow-bellied sapsucker (Sphyrapicus varius (Linnaeus), n=239). The relationship between body mass of each host species and infestation by seven species of lice was analysed: Menacanthus pici (Denny) from all host species, Brueelia straminea (Denny) from Picoides Lacépède species, Penenirmus jungens (Kellogg) from northern flicker, Penenirmus auritus (Scopoli) from the other four hosts, Picicola porisma Dalgleish from northern flicker, Picicola snodgrassi (Kellogg) from Picoides species, and Picicola marginatulus (Harrison) from pileated woodpeckers. Mean abundance of lice increased with the mean mass of their host. Neither the species richness of lice nor the prevalence of lice were related to host body mass. Host body mass explained 98% of the variation in mean intensity of louse infestation among hosts. The positive association of mean intensity and body size was also detected for three genera of lice. Louse intensity also increased with body size for individual birds, more so for some species of lice and hosts than others. Body size matters, but the adaptations that allow higher mean intensity on larger host species remain to be determined.
Forested landscapes provide a source of micronutrient rich food for millions of people around the world. A growing evidence base suggests these foods may be of great importance to the dietary quality of people living in close proximity to forests – especially in communities with poor access to markets. Despite widespread evidence of the consumption of forest foods around the world, to date, few studies have attempted to quantify the nutritional contributions these foods make. In this study we tested the hypothesis that the consumption of forest foods can make important contributions to dietary quality. We investigated the dietary contributions of wild forest foods in smallholder dominated forested landscapes from 37 sites in 24 tropical countries, using data from the Poverty and Environment Network (PEN). We compared quantities of forest foods consumed by households with dietary recommendations and national average consumption patterns. In addition, we compared the relative importance of forests and smallholder agriculture in supplying fruits, vegetables, meat and fish for household consumption. More than half of the households in our sample collected forest foods for their own consumption, though consumption patterns were skewed towards low-quantity users. For high-quantity consuming households, however, forest foods made a substantial contributions to their diets. The top quartile of forest food users in each site obtained 14.8% of the recommended amounts of fruits and vegetables, and 106% of the reference quantity of meat and fish from forests. In 13 sites, the proportion of meat and fish coming from forests was greater than from domestic livestock and aquaculture, while in 11 sites, households procured a greater proportion of fruits and vegetables from forests than from agriculture. Given high levels of heterogeneity in forest food consumption, we identify four forest food use site typologies to characterize the different use patterns: ‘forest food dependent’, ‘limited forest food use’, ‘forest food supplementation’ and ‘specialist forest food consumer’ sites. Our results suggest that while forest foods do not universally contribute significantly to diets, in some sites where large quantities of forest foods are consumed, their contribution towards dietary adequacy is substantial.
Three species of woodpeckers (Piciformes: Picidae) in Manitoba, Canada, were examined for chewing lice (Phthiraptera): the resident downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens (Linnaeus), n=55), and two migrants, yellow-bellied sapsucker (Sphyrapicus varius (Linnaeus), n=316) and northern flicker (Colaptes auratus (Linnaeus), n=225). Six species were collected: Menacanthus pici (Denny) (Amblycera: Menoponidae) from all hosts, and five species of Ischnocera (Philopteridae): Penenirmus auritus (Scopoli) from downy woodpeckers and sapsuckers, Picicola snodgrassi (Kellogg) and Brueelia straminea (Denny) from downy woodpeckers, and Penenirmus jungens (Kellogg) and Picicola porisma Dalgleish from flickers. Adults and nymphs were present on downy woodpeckers all year, and on migrant sapsuckers and flickers from when they arrived until they left, suggesting lice reproduce continuously on their hosts. Prevalence and mean intensities of louse infestations generally decreased from their respective springtime levels to their lowest values during or at the end of the breeding season of their hosts, and then increased in various degrees during the fall. No seasonal pattern in louse sex ratios was observed except on northern flickers, where male to female ratios for two of three species were lowest during the breeding season. Resident and migrant hosts had similar seasonal patterns of infestation by lice.
Five species of woodpeckers (Piciformes: Picidae) in Manitoba, Canada were examined for chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Amblycera and Ischnocera): downy woodpecker (DOWO) (Picoides pubescens (Linnaeus), n=56), hairy woodpecker (HAWO) (Picoides villosus (Linnaeus), n=32), pileated woodpecker (PIWO) (Dryocopus pileatus (Linnaeus), n=12), northern flicker (NOFL) (Colaptes auratus (Linnaeus), n=223), and yellow-bellied sapsucker (YBSA) (Sphyrapicus varius (Linnaeus), n=192). Seven species of lice were collected (total number=40 613): Menacanthus pici (Denny) from all species of woodpeckers, Brueelia straminea (Denny) from both species of Picoides Lacépède, Penenirmus jungens (Kellogg) from northern flicker, Penenirmus auritus (Scopoli) from all species of woodpeckers examined except northern flickers, Picicola porisma Dalgleish from northern flickers, Picicola snodgrassi (Kellogg) from both species of Picoides, and Picicola marginatulus (Harrison) from pileated woodpeckers. Prevalence for total louse infestation ranged from 32.3% to 85.7% (NOFL>YBSA>PIWO>DOWO>HAWO). Mean intensity for total lice ranged from 29.2 to 232.4 (PIWO>NOFL>HAWO>YBSA>DOWO). Infestation parameters for each louse/host combination are provided. Distribution of louse infestations was highly aggregated. In all louse/host combinations, either females were more prevalent than males or there was no significant deviation from 50:50. There was a tendency for louse species to co-occur on the same host specimen.
Most of my clerical readers will agree, I am sure, that being a priest is the best job in the world, and that one would not swap it for anything. Except, that is, on the bad days, when being a priest can be a very tough vocation indeed. It is our privilege to minister to people in the happiest moments of their lives, and also when the bottom has fallen out of their world, and things cannot get better, only worse. One sees rather more of the painful and seamy side of life than most laypeople realise; and for this reason a priest's life can sometimes be rather a lonely existence, because only one's fellow clergy, or perhaps those married to the clergy, fully understand.
There is no reason to believe that the clergy of Colchester a century ago would have had markedly different ministerial experiences, or that they would have disagreed with this description of priestly life. Following the Evangelical Revival and the Oxford Movement, expectations of pastoral care gradually rose throughout the Church of England during the nineteenth century. Just as significantly, the clergy came to have higher expectations of themselves. We find this expressed, for instance, in addresses delivered to ordinands. Bishop Arthur Winnington-Ingram of London, to take one example from a man whom we shall encounter later, delivered a series of addresses to the Leeds Clergy School in 1896 which were published under the title Good Shepherds and ran to several editions. He held up very high standards of ministry and self-expectation to those shortly to be ordained:
What made more impression on me as an undergraduate at Oxford than all the sermons I ever heard in Chapel, was a young [ordained] don insisting, at the risk of his life, on ministering to an undergraduate dying of a most infectious disease. That, then, is the life and work that lies before you – to which you will say on your Ordination day that you are ‘truly called’ … Are you prepared for a life of toil, and of toil to the end, for a life, it may be, of obscurity … are we prepared to give ourselves to the work?
For the generation that lived, fought and endured between 1914 and 1918, the First World War was frequently understood as nothing less than the ‘Great War for Civilization’. Not for nothing does Lutyen's Cenotaph in Whitehall (erected 1920) bear the inscription ‘Our Glorious Dead’. A very different view of the First World War, as a tragic and cruel waste of young human life (which, of course, it would be impossible to deny), began to arise half a generation later in the late 1920s and 1930s. This was fed by the growth of pacifism and appeasement as the world drifted towards an almost unthinkable Second World War. To take one example, General (later Field Marshal) Sir Douglas Haig, Commanderin- Chief of the British Armies in France between 1915 and 1918, whose reputation was very high as ‘the man who won the war’ between the Armistice in 1918 and his death in 1928, was later portrayed by some as ‘Butcher Haig’, a bogeyman upon whom was focused the blame for what was perceived as the needless loss of hundreds of thousands of young lives on the Western Front. The fact that Great Britain found itself at war Germany again a quarter of a century later added to this view of the First World War as a tragic waste, and as a job only half done, which needed doing again properly.
As the First World War has passed out of living memory, so a more nuanced and balanced understanding has slowly begun to be formulated by historians and writers. Douglas Haig, to continue the example, has started to be reappraised. Although he had his faults, and may be reasonably criticised for some of his decisions, Haig has begun to re-emerge as a better, more gifted and caring commander-in-chief than has long been thought. To take one instance of this change in attitude, the Royal British Legion, which in 1994 had replaced the words ‘Haig Fund’ with ‘Poppy Appeal’ on the black centre of its poppies, in 2009 named its new London headquarters ‘Haig House’.
Similarly, modern research has shown that if Kaiser Wilhelm II's German empire was not as wicked as Hitler's Third Reich, it was still a militaristic, expansionist and constitutionally unbalanced regime, whose soldiers were responsible for inflicting atrocities upon thousands of civilians in Belgium and France during the war.