Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Infestation parameters for chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Amblycera, Ischnocera) infesting owls (Aves: Strigidae, Tytonidae) in Manitoba, Canada

  • Terry D. Galloway (a1) and Robert J. Lamb (a1)

Abstract

Eleven of the 12 species of owls (Aves: Strigidae, Tytonidae) known to occur in Manitoba, Canada, were examined for chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Amblycera, Ischnocera) from 1976 to 2015: barn owl (Tyto alba (Scopoli); Aves: Tytonidae) (n = 2), snowy owl (Bubo scandiacus (Linnaeus); Aves: Strigidae) (n = 77), great horned owl (Bubo virginianus (Gmelin); Aves: Strigidae) (n = 262), great grey owl (Strix nebulosa Förster; Aves: Strigidae) (n = 142), barred owl (Strix varia Barton; Aves: Strigidae) (n = 10), northern hawk owl (Surnia ulula (Linnaeus); Aves: Strigidae) (n = 18), short-eared owl (Asio flammeus (Pontoppidan); Aves: Strigidae) (n = 74), long-eared owl (Asio otus (Linnaeus); Aves: Strigidae) (n = 67), eastern screech owl (Megascops aslo (Linnaeus); Aves: Strigidae) (n = 59), boreal owl (Aegolius funereus (Linnaeus); Aves: Strigidae) (n = 47), and northern saw-whet owl (Aegolius acadicus (Gmelin); Aves: Strigidae) (n = 44), a total of 802 owls. No lice were found infesting barn owl (Tyto alba (Scopoli); Aves: Tytonidae) or eastern screech owl (Megascops asio (Linnaeus); Aves: Strigidae). We collected a total of 113 810 lice of 12 species: Kurodaia Uchida (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae) – three species; and Strigiphilus Mjöberg (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae) – nine species. Overall prevalence of infestation ranged from 10.0% to 88.9%. Mean intensity for total lice ranged from 22.4 to 506.5. Infestation parameters for each louse–host combination are provided; prevalence and mean intensity were not related for louse–host species combinations. Distribution of louse infestations was highly aggregated. In all louse–host combinations but one, either females were more prevalent than males or there was no significant deviation from 50:50. Male Strigiphilus ceblebrachys Denny significantly outnumbered females in snowy owls. There was a tendency for louse species to co-occur on the same host specimen. Where sample sizes for owls were large enough, no seasonal patterns in abundance of lice were detected.

Copyright

Corresponding author

1Corresponding author (e-mail: Terry.Galloway@umanitoba.ca)

Footnotes

Hide All

Subject editor: Rayda Krell

Footnotes

References

Hide All
Adam, C. and Daróczi, S.J. 2006. The chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Amblycera, Ischnocera) collected on some Falconiformes and Strigiformes (Aves) from Romania. Travaux du Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle, 49: 145168.
Artuso, C. 2009. Eastern screech owl in Manitoba: evidence of twentieth-century range expansion. Blue Jay, 67: 131137.
Ash, J.S. 1960. A study of the Mallophaga of birds with particular reference to their ecology. Ibis, 102: 93110.
Baum, H. 1968. Biologie und ökologie der amselfederlause. Angewandte Parasitologie, 9: 129175.
Bush, S.E. and Malenke, J.R. 2008. Host defense mediates interspecific competition in parasites. Journal of Animal Ecology 77: 558564.
Carey, B., Christianson, W., Curtis, C.E., de March, L., Holland, G.E., Koes, R.F., et al. 2003. The birds of Manitoba. Avian Research Committee, Manitoba Naturalists Society, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.
Catlin, P.M. 1971. Ectoparasites from the genus Aegolius . Bird Banding, 42: 127.
Clay, T. 1974. The macrogenitalis group of Strigiphilus (Philopteridae: Phthiraptera). Journal of Entomology (B), 43: 139147.
Clay, T. 1977. The Strigiphilus cursitans group (Phthiraptera: Insecta). Records of the Queen Victoria Museum, 56: 14.
Clayton, D.H. 1990. Host specificity of Strigiphilus owl lice (Ischnocera: Philopteridae), with the description of new species and host associations. Journal of Medical Entomology, 27: 257265.
Clayton, D.H., Gregory, R.D., and Price, R.D. 1992. Comparative ecology of Neotropical bird lice. Journal of Animal Ecology, 61: 781795.
Clayton, D.H., Koop, J.A.H., Harbison, C.W., Moyer, B.R., and Bush, S.E. 2010. How birds combat ectoparasites. The Open Ornithology Journal, 3: 2171.
Clayton, D.H. and Price, R.D. 1984. Taxonomy of the Strigiphilus cursitans group (Ischnocera: Philopteridae), parasites of owls (Strigiformes). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 77: 340363.
Clayton, D.H. and Walther, B.A. 2001. Influence of host ecology and morphology on the diversity of Neotropical bird lice. Oikos, 94: 455467.
DiBlasi, E., Johnson, K.P., Stringham, S.A., Hansen, A.N., Beach, A.B., Clayton, D.H., and Bush, S.A. 2017. Phoretic dispersal influence parasite population genetic structure. Molecular Ecology, 2018: 110. https://doi.org/10.1111/mec.14719.
Dik, B. 2010. Türkiye’deki evcil ve yabani kanatlılarda bulunan Çiğneyici bit (Phthiraptera) türleri. Türkiye Parazitoloji Dergisi, 34: 5560.
Duncan, J. 2003. Owls of the world. Key Porter Books, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Emerson, K.C. 1961. Three new species of Mallophaga from the great horned owl. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 74: 187192.
Galloway, T.D. and Lamb, R.J. 2014. Abundance and stability are species traits for four chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae, Philopteridae) on feral pigeons, Columba livia Gmelin (Aves: Columbiformes: Columbidae). The Canadian Entomologist, 146: 444456.
Galloway, T.D. and Lamb, R.J. 2015a. Abundance and stability of populations of a chewing louse, Mulcticola macrocephalus (Kellogg) (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae), on common nighthawks, Chordeiles minor (Forster) (Aves: Caprimulgiformes: Caprimulgidae) in Manitoba, Canada. The Canadian Entomologist, 147: 723731.
Galloway, T.D. and Lamb, R.J. 2015b. Seasonal population dynamics of four species of chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae, Philopteridae) on feral pigeons (Aves: Columbiformes: Columbidae). The Canadian Entomologist, 147: 712722.
Galloway, T.D. and Lamb, R.J. 2016. Chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Amblycera and Ischnocera) infesting woodpeckers, flickers and sapsuckers (Aves: Piciformes: Picidae) in Manitoba, Canada. The Canadian Entomologist, 148: 520531.
Galloway, T.D., Proctor, H.C., and Mironov, S.V. 2014. Chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Amblycera, Ischnocera) and feather mites (Acari: Astigmata: Analgoidea, Pterolichoidea): ectosymbionts of grassland birds in Canada. In Arthropods of Canadian grasslands (volume 3): biodiversity and systematics, part 1. Edited by Cárcamo, H.A. and Giberson, D.J., Biological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Pp. 139188.
Godfrey, W.E. 1986. The birds of Canada. Revised edition. National Museum of Natural Sciences, National Museums of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
González-Acuña, D., Muñoz, R.C., Cicchino, A., and Figueroa, R.A. 2006. Lice of Chilean owls: a first description. Journal of Raptor Research, 40: 301302.
Harbison, C.W., Bush, S.A., Malenke, J.R., and Clayton, D.H. 2008. Comparative transmission dynamics of competing parasite species. Ecology, 89: 31863194.
Holt, D.W., Larson, M.D., Smith, N., Evans, D.L., and Parmelee, D.F. 2015. Snowy owl (Bubo scandiacus), version 2.0. In The birds of North America. Edited by Rodewald, P.G.. Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, New York, United States of America.
Hunter, J.E., Gutiérrez, R.J., Franklin, A.B., and Olson, D. 1994. Ectoparasites of spotted owls. Journal of Raptor Research, 28: 232235.
Institute for Bird Populations. 2014. Standardized 4- and 6-letter bird species codes [online]. Available from www.birdpop.org/docs/misc/Alpha_codes_tax.pdf [accessed 6 July 2015].
Johnson, K.P. and Clayton, D.H. 2003. The biology, ecology, and evolution of chewing lice. In The chewing lice: world checklist and biological overview. Edited by Price, R.D., Hellenthal, R.A., Palma, R.L., Johnson, K.P., and Clayton, D.H.. Illinois Natural History Survey Special Publication 24, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, Illinois, United States of America. Pp. 449476.
Judd, W.W. 1953. A collection of feather lice (Mallophaga) from birds in Ontario. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society, 72: 349350.
Keirans, J.E. 1975. A review of the phoretic relationship between Mallophaga (Phthiraptera: Insecta) and Hippoboscidae (Diptera: Insecta). Journal of Medical Entomology, 12: 7176.
Kutzer, von E., Frey, H., and Nöbauer, H. 1982. Zur Parasitenfauna österreichischer Eulenvögel (Strigiformes). Angewandte Parasitologie, 23: 190197.
Mahmood, M.T, McLenachan, P.A., Gibb, G.C., and Penny, D. 2014. Phylogenetic position of avian nocturnal and diurnal raptors. Genome Biology and Evolution, 6: 326332.
Marshall, A.G. 1981. The sex ratio in ectoparasitic insects. Ecological Entomology , 6: 155174.
Morris, D. 2009. Owl. Reaktion Book, London, United Kingdom.
Pfaffenberger, G.S. and Rosero, J.F. 1984. Mallophaga from five raptor species in eastern New Mexico. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 20: 6566.
Price, R.D. and Beer, J.R. 1963a. The species of Colpocephalum (Mallophaga: Menoponidae) known to occur on the Strigiformes. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 36: 5864.
Price, R.D. and Beer, J.R. 1963b. The Kurodaia (Mallophaga: Menoponidae) parasitic on the Strigiformes, with a key to the species of the genus. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 56: 849857.
Price, R.D., Hellenthal, R.A., and Palma, R.L. 2003. World checklist of chewing lice with host associations and keys to families and genera. In The chewing lice: world checklist and biological overview. Edited by Price, R.D., Hellenthal, R.A., Palma, R.L., Johnson, K.P., and Clayton, D.H.. Illinois Natural History Survey Special Publication 24. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, United States of America. Pp. 1448.
Rékási, J. 1978. Die Federling-Sammlung des Ungarischen Naturwissenschaftlichen Museums. I. Parasitica Hungarica, 11: 107112.
Richards, W.R. 1964. A short method for making balsam mounts of aphids and scale insects. The Canadian Entomologist, 96: 963966.
Rózsa, L., Reiczigel, J., and Majoros, G. 2000. Quantifying parasites in samples of hosts. Journal of Parasitology, 86: 228232.
Spencer, G.J. 1957. Further records of Mallophaga from British Columbia birds. Entomological Society of British Columbia, 53: 310.
SYSTAT Software. 2009. SYSYAT 13, Statistics I. SYSTAT Software, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America.
Taft, S.J. and Jacobs, E.A. 2000. Ectoparasitic insects from migrating saw-whet owls (Aegolius acadicus) in central Wisconsin. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 103: 755756.
Ward, R.A. 1957. A study of the host distribution and some relationships of the biting lice (Mallophaga) parasitic on birds of the order Tinamiformes. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 50: 452459.
Wheeler, T.A. and Threlfall, W. 1989. Synopsis of the parasites of vertebrates of Canada. In Ectoparasites of birds. Edited by Kennedy, M.J.. Alberta Agriculture, Animal Health Division, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
Woodman, W.J. and Dicke, R.J. 1954. Population fluctuations of the mallophagan parasite Brüelia vulgata (Kellogg) upon the sparrow. Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters, 43: 133135.

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed