The Olympic Peninsula, Washington, USA, currently holds 184 alpine glaciers larger than 0.01 km2 and their combined area is 30.2 ± 0.95 km2. Only four glaciers are >1 km2 and 120 of the others are <0.1 km2. This represents a loss of 82 glaciers and a 34% decrease in combined area since 1980, with the most pronounced losses occurring on south-facing aspects and in the more arid northeastern part of the range. Annual rate of loss in glacier area for seven of the largest glaciers accelerated from 0.26 km2 a−1 (1900–80) to 0.54 km2 a−1 (1980–2009). Thinning rates on four of the largest glaciers averaged nearly 1 ma−1 from 1987 to 2010, resulting in estimated volume losses of 17–24%. Combined glacial snow, firn and ice melt in the Hoh watershed is in the range 63–79 ± 7 × 106 m3, or 9–15% of total May–September streamflow. In the critical August–September period, the glacial fraction of total basin runoff increases to 18–30%, with one-third of the water directly from glacial ice (i.e. not snow and firn). Glaciers in the Elwha basin produce 12–15 ± 1.3 × 106 m3 (2.5–4.0%), while those in the Dungeness basin contribute 2.5–3.1 ± 0.28 × 106 m3 (3.0–3.8%).