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As indigenous movements around the world seek to strengthen their collective voice in their respective political systems, efforts continue to design political institutions that offer both sufficient local autonomy and incentives to participate in the broader political system. The state of Oaxaca, Mexico, offers a test case of one such effort at indigenous-based institutional design. This article argues that such reforms often fail to confront the tension between local autonomy and citizen engagement in politics outside the borders of the community. Testing this theory through a comparative analysis of voter turnout rates in municipalities across the state of Oaxaca and the neighboring state of Guerrero, this study finds that the adoption of indigenous institutions at the local level is associated with significantly lower voter turnout rates for national elections.
Digital dermatitis is one of the main causes of lameness in dairy cattle, possibly accounting for 25% of the reported cases of lameness (Watson, 1999). With lameness being attributed to reduced milk yields and increased calving intervals there are considerable economic implications and effective treatment and prevention regimes are essential. Topical antibiotic treatment is the most common method of treating digital dermatitis in the UK although there is currently only one product licensed for use (Terramycin spray, Pfizer Animal Health) which contains oxytetracycline. Although effective, there can be various problems (e.g. antibiotic resistance) associated with using antibiotics for the management of digital dermatitis meaning that a suitable prevention regime that uses a non-antibiotic solution instead would be desirable. One possible alternative is sodium chloride solution (salt water) which is hypertonic and would therefore cause the bacterial cells to dehydrate, inhibiting cell growth and multiplication. This trial aimed to investigate the effect of topical application of either oxytetracycline or sodium chloride solution on the pre-washed rear feet of cows for the prevention/treatment of digital dermatitis in dairy cattle.
Scrapie is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) and belongs to a category of incurable diseases that include BSE in cattle. An association exists between the Prion-Protein (PrP) genotype of an animal and the risk of developing disease after exposure (Tongue et al., 2004). This PrP genetic information is the basis of the National Scrapie Plan (NSP) which aims, through genotyping, to eradicate those individuals which have the susceptible alleles. Studies into scrapie risk (Jeffrey et al., 2002) have highlighted several alleles which confer scrapie susceptibility. The NSP have used these alleles to categorise individuals according to risk with group one being most scrapie resistant to group five being least resistant. VRQ alleles are synonymous with infection however the ARQ affords susceptibility but not the disease itself. Genotype may however not be the sole indicator of scrapie risk. There is an inference of a relationship between phenotypic characteristics (hornedness, coat colour) and scrapie risk. These alternative indicators of scrapie risk may affect the final choice of susceptible individuals. Scrapie risk studies carried out on the Shetland Isles (Jeffrey et al., 2002) investigated the alleles concerned with scrapie infection. Results confirmed that VRQ alleles are synonymous with scrapie infection however the ARQ alleles, even though they afford susceptibility, do not necessarily confer disease, the animal still has to be exposed to the scrapie agent. Using survey-type questionnaires, the study investigated any potential relationship between the PrP gene, coat colour and hornedness.
High levels of dietary concentrates are often used to support milk production and it is important to investigate ways to feed them efficiently. Fats have the greatest energy density of any feed ingredient and the inclusion of protected fats in the dairy cow ration enables a high energy but balanced ration to be fed. The aim of this trial was to investigate the effect of feeding different levels of Megalac (Volac International Ltd, Herts) to dairy cows and to compare milk yield, milk composition, fertility and body condition score (BCS).
Colostrum is essential for the newborn lamb as it provides nutrients for energy and heat production and passes on disease immunity in the form of immunoglobulins (IgG). Without colostrum in the first few hours of life the lamb would be at great risk from hypothermia, starvation and septicaemia (Binns et al, 2002). Ewes are sometimes unable to provide their lambs adequate colostrum so there is always a need for substitutes. There are many substitute colostrums available and the aim of this trial was to compare three, hyperimmune bovine colostrum, caprine colostrum and an artificial colostrum as a positive control. CO-LATE Ultra Concentrate whole colostrum supplement for lambs (Net-tex Agricultural Ltd) which is manufactured from whole cow colostrum was selected as the positive control as it was found to be most widely used and of average price. Caprine (goat) colostrum has not been widely researched for use with lambs although it is similar in composition to ewe colostrum which may make it more beneficial than artificial colostrums.
Selenium is an essential nutrient for dairy cattle, being a key component of the anti-oxidative protection mechanism. With over 20 seleno-proteins being identified in the body as important nutrients or co-factors for the physiological processes involving production, health and fertility, the need for ensuring a selenium supply which is both efficacious and safe has increased dramatically. Key roles of selenium include supporting the immune function and fertility. In terms of reproduction its main action is to protect the developing embryo from oxidative damage. Concern over the sufficiency of selenium supply has increased in recent years and it is well recognised that the British Isles is deficient in selenium as measured in soils and crops. As a consequence, the animal is totally dependent for its selenium supply on concentrated feedstuffs and mineral supplements. There is a cautious approach to dietary supplementation of selenium because of its toxicity even though a legal limit of 0.50 mg/kg in dairy complete feeds applies. It is also recognised that traditional sources of selenium (sodium selenite) have limited availability and utilisation within the animal. Considerable research effort has been directed at evaluating the key selenium metabolite “L-Selenomethionine” as a potential dietary selenium source. Much of the naturally supplied selenium from feedingstuffs is in this form. Supplying a significant proportion of selenium in the organic methionine form has been found to both reduce potential toxicity problems and boost absorption. The aim of this trial was to compare two selenium supplements, selenium selenite (inorganic) and selenium metalosate (organic) in the dairy cows diet and investigate effects on milk yield, milk composition and hygiene, and fertility.
Children with poor mental health often struggle at school. The relationship between childhood psychiatric disorder and exclusion from school has not been frequently studied, but both are associated with poor adult outcomes. We undertook a secondary analysis of the British Child and Adolescent Mental Health Surveys from 2004 and its follow-up in 2007 to explore the relationship between exclusion from school and psychopathology. We predicted poorer mental health among those excluded.
Psychopathology was measured using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, while psychiatric disorder was assessed using the Development and Well-Being Assessment and applying Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition (DSM IV) criteria. Exclusion from school and socio-demographic characteristics were reported by parents. Multi-variable regression models were used to examine the impact of individual factors on exclusion from school or psychological distress.
Exclusion from school was commoner among boys, secondary school pupils and those living in socio-economically deprived circumstances. Poor general health and learning disability among children and poor parental mental health were also associated with exclusion. There were consistently high levels of psychological distress among those who had experienced exclusion at baseline and follow-up.
We detected a bi-directional association between psychological distress and exclusion. Efforts to identify and support children who struggle with school may therefore prevent both future exclusion and future psychiatric disorder.
As part of a program to study surge-type glaciers, a radar-depth survey, using a frequency of 620 MHz, has been made of Trapridge Glacier, Yukon Territory. Soundings were taken at 26 locations on the glacier surface and a maximum ice thickness of 143 m was measured. A rapid change in surface slope in the lower ablation region marks the boundary between active and stagnant ice and is suggestive of an “ice dam” or the water “collection zone” postulated by Robin and Weertman for surging glaciers.
The identification of the factors that influence the persistence of psychiatric disorder may assist practitioners to focus on young people who are particularly prone to poor outcomes, but population-based samples of sufficient size are rare.
This secondary analysis combined data from two large, population-based cross-sectional surveys in Great Britain (1999 and 2004) and their respective follow-ups (2002 and 2007), to study homotypic persistence among the 998 school-age children with psychiatric disorder at baseline. Psychiatric disorder was measured using the Development and Well-Being Assessment applying DSM-IV criteria. Factors relating to the child, family, and the severity and type of psychopathology at baseline were analysed using logistic regression.
Approximately 50% of children with at least one psychiatric disorder were assigned the same diagnostic grouping at 3-year follow-up. Persistent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and anxiety were predicted by poor peer relationship scores. Persistent conduct disorder was predicted by intellectual disability, rented housing, large family size, poor family function and by severer baseline psychopathology scores.
Homotypic persistence was predicted by different factors for different groups of psychiatric disorders. Experimental research in clinical samples should explore whether these factors also influence response to interventions.
Several studies in the last decade have explored dramatic instances of refractive fringing in dynamic spectra. We draw attention to a subtler but more widespread refractive effect: wisp-like structures extending (either linearly or with curvature) outward from the origin in the secondary spectrum plane. We have employed a simple pinhole screen simulation to investigate this phenomenon. It appears that the presence of one or more wisps in a secondary spectrum indicates a clump of scattering material that is significantly offset from the optical axis. Unlike the dramatic fringing events that have been investigated in the past, however, the interference that gives rise to a wisp is interference between rays within a scattering clump rather than between two major ray bundles. Furthermore, the scattering clump must be significantly elongated along the direction of pulsar motion. The range of fringe spacings that this produces, all with a similar slope in the secondary spectrum, gives rise to the linear extent of the wisp in the secondary spectrum.
Resilience is the capacity of individuals to resist mental disorders despite exposure to stress. Little is known about its neural underpinnings. The putative variation of white-matter microstructure with resilience in adolescence, a critical period for brain maturation and onset of high-prevalence mental disorders, has not been assessed by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Lower fractional anisotropy (FA) though, has been reported in the corpus callosum (CC), the brain's largest white-matter structure, in psychiatric and stress-related conditions. We hypothesized that higher FA in the CC would characterize stress-resilient adolescents.
Three groups of adolescents recruited from the community were compared: resilient with low risk of mental disorder despite high exposure to lifetime stress (n = 55), at-risk of mental disorder exposed to the same level of stress (n = 68), and controls (n = 123). Personality was assessed by the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). Voxelwise statistics of DTI values in CC were obtained using tract-based spatial statistics. Regional projections were identified by probabilistic tractography.
Higher FA values were detected in the anterior CC of resilient compared to both non-resilient and control adolescents. FA values varied according to resilience capacity. Seed regional changes in anterior CC projected onto anterior cingulate and frontal cortex. Neuroticism and three other NEO-FFI factor scores differentiated non-resilient participants from the other two groups.
High FA was detected in resilient adolescents in an anterior CC region projecting to frontal areas subserving cognitive resources. Psychiatric risk was associated with personality characteristics. Resilience in adolescence may be related to white-matter microstructure.
Turkey has the youngest population in Europe with about 25 million people aged below 19 years and Turkish-speaking people comprise the biggest migrant group in Europe with 2.5 million people dispersed in different countries, but conducting epidemiologic surveys on Turkish people is challenging due to the lack of a suitable diagnostic tool. The Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) is one of the most widely used diagnostic interviews in child and adolescent psychiatry. In this study, we aimed at translating the DAWBA into Turkish and then examined its validity and reliability.
The validity of the Turkish version was examined in clinical (n = 50) and community (n = 104) samples. The interrater reliability was also evaluated on 20 cases.
The translation method used in the study achieved semantic, conceptual, content, technical, item and criterion equivalence between the Turkish and original forms. The validity of the Turkish DAWBA was good or excellent for different diagnostic categories (κ: 0.43–0.84); the interrater reliability was also excellent (κ: 0.85–1).
The Turkish DAWBA may be useful for future prevalence studies in Turkey. European clinicians and researchers who work with Turkish-speaking families can use the online Turkish DAWBA to gather structured information from Turkish-speaking informants and review the answers in their own language.
Recent Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) have identified four low-penetrance ovarian cancer susceptibility loci. We hypothesized that further moderate- or low-penetrance variants exist among the subset of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) not well tagged by the genotyping arrays used in the previous studies, which would account for some of the remaining risk. We therefore conducted a time- and cost-effective stage 1 GWAS on 342 invasive serous cases and 643 controls genotyped on pooled DNA using the high-density Illumina 1M-Duo array. We followed up 20 of the most significantly associated SNPs, which are not well tagged by the lower density arrays used by the published GWAS, and genotyping them on individual DNA. Most of the top 20 SNPs were clearly validated by individually genotyping the samples used in the pools. However, none of the 20 SNPs replicated when tested for association in a much larger stage 2 set of 4,651 cases and 6,966 controls from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. Given that most of the top 20 SNPs from pooling were validated in the same samples by individual genotyping, the lack of replication is likely to be due to the relatively small sample size in our stage 1 GWAS rather than due to problems with the pooling approach. We conclude that there are unlikely to be any moderate or large effects on ovarian cancer risk untagged by less dense arrays. However, our study lacked power to make clear statements on the existence of hitherto untagged small-effect variants.
We consider interpolation by piecewise polynomials, where the interpolation conditions are on certain derivatives of the function at certain points, specified by a finite incidence matrix E. Similarly the allowable discontinuities of the piecewise polynomials are specified by a finite incidence matrix F. We first find necessary conditions on (E, F) for the problem to be poised, that is to have a unique solution for any given data. The main result gives sufficient conditions on (E, F) for the problem to be poised, generalising a well-known result of Atkinson and Sharma. To this end we prove some results involving estimates of the numbers of zeros of the relevant piecewise polynomials.
We consider classes of functions satisfying certain simple criteria of sign and smoothness and a decomposition property. It is known that these properties are possessed by Chebysheffian B-splines and it is shown here that they are also possessed by certain trigonometric B-splines. For such a class of functions, we derive a variation-diminishing property and analyse interpolation both on a finite set of nodes and on an infinite, periodically spaced set of nodes. The results are also applied to interpolation by complex polynomial splines on the circle.
We consider interpolation by piecewise polynomials, where the interpolation conditions are on certain derivatives of the function at certain points of a periodic vector x, specified by a periodic incidence matrix G. Similarly, we allow discontinuity of certain derivatives of the piecewise polynomial at certain points of x, specified by a periodic incidence matrix H. This generalises the well-known cardinal spline interpolation of Schoenberg. We investigate conditions on G, H and x under which there is a unique bounded solution for any given bounded data.
Duchon (1978) considered interpolation in ℝn by “Dm-splines”, which are interpolating functions having, in a sense, minimum energy. The purpose of this paper is to consider the analogous interpolation at the lattice of points in ℝn with integer co-ordinates, generalising aspects of Schoenberg's (1973) theory of cardinal spline interpolation. Following Schoenberg, we prove that higher order “basic” splines can be written as convolutions of lower order ones, using a new notion of convolution due to Jones (1982).