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A joint experimental and theoretical study is made of instability mechanisms of locally confined internal gravity wave beams in a stratified fluid. Using as forcing a horizontal cylinder that is oscillated harmonically in the direction of beam propagation makes it possible to generate coherent finite-amplitude internal wave beams whose spatial profile comprises no more than a single wavelength. For forcing amplitude above a certain threshold depending on the driving frequency, such thin wave beams are observed to undergo an instability that involves two subharmonic perturbations with wavepacket-like spatial structure. Although it bears resemblance to the triadic resonant instability (TRI) of small-amplitude sinusoidal waves, the present instability cannot be predicted by TRI theory as the primary wave is not nearly monochromatic, but instead contains broadband wavenumber spectrum. In contrast, the experimental observations are in good agreement with the predictions of a formal linear stability analysis based on Floquet theory. Finally, experimental evidence is presented that transverse beam variations induce a horizontal mean flow of the streaming type and greatly subdue the instability.
In this paper, the generation of relativistic electron mirrors (REM) and the reflection of an ultra-short laser off the mirrors are discussed, applying two-dimension particle-in-cell simulations. REMs with ultra-high acceleration and expanding velocity can be produced from a solid nanofoil illuminated normally by an ultra-intense femtosecond laser pulse with a sharp rising edge. Chirped attosecond pulse can be produced through the reflection of a counter-propagating probe laser off the accelerating REM. In the electron moving frame, the plasma frequency of the REM keeps decreasing due to its rapid expansion. The laser frequency, on the contrary, keeps increasing due to the acceleration of REM and the relativistic Doppler shift from the lab frame to the electron moving frame. Within an ultra-short time interval, the two frequencies will be equal in the electron moving frame, which leads to the resonance between laser and REM. The reflected radiation near this interval and corresponding spectra will be amplified due to the resonance. Through adjusting the arriving time of the probe laser, a certain part of the reflected field could be selectively amplified or depressed, leading to the selective adjustment of the corresponding spectra.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a major public health concern all over the world. Little is known about the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on mental health in the general population. This study aimed to assess the mental health problems and associated factors among a large sample of college students during the COVID-19 outbreak in China.
This cross-sectional and nation-wide survey of college students was conducted in China from 3 to 10 February 2020. A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess psychosocial factors, COVID-19 epidemic related factors and mental health problems. Acute stress, depressive and anxiety symptoms were measured by the Chinese versions of the impact of event scale-6, Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, respectively. Univariate and hierarchical logistic regression analyses were performed to examine factors associated with mental health problems.
Among 821 218 students who participated in the survey, 746 217 (90.9%) were included for the analysis. In total, 414 604 (55.6%) of the students were female. About 45% of the participants had mental health problems. The prevalence rates of probable acute stress, depressive and anxiety symptoms were 34.9%, 21.1% and 11.0%, respectively. COVID-19 epidemic factors that were associated with increased risk of mental health problems were having relatives or friends being infected (adjusted odds ratio = 1.72–2.33). Students with exposure to media coverage of the COVID-19 ≥3 h/day were 2.13 times more likely than students with media exposure <1 h/day to have acute stress symptoms. Individuals with low perceived social support were 4.84–5.98 times more likely than individuals with high perceived social support to have anxiety and depressive symptoms. In addition, senior year and prior mental health problems were also significantly associated with anxiety or/and depressive symptoms.
In this large-scale survey of college students in China, acute stress, anxiety and depressive symptoms are prevalent during the COVID-19 pandemic. Multiple epidemic and psychosocial factors, such as family members being infected, massive media exposure, low social support, senior year and prior mental health problems were associated with increased risk of mental health problems. Psychosocial support and mental health services should be provided to those students at risk.
An asymptotic model is developed for the parametric subharmonic instability (PSI) of finite-width nearly monochromatic internal gravity wave beams in the presence of a background constant horizontal mean flow. The subharmonic perturbations are taken to be short-scale wavepackets that may extract energy via resonant triad interactions while in contact with the underlying beam, and the mean flow is assumed to be small so that its advection effect on the perturbations is as important as dispersion, triad nonlinearity and viscous dissipation. In this ‘distinguished limit’, the perturbation dynamics are governed by the same evolution equations as those derived in Karimi & Akylas (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 757, 2014, pp. 381–402), except for a mean flow term that affects the group velocity of the perturbations and imposes an additional necessary condition for PSI, which stabilizes very short-scale perturbations. As a result, it is possible for a small amount of mean flow to weaken PSI dramatically.
The coupled nonlinear interaction of three-dimensional gravity–inertia internal wavepackets, in the form of beams with nearly monochromatic profile, with their induced mean flow is discussed. Unlike general three-dimensional wavepackets, such modulated nearly monochromatic beams are not susceptible to modulation instability from their inviscid, purely modulation-induced mean flow. However, streaming – the induced mean flow associated with the production of mean potential vorticity via the combined action of dissipation and nonlinearity – can cause cross-beam bending, transverse broadening and increased along-beam decay of the beam profile, in qualitative agreement with earlier laboratory experiments. For wavepackets with general three-dimensional modulations, by contrast, streaming does arise, but plays a less prominent role in the interaction dynamics.
The study investigated whether different dietary energy and protein sources affect laying performance, antioxidant status, fresh yolk fatty acid profile and quality of salted yolks in laying ducks. In all, 360 19-week-old Longyan ducks were randomly assigned to four diets in a factorial arrangement (2×2). The four diets consisted of two energy sources, corn (CO) or sorghum (SO) and two protein sources, soybean meal (SM) and rapeseed meal with corn distillers dried grains with solubles (RMD), and each treatment contained six replicates of 15 birds each. The experimental diets were isocaloric (metabolizable energy, 10.84 MJ/kg) and isonitrogenous (CP, 17%). The results showed that egg production, average egg weight, egg mass and feed conversion ratio were not affected by diets (P>0.05). Plasma contents of reduced glutathione (GSH), GSH/oxidized glutathione and total antioxidant capacity were lower (P<0.05) in ducks fed the RMD diets compared with those fed SM diets with a substantial increase (P=0.006) in plasma content of malondialdehyde (MDA). Egg yolks from ducks fed SO diets had higher proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and lower saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids compared with CO diets (P<0.001). Similarly, ducks fed RMD diets had a higher content of PUFA and n-6/n-3 ratio in fresh yolks (P<0.001), and increased salted yolk MDA, carbonylated proteins content and incidence of hard salted yolks (P<0.05) compared with SM diets. Scanning electron microscopy showed that salted yolks contained rougher polyhedral granules and fewer fat droplets, and were surrounded with a layer of bunchy fibers in ducks fed SO+RMD than those fed CO+SM diet. In conclusion, the current study showed that feeding laying ducks with diets containing SO or RMD reduced antioxidant capacity and increased egg yolk concentrations of PUFA. It appeared that egg yolks from ducks fed these diets were more sensitive to lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation during salting, and reduced the quality of salted yolks.
The large scatter in Lyman-α opacity at z > 5.3 has been an ongoing mystery, prompting a flurry of numerical models. A uniform ultra-violet background has been ruled out at those redshifts, but it is unclear whether any proposed models produce sufficient inhomogeneities. In this paper we provide an update on the measurement which first highlighted the issue: Lyman-α effective optical depth along high-z quasar lines of sight. We nearly triple on the previous sample size in such a study thanks to the cooperation of the DES-VHS, SHELLQs, and SDSS collaborations as well as new reductions and spectra. We find that a uniform UVB model is ruled out at 5.1 < z < 5.3, as well as higher redshifts, which is perplexing. We provide the first such measurements at z ∼ 6. None of the numerical models we confronted to this data could reproduce the observed scatter.
When a rigid body collides with a liquid surface with sufficient velocity, it creates a splash curtain above the surface and entrains air behind the sphere, creating a cavity below the surface. While cavity dynamics has been studied for over a century, this work focuses on the water entry characteristics of deformable elastomeric spheres, which has not been studied. Upon free surface impact, an elastomeric sphere deforms significantly, giving rise to large-scale material oscillations within the sphere resulting in unique nested cavities. We study these phenomena experimentally with high-speed imaging and image processing techniques. The water entry behaviour of deformable spheres differs from rigid spheres because of the pronounced deformation caused at impact as well as the subsequent material vibration. Our results show that this deformation and vibration can be predicted from material properties and impact conditions. Additionally, by accounting for the sphere deformation in an effective diameter term, we recover previously reported characteristics for time to cavity pinch off and hydrodynamic force coefficients for rigid spheres. Our results also show that velocity change over the first oscillation period scales with the dimensionless ratio of material shear modulus to impact hydrodynamic pressure. Therefore, we are able to describe the water entry characteristics of deformable spheres in terms of material properties and impact conditions.
Whereas Lievens and Motowidlo (2016) propose a model of situational judgment test (SJT) performance that removes the “situation” in favor of conceptualizing SJTs as a measure of general domain knowledge, we argue that the expression of general domain knowledge is in fact contingent on situational judgment. As we explain, the evidence cited by Lievens and Motowidlo against a situational component does not inherently exclude the importance of situations from SJTs and does overlook the strong support for a person–situation interaction explanation of behavior. Based on the interactionist literature—in particular, the trait activation theory (TAT) and situational strength literatures—we propose a model that both maintains the key pathways and definitions posited by Lievens and Motowidlo and integrates the situational component of SJTs.
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease that was caused by a novel bunyavirus, SFTSV. The study aimed to disclose the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of SFTSV infection in China so far. An integrated clinical database comprising 1920 SFTS patients was constructed by combining first-hand clinical information collected from SFTS sentinel hospitals (n = 1159) and extracted data (n = 761) from published literature. The considered variables comprised clinical manifestations, routine laboratory tests of acute infection, hospitalization duration and disease outcome. SFTSV-IgG data from 19 119 healthy subjects were extracted from the published papers. The key clinical variables, case-fatality rate (CFR) and seroprevalence were estimated by meta-analysis. The most commonly seen clinical manifestations of SFTSV infection were fever, anorexia, myalgia, chill and lymphadenopathy. The major laboratory findings were elevated lactate dehydrogenase, aminotransferase, followed by thrombocytopenia, lymphocytopenia, elevated alanine transaminase and creatine kinase. A CFR of 12·2% was estimated, significantly higher than that obtained from national reporting data, but showing no geographical difference. In our paper, the mortality rate was about 1·9 parts per million. Older age and longer delay to hospitalization were significantly associated with fatal outcome. A pooled seroprevalence of 3·0% was obtained, which increased with age, while comparable for gender. This study represents a clinical characterization on the largest group of SFTS patients up to now. A higher than expected CFR was obtained. A wider spectrum of clinical index was suggested to be used to identify SFTSV infection, while the useful predictor for fatal outcome was found to be restricted.
The herbicide chlorsulfuron is commonly applied to cereals and may persist in alkaline soil long enough to damage subsequent sensitive crops. Sewage water, a potential source of the heavy metal cadmium (Cd), is used to irrigate agricultural soils in many developing countries. The current work evaluated the effects of the residual herbicide chlorsulfuron and Cd on maize seedlings, with particular attention to the mechanism of their action on plant growth. Maize seeds were planted in soil that had been sprayed with chlorsulfuron and Cd, after which residues in both seedlings and the soil were measured. The chlorsulfuron dose was correlated with the amount of residue found in seedlings but not in the soil. In all, 39 metabolites were identified in seedlings using the Automated Mass spectral Deconvolution and Identification System software program and the retention index method. The combination of chlorsulfuron and Cd significantly reduced multiple metabolites in the shikimate pathway, malic acid and citric acid production in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and lactic acid, glucose, aspartic acid, asparagine and 3-glycerophosphoric acid production. In addition, chlorsulfuron caused an increase in multiple amino acids, including tyrosine, methionine and asparagine, and a marked decrease in caffeic and cinnamic acids (the secondary metabolites derived from the shikimate pathway and galactose). Finally, chlorsulfuron and Cd stress markedly increased shikimate acid, decreased 3-glycerophosphoric acid and caused negative correlations between the amounts of phenylalanine and tyrosine and those of quinic- and cinnamic-acid. In conclusion, chlorsulfuron and Cd did not have a synergistic effect on maize seedlings; rather, the combination of these pollutants had an antagonistic effect on some amino acids.
This study aimed to comprehensively evaluate factors that influence the likelihood of syphilis infection from risk-taking behaviours and medical conditions. A retrospective case-control study was conducted by enrolling 664 syphilis inpatients (excluding 11 congenital syphilis patients) and 800 sex- and age-matched controls. Medical histories, clinical data and patient interview data were collected and subjected to logistic regression analyses. The prevalence of syphilis in the study population was 3·9% (675/17 304). By univariate analysis, syphilis infection was associated with migration between cities, marital status, smoking, reproductive history, hypertension, elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) (P < 0·05). A high rate of syphilis-HBV co-infection was observed in HIV-negative patients and further research revealed an association between syphilis and specific HBV serological reactivity. Syphilis was also associated with the frequency, duration and status of tobacco use. Multivariate analysis indicated that syphilis infection was independently associated with migration between cities [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1·368, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·048–1·785], current smoking (aOR 1·607, 95% CI 1·177–2·195), elevated BUN (aOR 1·782, 95% CI 1·188–2·673) and some serological patterns of HBV infection. To prevent the spread of infectious diseases, inpatients and blood donors should be tested for HIV, syphilis, HBV and HCV simultaneously.
The boundary element method (BEM) is easier than the finite element method (FEM) on the viewpoint of the discretization of one dimension reduction rather than the domain discretization of finite element method. The disadvantage of BEM is the rank deficiency in the influence matrix, e.g., degenerate boundary, degenerate scale, spurious eigenvalues and fictitious frequencies, which do not occur in the FEM. The conventional BEM can not be straightforward applied to solve a problem which contains a degenerate boundary without decomposing the domain to multi-regions. A hypersingular integral equation is used to ensure a unique solution for the problem containing a degenerate boundary. By combining the singular and hypersingular equations, it’s termed the dual BEM due to its dual frame. Following the successful experience on the retrieval of information using the singular value decomposition (SVD) updating term and updating document, this technique is also used to extract out the degenerate-boundary information and the rigid-body information in the dual BEM. It is interesting to find that true information due to a rigid-body mode in physics is found in the right singular vector with respect to the corresponding zero singular value while the degenerate-boundary mode (geometry degeneracy) in mathematics is imbedded in the left singular vector with respect to the corresponding zero singular value. The role of the common right and left singular vectors of SVD for the four influence matrices in the dual BEM is also discussed in this paper. Two examples, a potential flow problem across a cutoff wall and a cracked bar under torsion were demonstrated to see the mathematical SVD structure of four influence matrices in the dual BEM.
VO2 is one of the very few natural materials that can be used to modulate terahertz (THz) radiations. A 100-nm thick VO2, when in its metallic phase, has a charge density of more than ∼ 1015 cm-2 which will strongly reflect and absorb the THz radiation; while in its insulator state, the charge density is lowered by several orders of magnitude to be THz transparent. Therefore, exploiting the metal-insulator transition of VO2 is a potential approach to modulate or even switch THz radiation for THz optics. Here we report that VO2 epitaxial thin films on sapphire substrate exhibits 85% amplitude modulation depth in a broad bandwidth, while this value can be improved to 95% when VO2 film is coated on both sides of a substrate. We further demonstrate that with wafer bonding, 4-layered VO2 thin films exhibit a transmittance as low as -20 dB to -30 dB at their metallic state, enough for switching applications. We also report our proof-of-concept demonstration of THz spatial light modulator that exhibits amplitude modulation as large as 96%, -30 dB pixel-to-pixel crosstalk, and a broad THz bandwidth.
AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors were exposed to 60Co gamma-irradiation to doses up to 300Gy. The impact of Compton- electron injection (due to gamma-irradiation) is studied through monitoring of minority carrier transport using Electron Beam Induced Current (EBIC) technique. Temperature dependent EBIC measurements were conducted on devices before and after exposure to the irradiation, which provide us with critical information on gamma-irradiation induced defects in the material. As a result of irradiation, minority carrier diffusion length increases significantly, with an accompanying decrease in the activation energy. This is consistent with the longer life time of minority carrier in the material’s valence band as a result of an internal electron injection and subsequent trapping of Compton electrons on neutral levels.
Variability is one of the extreme observational properties of BL Lacertae objects. AO 0235+164 is a well studied BL Lac through the whole electro-magnetic wavebands, it is violently variable in the optical bands. In the present work, we show its optical R band photometric observations carried out during the period of Nov. 2006 to Dec. 2012 using the Ap6E CCD camera attached to the primary focus of the 70 cm meniscus telescope at Abastumani Observatory, Georgia. It shows a large variation of ΔR = 4.88 mag (14.20 - 19.08 mag) during our monitoring period. When periodicity analysis methods are adopted to its R observations from our Abastumani monitoring programme and those in the literature, the signs of some periods, P1 = 8.26 yr, P2 = 0.55 yr, P3 = 0.85 yr, P4 = 1.99 yr are found.
To estimate the incidence of tympanogenic labyrinthitis ossificans.
The records of patients treated with mastoidectomy for various tympanogenic aetiologies from January 2007 to December 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients whose high-resolution computed tomography scans showed evidence of labyrinthine calcification of the temporal bone were enrolled. Patients with a history of head and neck cancer, meningitis, and otosclerosis, and patients with cochlear implants, were excluded from this study.
A total of 195 patients were enrolled in this study; 4 of the patients presented with calcification in the inner ear. Therefore, the incidence of tympanogenic labyrinthitis ossification was 2 per cent. The computed tomography findings revealed: (1) cochlear calcifications of the basal and middle turn in two patients; and (2) vestibular, superior semicircular canal, posterior semicircular canal and lateral semicircular canal calcification in one, four, three and two patients, respectively.
The incidence of tympanogenic labyrinthitis ossification in patients who had undergone a mastoidectomy was 2 per cent.
Specific roles of individual CDPKs vary, but in general they mediate essential biological functions necessary for parasite survival. A comparative analysis of the structure-activity relationships (SAR) of Neospora caninum, Eimeria tenella and Babesia bovis calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) together with those of Plasmodium falciparum, Cryptosporidium parvum and Toxoplasma gondii was performed by screening against 333 bumped kinase inhibitors (BKIs). Structural modelling and experimental data revealed that residues other than the gatekeeper influence compound–protein interactions resulting in distinct sensitivity profiles. We subsequently defined potential amino-acid structural influences within the ATP-binding cavity for each orthologue necessary for consideration in the development of broad-spectrum apicomplexan CDPK inhibitors. Although the BKI library was developed for specific inhibition of glycine gatekeeper CDPKs combined with low inhibition of threonine gatekeeper human SRC kinase, some library compounds exhibit activity against serine- or threonine-containing CDPKs. Divergent BKI sensitivity of CDPK homologues could be explained on the basis of differences in the size and orientation of the hydrophobic pocket and specific variation at other amino-acid positions within the ATP-binding cavity. In particular, BbCDPK4 and PfCDPK1 are sensitive to a larger fraction of compounds than EtCDPK1 despite the presence of a threonine gatekeeper in all three CDPKs.