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Botanical treatments have been used by persons with epilepsy, especially for convulsive seizures, dating from 6000 BC in India , from 3000 BC in China and in Peru, and for centuries in Africa and South America. In traditional Western medicine, botanical treatments were widely used to treat seizures before the advent of compounds such as bromide and phenobarbital. For instance, Gowers documented his use of Cannabis indica (see also section on Cannabis and its Derivatives) and digitalis, the latter derived from the Foxglove plant (Digitalis purpurea) .
Patients with nonepileptic seizures (NES) frequently present in neurology, psychiatry, psychology, and emergency departments. The disorder has been well-documented in the medical literature, and much is known about the phenomenology, ictal semiology, neurologic signs, psychiatric comorbidities, neuropsychological testing, and psychosocial aspects. Since the publication of the third edition in 2010, knowledge of treatments for NES has grown and new data have become available. Fully updated to reflect these developments, this fourth edition brings together the current knowledge of NES treatments, drawing on the experience of an international team of authors. An accompanying website features video-EEGs of seizures and videos of patient-clinician interactions, which will help readers with both diagnostic and management decisions. Tables clearly illustrating the differential diagnosis of various nonepileptic events give readers quick reference guides to aid diagnostic assessment. A valuable resource for neurologists, psychiatrists, psychologists, and any clinicians who encounter NES in their practice.