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Zeeman Doppler Imaging (ZDI) is a recent technique for measuring magnetic fields on rapidly rotating, active stars. ZDI employs spectropolarimetry taken at different rotational phases to derive information on the magnetic field distribution over the stellar surface. The Zeeman effect is used to identify the presence of a magnetic field, and variations in Doppler wavelength shifts across the rapidly rotating star allow fields to be resolved on different parts of the visible disk. Analysis of the spectra can be used to produce both thermal and surface magnetic images. ZDI requires very high S/N spectra to be acquired within a time interval short compared to the stellar rotation period. As a result, a large-aperture telescope is needed. Since an initial successful test in 1989, the 3·9 m Anglo-Australian Telescope has been used to obtain ZDI spectra of active stars of different evolutionary stages. The observations have concentrated on the K subgiant in the RSCVn system HR 1099 to monitor changes on this bright and active star. With the advent in 1991 of ZDI spectropolarimetry with the AAT échelle spectrograph, it has become possible to co-add the polarisation signature from the many magnetically sensitive lines recorded simultaneously. As a result, stellar magnetic field detections of unprecedented quality have been obtained. The aims of this paper are to briefly outline the principles of ZDI, describe the instrumental setup at the AAT and present some preliminary results from recent observations.
Originally prepared for the United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction, this is the first comprehensive assessment of global volcanic hazards and risk, presenting the state of the art in our understanding of global volcanic activity. It examines our assessment and management capabilities, and considers the preparedness of the global scientific community and government agencies to manage volcanic hazards and risk. Particular attention is paid to volcanic ash, the most frequent and wide-ranging volcanic hazard. Of interest to government officials, the private sector, students and researchers, this book is a key resource for the disaster risk reduction community and for those interested in volcanology and natural hazards. A non-technical summary is included for policy makers. Regional volcanic hazard profiles, with invaluable information on volcanic hazards and risk at the local, national and global scale, are provided online. This title is available as an Open Access eBook via Cambridge Books Online.
Volcanic hazards and risk have not been considered in previous global assessments by UNISDR as part of the biennial reports on disaster risk reduction. This book developed as a consequence of Global Volcano Model (GVM) being invited to make such an assessment by UNISDR for its 2015 report. GVM worked in close collaboration with the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior (IAVCEI) to contribute four background papers for the 2015 Global Assessment Report (GAR15) of UNISDR. These background papers contain a lot more information than could be included in GAR15 and can be construed as the evidence on which UN ISDR have been able to include volcanic risk into their report. Although the background papers were placed on the UNISDR website they would have become part of the ephemeral grey literature that increasingly pervades scientific publication. Thus the decision was made to publish the reports together as an open access e-book with the support of UNISDR.
The book represents the efforts of the global volcanological community to provide a synthesis of what we understand about volcanoes, volcanic hazards and the attendant risks. The book owes its existence to the efforts of many scientists from many countries. There are over 130 authors from 47 countries. Members of the World Organisation of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) have been immensely helpful and collaborative in providing information for the country profiles and making sure that the facts are correct. Outside of those who have directly contributed are many thousands of scientists throughout the world who have provided the data and scientific analysis within the peer-reviewed literature to contribute to the collective knowledge, which we have tried to synthesise. There will be shortcomings and omissions in any endeavour of this kind. GVM and IAVCEI have the ambition to carry out future global analyses to reflect advances in knowledge and to address shortcomings and omissions in this inaugural attempt at a globalsynthesis.
Formula One returned to the United States on November 16-18, 2012, with the inaugural United States Grand Prix in Austin, Texas. Medical preparedness for motorsports events represents a unique challenge due to the potential for a high number of spectators seeking medical attention, and the possibility for a mass-casualty situation. Adequate preparation requires close collaboration across public safety agencies and hospital networks to minimize impact on Emergency Medical Services (EMS) resources.
To report the details of preparation for an inaugural mass-gathering motorsports event, and to describe the details of the medical care rendered during the 3-day event.
A retrospective analysis was completed utilizing postevent summaries, provided by the medical planning committee, by the Federation Internationale de L'Automobile (FIA), and Austin Travis County Emergency Medical Services (ATCEMS). Patient data were collected from standardized patient care records for descriptive analysis. Medical usage rates (MURs) are reported as a rate of patients per 10,000 (PPTT) participants.
A total of 566 patients received medical care over the 3-day period with the on-site care rate of 95%. Overall, MUR was 21.3 PPTT attendees. Most patients had minor problems, and there were no driver injuries or deaths.
This mass-gathering motorsport event had a moderate number of patients requiring medical attention. The preparedness plan was implemented successfully with minimal impact on EMS resources and local medical facilities. This medical preparedness plan may serve as a model to other cities preparing for an inaugural motorsports event.
SabraJP, CabañasJG, BedollaJ, BorgmannS, HawleyJ, CravenK, BrownC, ZiebellC, OlveyS. Medical Support at a Large-scale Motorsports Mass-gathering Event: The Inaugural Formula One United States Grand Prix in Austin, Texas. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2014;29(4):1-7.
The purpose of this critical review is to look at the current literature regarding mass gatherings and to create further understanding of this area with a particular focus on what the audience brings with them to the event, particularly in a planned event with a cultural theme or focus. Through an understanding of these predispositions and consequent effects on audience behavior in a mass-gathering setting, a more complete understanding of motivation factors of crowds and audiences can also be found.
A critical review of mass-gathering literature was undertaken by searching various online academic databases. Peer-reviewed scholarly articles relevant to the cultural aspects associated with religious, sporting and music mass gatherings were also analyzed.
Results from the review show that the word “culture” is often used to explain what happens at the event without reflecting how the motivations or behaviors of audiences at an event are influenced by the cultural predispositions of the audience.
By understanding the cultural predispositions of the audience, event planners and designers, event risk managers and event safety personnel are able to better understand the motivation of the audience and how this might impact on audience behavior at the event. Further work needs to be done, however, to investigate the broader range of predispositions. The ultimate aim of developing this understanding is to better inform the health promotion and public health messages that can be developed for a particular type of event based on the likely composition of the audience in attendance.
HuttonA, BrownS, VerdonkN. Exploring Culture: Audience Predispositions and Consequent Effects on Audience Behavior in a Mass-Gathering Setting. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2013;28(3):1-6.
Introduction: The environmental aspects of mass gatherings that can affect the health and safety of the crowd have been well described. Although it has been recognized that the nature of the crowd will directly impact the health and safety of the crowd, the majority of research focuses on crowd behavior in a negative context such as violence or conflict. Within the mass gathering literature, there is no agreement on what crowd behavior, crowd mood and crowd type actually mean. At the same time, these elements have a number of applications, including event management and mass gathering medicine. These questions are worthy of exploration.
Methods: This paper will report on a pilot project undertaken to evaluate how effective current crowd assessment tools are in understanding the psychosocial domain of a mass gathering event.
Results: The pilot project highlighted the need for a more consistent descriptive data set that focuses on crowd behavior.
Conclusions: The descriptive data collected in this study provide a beginning insight into the science of understanding crowds at a mass gathering event. This pilot has commenced a process of quantifying the psychosocial nature of an event. To maximize the value of this work, future research is required to understand the interplay among the three domains of mass gatherings (physical, environmental and psychological), along with the effects of each element within the domains on safety and health outcomes for participants at mass gatherings.