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We examined the effects of various exercise intensities on recovery from middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats.
First, we administered a 120-minute left MCAO to male Sprague-Dawley rats and randomly assigned them to one of four groups: no exercise (Group 1), mild exercise (Group 2), moderate exercise (Group 3), and severe exercise (Group 4). Then, we trained the rats for 30 min per day for one week or two weeks. We used a five-point neurological evaluation scale to measure neurological deficits 1-day, 4-days, 7-days, 10-days and 14-days after MCAO and measured infarct volume by use of 2% 2,3,4-triphenyltetrazolium chloride in exercised brains. We also performed immunohistochemistry analysis of the brain to observe reactive astrocytosis at the peri-infarct region.
Neurological examination indicated that Group 2 and 3 recovered better than Group 1 after one week and two weeks (p<0.05). Moreover, Group 2 and 3 had reduced brain infarct volume compared with Group 1 after one week (p<0.05). There were no significant differences between Group 4 and Group 1. The thickness of the peri-infarct astrocytosis was significantly reduced in Group 4 relative to Group 1 after one week. There was a significant negative correlation between the extent of reactive astrocytosis and neurological recovery (r= -0.648, p<0.01).
This study demonstrates that mild to moderate exercise that begins soon after induced cerebral ischemia promotes recovery and that astrocytes may have an important role in the recovery process.
In the thin film transistor fabrication process, tin doped indium oxide (ITO) or zinc doped indium oxide (IZO) film can be easily exposed to hydrogen-containing plasma during the deposition of silicon nitride (SiNx) film. By this exposure, ITO or IZO can be easily reduced into its corresponding metallic element such as indium, which degrades the optical transmittance and the conductivity. In this study, SiNx was deposited onto ITO or IZO film, and the oxygen reduction of ITO or IZO during PECVD SiNx deposition was analyzed to clarify this phenomenon. The oxygen reduction during PECVD SiNx deposition is mainly induced by decomposed NH3 gas. However, the progress of ITO reduction is different from that of IZO reduction, due to the different atomic composition of In2O3 in the composite and the different critical temperature of reduction initiation between indium oxide, tin oxide, and zinc oxide.
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