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We demonstrate an ultra-broadband high temporal contrast infrared laser source based on cascaded optical parametric amplification, hollow-core fiber (HCF) and second harmonic generation processes. In this setup, the spectrum of an approximately 1.8 μm laser pulse has near 1 μm full bandwidth by employing an argon gas-filled HCF. Subsequently, after frequency doubling with cascaded crystals and dispersion compensation by a fused silica wedge pair, 9.6 fs (~3 cycles) and 150 μJ pulses centered at 910 nm with full bandwidth of over 300 nm can be generated. The energy stability of the output laser pulse is excellent with 0.8% (root mean square) over 20 min, and the temporal contrast is >1012 at –10 ps before the main pulse. The excellent temporal and spatial characteristics and stability make this laser able to be used as a good seed source for ultra-intense and ultrafast laser systems.
The parasite Fasciola hepatica is an important zoonotic parasite. The development of an animal model of F. hepatica's life cycle is critical for studying the biological characteristics of the parasite in snails and mammals. Eggs of F. hepatica of bovine origin were cultured, and metacercariae were obtained after infection of Galba pervia snails. The life cycle system of F. hepatica was initiated in 2 different animals by orally infecting rabbits, SD rats and Kunming mice with the metacercariae. The animals' survival after infection, parasite migration in the animals and pathological damage to the liver were observed. We discovered that rabbits died due to acute suppurative hepatitis 60–69 days after infection, and eggs were found in the feces on day 63 of infection. The liver of SD rats showed punctate lesions on day 3 of infection, and further changes occurred as the infection progressed. However, liver repair was observed at week 9. SD rats survived for more than a year after infection and continued the F. hepatica life cycle. The liver lesions in Kunming mice after infection were similar but more severe than those in SD rats. Death was observed on the 31st post-infection day. We discovered that while rabbits, SD rats and Kunming mice can all be used as animal models of F. hepatica, SD rats are more suitable experimental animals in terms of tolerance and pathological response.
Pyroptosis is a recently identified mechanism of programmed cell death related to Caspase-1 that triggers a series of inflammatory reactions by releasing several proinflammatory factors such as IL-1β and IL-18. The process is characterised by the rupture of cell membranes and the release of cell contents through the mediation of gasdermin (GSDM) proteins. GSDMD is an important member of the GSDM family and plays a critical role in the two pathways of pyroptosis. Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a microvascular complication of diabetes and a major cause of end-stage renal disease. Recently, it was revealed that GSDMD-mediated pyroptosis plays an important role in the occurrence and development of DN. In this review, we focus on two types of kidney cells, tubular epithelial cells and renal podocytes, to illustrate the mechanism of pyroptosis in DN and provide new ideas for the prevention, early diagnosis and molecular therapy of DN.
In this paper, the generation of relativistic electron mirrors (REMs) and the reflection of an ultra-short laser off this mirrors are discussed, applying two-dimensional particle-in-cell (2D-PIC) simulations. REMs with ultra-high acceleration and expanding velocity can be produced from a solid nanofoil illuminated normally by an ultra-intense femtosecond laser pulse with a sharp rising edge. Chirped attosecond pulse can be produced through the reflection of a counter-propagating probe laser off the accelerating REM. In the electron moving frame, the plasma frequency of the REM keeps decreasing due to its rapidly expanding. The laser frequency, on the contrary, keeps increasing due to the acceleration of REM and the relativistic Doppler shift from the lab frame to the electron moving frame. Within an ultra-short time interval, the two frequencies will be equal in the electron moving frame, which leads the resonance between laser and REM. The reflected radiation near this interval and the corresponding spectra will be amplified due to the resonance. Through adjusting the arriving time of the probe laser, certain part of the reflected field could be selectively amplified or depressed, leading to the selectively adjusting of the corresponding spectra.
The clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 were analysed to determine the factors influencing the prognosis and virus shedding time to facilitate early detection of disease progression. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the relationships among prognosis, clinical characteristics and laboratory indexes. The predictive value of this model was assessed with receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, calibration and internal validation. The viral shedding duration was calculated using the Kaplan–Meier method, and the prognostic factors were analysed by univariate log-rank analysis and the Cox proportional hazards model. A retrospective study was carried out with patients with COVID-19 in Tianjin, China. A total of 185 patients were included, 27 (14.59%) of whom were severely ill at the time of discharge and three (1.6%) of whom died. Our findings demonstrate that patients with an advanced age, diabetes, a low PaO2/FiO2 value and delayed treatment should be carefully monitored for disease progression to reduce the incidence of severe disease. Hypoproteinaemia and the fever duration warrant special attention. Timely interventions in symptomatic patients and a time from symptom onset to treatment <4 days can shorten the duration of viral shedding.
The bioavailability of dietary ionised calcium is affected by intestinal basic environment. Calcium-binding peptides can form complexes with calcium to improve its absorption and bioavailability. The aim of this study was focused on isolation and characterisation of a calcium-binding peptide from whey protein hydrolysates. Whey protein was hydrolysed using Flavourzyme and Protamex with substrate to enzyme ratio of 25 : 1 (w/w) at 49 °C for 7 h. The calcium-binding peptide was isolated by DEAE anion-exchange chromatography, Sephadex G-25 gel filtration and reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). A purified peptide of molecular mass 204 Da with strong calcium binding ability was identified on chromatography/electrospray ionisation (LC/ESI) tandem mass spectrum to be Glu-Gly (EG) after analysis and alignment in database. The calcium binding capacity of EG reached 67·81 μg/mg, and the amount increased by 95% compared with whey protein hydrolysate complex. The UV and infrared spectrometer analysis demonstrated that the principal sites of calcium-binding corresponded to the carboxyl groups and carbonyl groups of glutamic acid. In addition, the amino group and peptide amino are also the related groups in the interaction between EG and calcium ion. Meanwhile, the sequestered calcium percentage experiment has proved that EG-Ca is significantly more stable than CaCl2 in human gastrointestinal tract in vitro. The findings suggest that the purified dipeptide has the potential to be used as ion-binding ingredient in dietary supplements.
The plant expression vectors pCAMBIA1301PMI and pBIPMI were constructed by substituting the Escherichia coli phosphomannose-isomerase (PMI) gene for the hpt gene of pCAMBIA1301 and gus gene of pBI121, respectively. Epicotyl explants of the Xuegan sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) were inoculated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105- pCAMBIA1301PMI and EHA105-pBIPMI and subsequently selected in a medium supplemented with a combination of 25 g/l mannose and 5 g/l sucrose as the carbon source. The transformation efficiency rate was 27.7% when transformed by pCAMBIA1301PMI and 12.7% by pBIPMI. Genetic transformation was confirmed by chlorophenol red assay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A new method for obtaining transgenic Xuegan sweet orange plants was developed using the PMI/mannose selection system.
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