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Childhood trauma influences the clinical features of schizophrenia. In this study, we examined how childhood trauma and perceived stress are associated with clinical manifestations and subcortical gray matter volumes (GMVs) in patients with schizophrenia.
We recruited 127 patients with schizophrenia and 83 healthy controls for assessment of early childhood trauma, perceived stress, and clinical symptoms. With structural brain imaging, we identified the GMVs of subcortical structures and examined the relationships between childhood trauma, perceived stress, clinical symptoms, and subcortical GMVs.
Compared to controls, patients with schizophrenia showed higher levels of childhood trauma and perceived stress. Patients with schizophrenia showed significantly smaller amygdala and hippocampus GMVs as well as total cortical GMVs than age-matched controls. Childhood trauma score was significantly correlated with the severity of clinical symptoms, depression, perceived stress, and amygdala GMVs. Perceived stress was significantly correlated with clinical symptoms, depression, and hippocampus and amygdala GMVs. Further, the association between childhood trauma (emotional neglect) and stress coping ability was mediated by right amygdala GMV in patients with schizophrenia.
Patients with schizophrenia had more exposure to early-life trauma and poorer stress coping. Both childhood trauma and perceived stress were associated with smaller amygdala volumes. The relationship between early-life trauma and perceived stress was mediated by right amygdala GMV in patients with schizophrenia. These findings together suggest the long-term effects of childhood trauma on perceived stress and the subcortical volumetric correlates of the effects in schizophrenia.
Organisational psychology literature is abounded with empirical evidence of the mitigating effect that social support seeking (SSS) behaviour has on stress. However, it is unclear if this phenomenon is present in a collectivist context where workers might be hesitant to seek social support when under stress. A total of 123 employees from China completed a longitudinal survey over 4 weeks assessing their appraisals of an ongoing work stressor, coping strategies, and stress level. Path-analysis, hierarchical regression and means comparison determined the degree of fit of two theoretical perspectives (stress-buffer and main effects) to Chinese employee's SSS behaviour, and its frequency of use against other coping strategies. Results showed that SSS was not elicited by primary and secondary appraisals, but instead may be better explained by employees' collectivistic aspirations. Implications of the results were addressed in relation to stress management strategies and human resource support initiatives. Future research directions were also discussed.
One major challenge for a continuum model to describe nanoscale confined fluid flows is the lack of a boundary condition that can capture molecular-scale slip behaviours. In this work, we propose a molecular-kinetic boundary condition to model the fluid–surface and fluid–fluid molecular interactions using the Lennard–Jones type potentials, and add a mean-field force to the momentum equation. This new boundary condition is then applied to investigate the nanoscale Couette and Poiseuille flows using the generalised hydrodynamic model developed by Guo et al. (Phys. Fluids, volume 18, issue 6, 2006a, 067107). The accuracy of our model is validated by molecular dynamics simulations and other models for a broad range of parameters including density, shear rate, wettability and channel width. Our simulation results reveal some unexpected and unintuitive slip behaviours at the nanoscale, including the epitaxial layering structure of fluids and the slip length minimum. The slip length minimum, which is analogous to the Knudsen minimum, can be explained by competing fluid–solid and fluid–fluid molecular interactions as density varies. A new scaling law is proposed for the slip length to account for not only the competing effect between the fluid–solid and fluid–fluid molecular interactions, but also many other physical mechanisms including the competition between the fluid internal potential energy and kinetic energy, and the confinement effect. While the slip length is nearly constant at the low shear rates, it increases rapidly at the high shear rates due to friction reduction. These molecular-scale slip behaviours are caused by energy corrugations at the fluid–solid interface where strong fluid–solid and fluid–fluid molecular interactions interplay.
It is generally accepted that high-oleic crops have at least 70% oleate. As compared to their normal-oleic counterparts, oil and food products made from high-oleic peanut have better keeping quality and are much healthier. Therefore, high-oleic peanut is well recognized by processors and consumers. However, owing to the limited availability of high-oleic donors, most present-day high-oleic peanut varietal releases merely have F435 type FAD2 mutations. Through screening of a mutagenized peanut population of 15L46, a high-yielding peanut line with desirable elliptical oblong large seeds, using near infrared model for predicting oleate content in individual single seeds, high-oleic peanut mutants were identified. Sequencing FAD2A and FAD2B of the mutants along with the wild type revealed that these mutants possessed G448A FAD2A (F435 type FAD2A mutation) and G558A FAD2B (non-F435 type FAD2B mutation). Expression of the wild and mutated type FAD2B in yeast verified that the functional mutation contributed to the high-oleic phenotype in these mutants. The mutants provided additional high-oleic donors to peanut quality improvement.
The study’s aims were (i) to identify the prevalence of health anxiety (HA) among the elderly in urban community healthcare centers and (ii) to determine whether HA is related to social, physical, or psychological factors.
It is a population-based observational study.
Data were collected from urban community healthcare centers in Chengdu, China, from October 2016 to March 2017.
A total of 893 participants aged ≥ 60 years.
The Short HA Inventory was used for HA assessment. Mental health status was assessed using the Geriatric Depression Inventory and Mini-Mental State Examination. Other information was collected through face-to-face interviews. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 19.0.
The point prevalence rate of HA was 9.53% (95%CI = 6.99%–12.07%). The number of chronic diseases was a positive factor associated with HA in a regression analysis. As compared with participants without chronic diseases, people with one (OR = 1.796; 95%CI = 0.546–5.909), two (OR = 2.922; 95%CI = 0.897–9.511), and three chronic diseases (OR = 6.448; 95%CI = 2.147–19.363) had higher odds of suffering from HA.
The prevalence of HA was high in the elderly population. Certain physical conditions, such as having chronic diseases, were significant impact factors. More attention should be paid to the situation of HA in this population.
The present study aimed to explore the association between dietary patterns in abdominal obesity obtained by reduced-rank regression (RRR) with visceral fat index (VFI) as a dependent variable and dyslipidemia in rural adults in Henan, China. A total of 29538 people aged 18–79 were selected from the Henan Rural Cohort Study. RRR analysis was used to identify dietary patterns; logistic regression analysis and restricted cubic spline regression models were applied to analyze the association between dietary patterns in abdominal obesity and dyslipidemia. VFI was used as a mediator to estimate the mediation effect. The dietary pattern in abdominal obesity was characterized by high carbohydrate and red meat intake and low consumption of fresh fruits, vegetables, milk, etc. After full adjustment, the highest quartile of dietary pattern scores was significantly associated with an increased risk of dyslipidemia (OR: 1·33, 95 % CI 1·23–1·44, Ptrend < 0·001), there was a non-linear dose–response relationship between them (Poverall-association < 0·001, Pnon-lin-association = 0·022). The result was similar in dose-response between the dietary pattern scores and VFI. The indirect effect partially mediated by VFI was significant (OR: 1·07, 95 % CI 1·06–1·08). VIF explained approximately 53·3 % of odds of dyslipidemia related to the dietary pattern. Abdominal obesity dietary pattern scores positively affected VFI and dyslipidemia; there was a dose-response in both relationships. Dyslipidemia progression increased with higher abdominal obesity dietary pattern scores. In addition, VFI played a partial mediating role in relationship between abdominal obesity dietary pattern and dyslipidemia.
As threats to biodiversity proliferate, establishment and expansion of protected areas have increasingly been advocated in recent decades. In establishing a network of protected areas, recurrent assessments of the biodiversity conservation actually afforded by these areas is required. Gap analysis has been useful to evaluate the sufficiency and performance of protected areas. We surveyed Reeves’s Pheasant Syrmaticus reevesii populations in 2018–2019 across its distribution range in central China to quantify the distribution of habitat suitable for this species. Our goal was to ascertain the current distribution of Reeves’s Pheasant and then identify the gaps in protecting Reeves’s Pheasant of the existing national nature reserve (NNR) network to provide suggestions for improving the conservation of this important species. The existing NNR network encompassed only 17.0% of the habitat suitable for Reeves’s Pheasant. Based on the current distributions of both suitable habitat and NNRs for Reeves’s Pheasant, we suggest most currently unprotected areas comprised moderately suitable habitat for species and should be prioritized in the future. A multiple species approach using Reeves’s Pheasant as a flagship species should be considered to understand the extent of mismatch between the distributions of protected areas and suitable habitat to improve the management effectiveness of NNRs. This case study provides an example of how the development of a conservation reserve network may be based on species distribution and habitat assessments and is useful to conservation efforts in other regions and for other species.
Hong Kong is an intermediate tuberculosis (TB) burden city in Asia Pacific with slow decline of case notification in the last decade. By 24-loci mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units – variable number of tandem repeats genotyping, we examined 534 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates collected from culture-positive hospitalised TB patients in a 1.7 million population geographic region in the city. Overall, 286 (75%) were classified as Beijing genotype, of which 216 (76%) and 59 (21%) belonged to modern and ancient sub-lineage, respectively. Only two cases were genetically clustered while spatial clustering was absent. Male gender, permanent residency in Hong Kong and born in Hong Kong or Mainland China were associated with Beijing genotype. The high prevalence of Beijing modern lineage was similar to that in East Asia, which reflected the pattern resulting from population migration. The paucity of clustering suggested that reactivation accounted for most of the TB disease cases, which was and echoed by observation that half were 60 years old or above, and the presence of co-morbid medical conditions. The predominance of reactivation TB cases in intermediate burden localities implies that the detection and control of latent TB infection would be the major challenge in achieving TB elimination.
Poor utilisation efficiency of carbohydrate always leads to metabolic phenotypes in fish. The intestinal microbiota plays an important role in carbohydrate degradation. Whether the intestinal bacteria could alleviate high-carbohydrate diet (HCD)-induced metabolic phenotypes in fish remains unknown. Here, a strain affiliated to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens was isolated from the intestine of Nile tilapia. A basal diet (CON), HCD or HCD supplemented with B. amy SS1 (HCB) was used to feed fish for 10 weeks. The beneficial effects of B. amy SS1 on weight gain and protein accumulation were observed. Fasting glucose and lipid deposition were decreased in the HCB group compared with the HCD group. High-throughput sequencing showed that the abundance of acetate-producing bacteria was increased in the HCB group relative to the HCD group. Gas chromatographic analysis indicated that the concentration of intestinal acetate was increased dramatically in the HCB group compared with that in the HCD group. Glucagon-like peptide-1 was also increased in the intestine and serum of the HCB group. Thus, fish were fed with HCD, HCD supplemented with sodium acetate at 900 mg/kg (HLA), 1800 mg/kg (HMA) or 3600 mg/kg (HHA) diet for 8 weeks, and the HMA and HHA groups mirrored the effects of B. amy SS1. This study revealed that B. amy SS1 could alleviate the metabolic phenotypes caused by HCD by enriching acetate-producing bacteria in fish intestines. Regulating the intestinal microbiota and their metabolites might represent a powerful strategy for fish nutrition modulation and health maintenance in future.
To investigate the vision loss burden due to vitamin A deficiency (VAD) at the global, regional and national levels by year, age, sex and socio-economic status using prevalence and years lived with disability (YLD).
Prevalence and YLD data were extracted from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2017. The association of age-standardised YLD rates and human development index (HDI) was tested by Pearson correlation and linear regression analyses. The Gini coefficient and concentration index (CI) were calculated to demonstrate the trends in between-country inequality in vision loss burden due to VAD.
All participants met the GBD inclusion criteria.
The age-standardised prevalence rate increased by 9·2 %, while the age-standardised YLD rates rose by 10·8 % from 1990 to 2017. Notably, the vision loss burden caused by VAD showed a declining trend since 2014. The vision loss burden was more concentrated in the post-neonatal age group and decreased with increasing age. The age-standardised YLD rates were inversely correlated with HDI (r = –0·2417, P = 0·0084). The CI and Gini coefficients indicated that socio-economic-related and between-country inequality declined from 2000 to 2017. VAD was the eighth leading cause of the age-standardised prevalence rate and ninth leading cause of age-standardised YLD rate among fifteen causes of vision loss in 2017.
VAD has become one of the significant leading causes of vision loss globally. Efforts to control vision impairment related to VAD are needed, especially for children in countries with lower socio-economic status.
The very high frequency data exchange system (VDES) is promising in promoting electronic navigation (E-navigation) and improving navigation safety. The multiple access control (MAC) protocol is crucial to the transmission performance of VDES. The self-organising time division multiple access (SOTDMA) protocol, as the only access mode given by current recommendations, leads to a high rate of transmission collisions in the traditional automatic identification system (AIS), especially with heavy traffic loads. This paper proposes a novel feedback based time division multiple access (FBTDMA) protocol to address the problems caused by SOTDMA, such that collision of transmissions can be avoided in information transmission among vessels. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed FBTDMA outperforms the traditional SOTDMA in terms of channel utilisation and throughput, and significantly reduces the transmission collision rate. The study is expected to provide insights into VDES standardisation and E-navigation modernisation.
The Dayao Paleolithic site, located in Inner Mongolia on the eastern margin of China's vast northwestern drylands, was a lithic quarry-workshop utilized by Pleistocene human migrants through the region. Determining the age of this activity has previously yielded controversial results. Our magnetostratigraphic and OSL dating results suggest the two artifact-bearing paleosols are correlated with MIS 5 and 7, respectively. Correlating paleoclimatic data with marine δ18O records leads us to conclude that two sandy gravel layers containing many artifacts in the lower part of the Dayao sequence were formed during MIS 9 and 11, if not earlier. Our results reveal that the earliest human occupation at the Dayao site occurred before ca. 400 ka during a relatively warm and moist interglacial period, similar to several subsequent occupations, documenting the earliest and northernmost archaeological assemblage yet reported in China's arid northwest. We conclude that the northward and southward displacements of the East Asian summer monsoon rain belt during past interglacial-glacial cycles were responsible for the discontinuous human occupation detected at the Dayao site. The penetration of this precipitation regime into dryland ecologies via the Huanghe (Yellow River) Valley effectively created a corridor for hominin migration into China's arid northwest.
We present a theoretical study of mode evolution in high-power distributed side-coupled cladding-pumped (DSCCP) fiber amplifiers. A semi-analytical model taking the side-pumping schemes, transverse mode competition, and stimulated thermal Rayleigh scattering into consideration has been built, which can model the static and dynamic mode evolution in high-power DSCCP fiber amplifiers. The mode evolution behavior has been investigated with variation of the fiber amplifier parameters, such as the pump power distribution, the length of the DSCCP fiber, the averaged coupling coefficient, the number of the pump cores and the arrangement of the pump cores. Interestingly, it revealed that static mode evolution induced by transverse mode competition is different from the dynamic evolution induced by stimulated thermal Rayleigh scattering. This shows that the high-order mode experiences a slightly higher gain in DSCCP fiber amplifiers, but the mode instability thresholds for DSCCP fiber amplifiers are higher than those for their end-coupled counterparts. By increasing the pump core number and reducing the averaged coupling coefficient, the mode instability threshold can be increased, which indicates that DSCCP fibers can provide additional mitigation strategies of dynamic mode instability.
Our previous research showed that increased phosphorylation of connexin (Cx)36 indicated extended coupling of AII amacrine cells (ACs) in the rod-dominant mouse myopic retina. This research will determine whether phosphorylation at serine 276 of Cx35-containing gap junctions increased in the myopic chicken, whose retina is cone-dominant. Refractive errors and ocular biometric dimensions of 7-days-old chickens were determined following 12 h and 7 days induction of myopia by a −10D lens. The expression pattern and size of Cx35-positive plaques were examined in the early (12 h) and compensated stages (7 days) of lens-induced myopia (LIM). At the same time, phosphorylation at serine 276 (functional assay) of Cx35 in strata 5 (S5) of the inner plexiform layer was investigated. The axial length of the 7 days LIM eyes was significantly longer than that of non-LIM controls (P < 0.05). Anti-phospho-Ser276 (Ser276-P)-labeled plaques were significantly increased in LIM retinas at both 12 h and 7 days. The density of Ser276-P of Cx35 was observed to increase after 12 h LIM. In the meanwhile, the areas of existing Cx35 plaques did not change. As there was more phosphorylation of connexin35 at Ser276 at both the early and late stages (12 h) and 7 days of LIM chicken retinal activity, the coupling with ACs could be increased in myopia development of the cone-dominated chicken retina.
We investigated motor cortical excitability (CE) in unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and its relationship to bilateral tonic-clonic seizure (BTCS) using paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS).
In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 46 unilateral TLE patients and 16 age-and sex-matched healthy controls. Resting motor thresholds (RMT); short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI, GABAA receptor-mediated); facilitation (ICF, glutamatergic-mediated) with interstimulus intervals (ISIs) of 2, 5, 10, and 15 ms; and long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI, GABAB receptor-mediated) with ISIs of 200–400 ms were measured via paired-pulse TMS. Comparisons were made between controls and patients with TLE, and then among the TLE subgroups (no BTCS, infrequent BTCS and frequent BTCS subgroup).
Compared with controls, TLE patients had higher RMT, lower SICI and higher LICI in both hemispheres, and higher ICF in the ipsilateral hemisphere. In patients with frequent BTCS, cortical hyperexcitability in the ipsilateral hemisphere was found in a parameter-dependent manner (SICI decreased at a stimulation interval of 5 ms, and ICF increased at a stimulation interval of 15 ms) compared with patients with infrequent or no BTCS.
Our results demonstrate that motor cortical hyper-excitability in the ipsilateral hemisphere underlies the epileptogenic network of patients with active BTCS, which is more extensive than those with infrequent or no BTCS.
A dysfunctional default mode network (DMN) has been reported in patients with schizophrenia. However, the stability of the deficits has not been determined across different stages of the disorder.
We examined the functional connectivity of the DMN subsystems of 125 patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES) or recurrent schizophrenia (RES), compared to that of 82 healthy controls. We tested the robustness of the findings in an independent cohort of 158 patients and 39 healthy controls. We performed resting-state functional connectivity analysis, and examined the strength of the connections within and between the three subsystems of the DMN (core, dorsal medial prefrontal cortex [dMPFC], and medial temporal lobe [MTL]). We also analyzed the connectivity correlations to symptoms and illness duration.
We found reduced connectivity strength between the core and MTL subsystems in schizophrenia patients compared to controls, with no differences between the FES and RES patient groups; these findings were validated in the second sample. Schizophrenia patients also showed a significant reduction in connectivity within the MTL and between the dMPFC−MTL subsystems, similarly between FES and RES groups. The connectivity strength within the core subsystem was negatively correlated with clinical symptoms in schizophrenia. There was no significant correlation between the DMN subsystem connectivity and illness duration.
DMN subsystem connectivity deficits are present in schizophrenia, and the homochronicity of their appearance indicates the trait-like nature of these alterations. The DMN deficit may be useful for early diagnosis, and MTL dysfunction may be a crucial mechanism underlying schizophrenia.
Sugarcane brown rust, caused by Puccinia melanocephala, is one of the main diseases of sugarcane in China. The identification and discovery of new resistance genes have important theoretical and practical significance for preventing outbreaks of brown rust and ensuring the sustainable production of sugarcane. To screen for polymorphic simple-sequence repeat (SSR) molecular markers for localization of brown rust resistance genes, we used two populations that are suitable for genetic linkage map construction and mapping of new resistance genes to construct resistant and susceptible genetic pools. We then screened 449 pairs of primers to identify polymorphic SSR markers in the parental lines and the resistant/susceptible genetic pools. The results showed that 25 pairs of primers directed amplification of polymorphic DNA fragments between the parents of the cross combination ‘Yuetang 03-393’ × ‘ROC 24’, and 16 pairs of primers amplified polymorphic fragments between the parents of the cross combination ‘Liucheng 03-1137’ × ‘Dezhe 93-88’. Four pairs of primers (SMC236CG, SCESSR0928, SCESSR0636 and SCESSR2551) amplified polymorphic DNA fragments between the parental lines and the resistant/susceptible genetic pools in ‘Yuetang 03-393’ × ‘ROC 24’. The results of this study will establish a solid foundation for the mapping of new brown rust resistance genes, genetic linkage map construction and the development of closely-associated molecular markers in sugarcane.