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In order to improve both the operating voltage and the luminous efficiency of the protective layer for AC Plasma Display Panels, controlled amount of TiO2 was added to the pure MgO. The effect of the TiO2 addition on both the electrical properties (firing voltage & sustain voltage) and the luminous efficiency of the Mg2−2xTixO2 films deposited by e-beam evaporation was investigated. By addition of a proper amount of TiO2 to MgO, the dielectric constant of protective layer was increased to the 11, which has higher than that of bulk MgO. When the composition of Ti in the thin films was about 2.45at%, firing and sustain voltages were very low. With this composition, the luminous efficiency characteristics were much better than that of any other protective layer. When compared to that of the conventional MgO protective layer, the luminous efficiency showed an increase by 28%.
The growth behaviour of carbon nanotubes on the Fe-deposited Si (001) substrates by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The Fe films are deposited for 20 s–20 min by pulse-laser deposition. SEM results show that the growth characteristics of carbon nanotubes strongly depend on the Fe film deposition time. TEM and SEM results show that the pretreatment annealing at 800 °C causes the continuous Fe films to be broken up into nanoparticles 8–50 nm across and discontinuous islands 100 nm– 1.1 μm in size. It is shown that the Fe nanoparticles are essentially required for the formation of aligned carbon nanotubes. SEM results show that the growth behaviors of carbon nanotubes are strongly dependent on the pretreatment atmospheres. In addition, for the Ar gas-pretreated sample, a carbonaceous layer is formed near the surface region. TEM results show direct evidence that a base growth mode is responsible for the growth of carbon nanotubes in the present work. Based on the microscopy results, the pretreatment condition dependence of the growth behaviors of carbon nanotubes is discussed.
We have grown well-aligned carbon nanotube arrays by thermal chemical vapor deposition at 800°C on Fe nanoparticles deposited by a pulsed laser on a porous Si substrate. Porous Si substrates were prepared by the electrochemical etching of p-Si(100) wafers with resistivities of 3 to 6 ωcm. These well-aligned carbon nanotube field emitter arrays are suitable for electron emission applications such as cold-cathode flat panel displays and vacuum microelectronic devices like microwave power amplifier tubes. Field emission characterization has been performed on the CNT-cathode diode device at room temperature and in a vacuum chamber below 10−6 Torr. The anode is maintained at a distance of 60[.proportional]m away from the carbon nanotube cathode arrays through an insulating spacer of polyvinyl film. The measured field emitting area is 4.0×10−5cm2. Our carbon nanotube field emitter arrays emit 1mA/cm2at the electric field, 2V/[.proportional]m. And they emit a large current density as high as 80mA/cm2 at 3V/[.proportional]m. The open tip structure of our carbon nanotubes and their good adhesion through Fe nanoparticles to the Si substrate are part of the reason why we can attain a large field emission current density within a low field. The field emitter arrays in our diode device are vertically well-aligned carbon nanotubes on the Si-wafer substrate.
The good field-emission properties of carbon nanotubes coupled with their high mechanical strength, chemical stability, and high aspect ratio, make them ideal candidates for the construction of efficient and inexpensive field-emission electronic devices. The fabrication process reported here has considerable potential for use in the development of integrated radio frequency amplifiers or field emission-controllable cold electron guns for field emission displays. This fabrication process is compatible with currently used semiconductor processing technologies. Micropatterned vertically aligned carbon nanotubes were grown on planar Si surface or inside the trenches, using chemical vapor deposition, photolithography, pulsed-laser deposition, reactive ion etching, and the lift-off method. To control the field-emission current by a 3rd electrode, the gate electrode, we grew carbon nanotubes inside the trenches. This triode-type structure is the best to realize the gray-scale carbon nanotube field emission. This carbon nanotube fabrication process can be widely applied for the development of electronic devices using carbon nanotube field emitters as cold cathodes and could revolutionize the area of field-emitting electronic devices such as RF amplifiers and field emission displays.
Selective chemical etching and atomic force microscope (AFM) examination has been performed to delineate two-dimensional (2-D) dopants profiles of p/n-type well and junction areas. Selectivity strongly depended on the types of dopants and the ratio of etching solutions. Calibration showed that the carrier concentrations in both p/n-type regions could be delineated down to a level of ∼1×1017/cm3. The AFM-induced profiles were compared with the calculated data provided by the 2-D process simulators such as TRIM and SUPREM-IV.
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