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Childhood maltreatment (CM) plays an important role in the development of major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of this study was to examine whether CM severity and type are associated with MDD-related brain alterations, and how they interact with sex and age.
Within the ENIGMA-MDD network, severity and subtypes of CM using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire were assessed and structural magnetic resonance imaging data from patients with MDD and healthy controls were analyzed in a mega-analysis comprising a total of 3872 participants aged between 13 and 89 years. Cortical thickness and surface area were extracted at each site using FreeSurfer.
CM severity was associated with reduced cortical thickness in the banks of the superior temporal sulcus and supramarginal gyrus as well as with reduced surface area of the middle temporal lobe. Participants reporting both childhood neglect and abuse had a lower cortical thickness in the inferior parietal lobe, middle temporal lobe, and precuneus compared to participants not exposed to CM. In males only, regardless of diagnosis, CM severity was associated with higher cortical thickness of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex. Finally, a significant interaction between CM and age in predicting thickness was seen across several prefrontal, temporal, and temporo-parietal regions.
Severity and type of CM may impact cortical thickness and surface area. Importantly, CM may influence age-dependent brain maturation, particularly in regions related to the default mode network, perception, and theory of mind.
Policing is commonly thought to be governed by domestic legal systems and not international law. However, various international legal standards are shown to have an impact in situations where police use force. Police Use of Force under International Law explores this tension in detail for the first time. It critically reviews the use of force by law enforcement agencies in a range of scenarios: against detainees, during protests, and in the context of counterterrorism and counterpiracy operations. Key trends, such as the growing use of private security services, are also considered. This book provides a human rights framework for police weaponry and protection of at-risk groups based on critical jurisprudence from the last twenty years. With pertinent case law and case studies to illustrate the key principles of the use of force, this book is essential reading for anyone interested in policing, human rights, state use of force or criminology.
The primary measurement made of reef fishes is abundance, which is used to compare populations and understand the processes affecting their dynamics. Abundance is typically expressed as counts of individuals or total biomass, conveying distinct but related information about the state of a fish population or community at a given point in time. Total community abundance varies at scales ranging from entire ocean basins to habitat patches on individual reefs, due to a range of processes that vary in relative importance at different scales. At local to regional scales, abundance changes between and within species in accordance with well-established macro-ecological patterns: variation in abundance among species typically follows a log-normal distribution, while temporal variation within species conforms to Taylor's power law. Changes in the relative abundance of species occur at all scales and reflect the aggregate effects of species-specific responses to scale-specific processes. The diverse and multi-scale patterns of variation in fish abundance suggest that the application of hierarchical models, which explicitly specify the scales at which different processes influence abundance, will lead to a more holistic understanding of reef fish ecology.
Abundance is the most commonly measured quantity in studies of reef fishes. It is also a major determinant of the effect that a population of reef fishes has in a coral reef ecosystem. Reef fish abundance may be measured in numbers of individuals or estimates of population biomass, conveying distinct but related information about the state of a reef fish community. Counts (or densities, if normalized to a sample area) are more common, presumably due to their greater ease of collection. However, there is growing evidence that trained observers are able to estimate fish lengths with only minimal bias , and that, in conjunction with reliable taxon-specific length–weight relationships, biomass estimates can be reliably obtained . Because the extent to which a species can perform ecological functions (e.g. consume algae, or provide nutrition for humans) often depends upon population biomass more strongly than numerical abundance, biomass has become increasingly important in reef ecosystem research.