To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This chapter tracks the evolution of the climate change regime, discussing both top-down multilateral agreements (such as the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change) as well as bottom-up polycentric efforts with a particular focus on the period from the 2009 Copenhagen Accord to the 2015 Paris Agreement. It then compares and contrasts these findings with the history of Internet governance from its birth in the late 1970s to the last major meetings in 2017 that occurred prior to publication of this book. Finally, the potential of polycentric governance to mitigate the two global collective action problems of climate change and cyber attacks is assessed using a regime effectiveness study.
This chapter examines the evolution of the legal regime governing outer space and how resurgent national interests are challenging the peaceful use of the final frontier, including the expanding capacity to launch cyber attacks on satellite infrastructure and the potential environmental and security effects of such attacks. Using the same approach as Chapters 3 and 4, this chapter begins by briefly investigating the impact of advancing technology (that in some cases has been accelerated by cyberspace), multipolar politics, and resource scarcity on space governance. It then discusses the evolution of space law from the Outer Space Treaty to the present, and analyzes the extent to which the governance structure of space is changing due to increasing national regulation and private activity, as well as to the expansion of Internet access and its associated demands. Next, this chapter investigates whether the emerging space regime complex is mitigating the collective action problems of space weaponization and junk proliferation, and how the international community may perform better by using regime effectiveness findings from the literature on institutional analysis. Finally, governance best practices, such as those stemming from the International Code of Conduct for Outer Space Activities, are applied to cybersecurity and Internet governance.
Many pressing environmental and security threats now facing the international community may be traced to the frontiers. From climate change and cyber-attacks to the associated challenges of space weaponization and orbital debris mitigation, solutions to all of these issues have at their root some form of regulation over the 'global commons'. Yet governance over these spaces is now transitioning away from multilateral treaties to regional and bilateral accords. This book makes an original contribution by comparing and contrasting some of the principal issues facing the frontiers. It analyzes how and why existing governance structures are often failing to adequately meet global collective action problems, with special coverage on cybersecurity and Internet governance. It proposes a new way forward incorporating lessons from successful regimes as well as the interdisciplinary scholarship on polycentric governance, arguing that multi-stakeholder collaboration is imperative in order to avoid tragedies of the global commons.
The frontiers have long inspired the best, and worst, in humanity. The quest to better ourselves and explore the ends of the Earth, deepest depths of the oceans, the cosmos, and even new frontiers like cyberspace, provides us the opportunity to learn from the past and work for a better future. The successes in this journey have been many, from the 1519 to 1522 Magellan-Elcano expedition around the world through Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin’s footsteps on the Moon four centuries later in 1969 to, just a few years later, the creation and rapid development of what we today call cyberspace. Failures have also been too frequent, as seen in the various global collective action problems analyzed throughout this book, ranging from climate change and orbital debris to marine pollution and cybercrime.
This chapter begins with a summary of the impact of cyber-enabled technological advancement, resource scarcity, and multipolar politics on the evolution of strategies for mitigating global collective action problems that are evolving, describing how and why they are doing so and what that means for cybersecurity and Internet governance going forward. It then discusses the rise and fall of the CHM concept, and the extent to which sustainable development principles are reinvigorating the central tenants of this concept and, with it, the sustainable use of global common pool resources. The chapter moves on to a global study of regime effectiveness across the new frontiers studied in Part II with a special emphasis on cyberspace. Distributed governance best practices identified throughout the study are then applied to promoting a global culture of cybersecurity, particularly with regard to securing the Internet of (broken) Things such as through blockchain technology, and vulnerable critical infrastructure.
This chapter opens with a brief typology of cyber conflict encapsulating cybercrime, espionage, war, and terrorism. The examination then moves on to investigate first how and why these categories are breaking down in the Information Age, and second what comparative approaches to regulating cyberspace and managing cyber conflict exist as juxtaposed against other global collective action problems. The tragedy of the unmanaged commons scenario, from which many collective action problems derive, predicts the overexploitation of common pool resources and has, traditionally, been moderated by three management solutions: privatization, nationalization, and common property legal regimes. Accordingly, this chapter introduces each of these concepts and reflects on the potential and limits of these approaches, including the CHM concept that was introduced to govern the deep seabed and the Moon as applied to cyberspace. The debate is then viewed through the lens of polycentric governance generally as well as through an introduction to a range of leading institutional design frameworks, including the Ostrom Design Principles, which are in turn applied to the case studies in Part II.
This chapter introduces the governance of the frontiers, with a special focus on cybersecurity and Internet governance, by first exploring the application of commons principles to these unique environments. This examination begins by defining key concepts such as “commons,” “pseudo commons,” “public goods,” “club goods,” and “common-pool resources,” before moving on to analyze commons governance through the lens of the economics, political science, and legal literatures. Specifically, the chapter discusses the applicability of law and economics concepts such as property rights, use rights, and transaction costs to the traditional global commons (including the deep seabed, Antarctica, outer space, and the atmosphere) as well as to cyberspace. The evolution of sovereignty in these areas is also summarized with a particular emphasis on how cyberspace is distinct from other commons spaces and what that portends for management. Finally, the field of polycentric institutional analysis is introduced along with its application to cyberspace. It is the purview of Chapter 1 to provide an introduction both to the primary characteristics involved in the governance of the managed and unmanaged global commons and to how these concepts apply (and do not apply) to cyberspace.
This chapter analyzes the shrinking domain of the high seas – taking place as a result of encroachment of continental shelf claims under the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea – and what that portends for the governance both of regional hot spots, such as the South China Sea and the Arctic, and of the Internet, due in part to the expanding web of submarine cables. The chapter begins by exploring how oceanic governance has been shaped by such forces as advancing technology, multipolar politics, and resource scarcity. It next investigates the evolution of the law of the sea from its Roman Law origins to the 1994 New York Amendments of the Third United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, with special attention paid to the growth of the territorial seas. It then analyzes the recent spate of continental shelf claims brought to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf and their impact on the governance regimes applicable to offshore resources, using the Arctic, Antarctic, and South China Seas as illustrative examples. Finally, the chapter applies lessons, such as governance best practices in the form of minilateral norm building from the Arctic Council, to cyberspace.