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What were the experiences of those in Africa who suffered from the practice of slavery, those who found themselves captured and sold from person to person, those who died on the trails, those who were forced to live in fear? And what of those Africans who profited from the slave trade and slavery? What were their perspectives? How do we access any of these experiences and views? This volume explores diverse sources such as oral testimonies, possession rituals, Arabic language sources, European missionary, administrative and court records and African intellectual writings to discover what they can tell us about slavery and the slave trade in Africa. Also discussed are the methodologies that can be used to uncover the often hidden experiences of Africans embedded in these sources. This book will be invaluable for students and researchers interested in the history of slavery, the slave trade and post-slavery in Africa.
Influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 became the predominant circulating strain in the United States during the 2013–2014 influenza season. Little is known about the epidemiology of severe influenza during this season.
A retrospective cohort study of severely ill patients with influenza infection in intensive care units in 33 US hospitals from September 1, 2013, through April 1, 2014, was conducted to determine risk factors for mortality present on intensive care unit admission and to describe patient characteristics, spectrum of disease, management, and outcomes.
A total of 444 adults and 63 children were admitted to an intensive care unit in a study hospital; 93 adults (20.9%) and 4 children (6.3%) died. By logistic regression analysis, the following factors were significantly associated with mortality among adult patients: older age (>65 years, odds ratio, 3.1 [95% CI, 1.4–6.9], P=.006 and 50–64 years, 2.5 [1.3–4.9], P=.007; reference age 18–49 years), male sex (1.9 [1.1–3.3], P=.031), history of malignant tumor with chemotherapy administered within the prior 6 months (12.1 [3.9–37.0], P<.001), and a higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (for each increase by 1 in score, 1.3 [1.2–1.4], P<.001).
Risk factors for death among US patients with severe influenza during the 2013–2014 season, when influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 was the predominant circulating strain type, shifted in the first postpandemic season in which it predominated toward those of a more typical epidemic influenza season.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(11):1251–1260
Previously published guidelines are available that provide comprehensive recommendations for detecting and preventing healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). The intent of this document is to highlight practical recommendations in a concise format designed to assist acute care hospitals in implementing and prioritizing their surgical site infection (SSI) prevention efforts. This document updates “Strategies to Prevent Surgical Site Infections in Acute Care Hospitals,” published in 2008. This expert guidance document is sponsored by the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) and is the product of a collaborative effort led by SHEA, the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), the American Hospital Association (AHA), the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC), and The Joint Commission, with major contributions from representatives of a number of organizations and societies with content expertise. The list of endorsing and supporting organizations is presented in the introduction to the 2014 updates.
Literature on the history of Old Calabar describes the Blood Men as slaves who organized a revolt against their Efik masters that first occurred at the mid-nineteenth century. This chapter presents two passages from missionary texts, which offer intimate insights into the social life of Old Calabar. The first account is from the diary of Hugh Goldie. The second is from an entry in missionary Anderson's diary and a letter of missionary Goldie. A careful reading of their two accounts reveals that slaves operated in support of their deceased master's family when they felt it was necessary to find those responsible for his death, and that local politics played an important role as well. According to the missionaries, the Blood Men were not only fighting against being sacrificed but also to escape the oppression of the Ekpe association, which the Efik to this day consider their traditional form of government.
Alimaamy Dalu Mohammedu Dumbuya (Dalu Modu) was a Muslim headman and trader expelled from Freetown in November or December 1806. Three years later, he was interrogated by British officials at Freetown about the circumstances of his expulsion. The interview shows his understanding of servitude within the settlement and provides information about slave trading and selling within a colony formed originally as the province of freedom. For Dala Modu, there were certain issues that dominated his testimony. One was the difference between what he perceived as legally acceptable behavior for a European or a settler within the settlement and that permitted for Africans who lived alongside the settlement. Thomas Ludlam, who had preceded Governor Thomas Perronet Thompson as governor of the colony, was never brought to trial, and from his center at Lungi, Dala Modu continued to play a prominent role in the colony's commerce until his death in 1841.