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SiO2 thin films were prepared on p-type Si (100) substrates by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using SiH2Cl2 and O3(1.5 at.%)/O2 as precursors at 300. The growth rate of the deposited films increased linearly with increasing amount of simultaneous SiH2Cl2 and O3 exposures, and was saturated at about 0.35 nm/cycle with the reactant exposures of more than 3.6×109L. A larger amount of O3/O2 than that of SiH2Cl2 was required to obtain a saturated deposition reaction. The composition of the deposited film also varied with O3/O2 exposure at a fixed SiH2Cl2 exposure. The Si/O ratio gradually decreased to 0.5 with increasing amount of O3/O2 exposure. Finally, we also compared the physical and electrical characteristics of the ALD films with those of the films deposited by conventional chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods. In spite of low process temperature, the SiO2 film prepared by the ALD method was in wet etch rate, surface roughness, leakage current and breakdown voltage superior to that by other several CVD methods.
The integrated CVD-PVD Al plug process was successfully applied to a sub-quarter micron device for the simultaneous formation of plugs and wires. The effects of the underlayer on the via filling and the microstructure of the CVD-PVD Al films were investigated. Three types of underlayers were examined in this work: the Ti film deposited by the ionized PVD (I-PVD) method, the MOCVD TiN film stacked on the I-PVD Ti film, and the PVD Al film deposited on the I-PVD Ti film. Excellent via filling was achieved by employing the MOCVD TiN/I-PVD Ti or the PVD Al/I-PVD Ti as an underlayer. When only I-PVD Ti film was used as an underlayer, complete via filling was not obtained, because the CVD Al film sealed the top of vias. The CVD-PVD Al film deposited on the PVD Al/I-PVD Ti underlayer also showed excellent crystallographic texture of Al <111> and surface morphology, which is superior to those of the CVD-PVD Al film deposited on the MOCVD TiN/I-PVD Ti underlayer.
Sputtered TiN (30–120 nm thick)/Ti (30 nm thick) films were studied as a diffusion barrier between silicon substrate and copper films. The effects of TiN thickness and the existence of a SiO2 layer between Ti and silicon substrate on the diffusion barrier property were investigated using various characterization methods. The copper diffusion barrier property of TiN/Ti was found to be affected not only by the TiN thickness, that is diffusion distance, but also by the microstructure of the TiN, which changes with the thickness of TiN film. The existence of the SiO2 layer enhanced the diffusion barrier property of TiN/Ti. This is because the SiO2 layer between Ti and Si inhibited the formation of titanium silicides, so the Ti layer was available to be used as the sacrificial diffusion barrier for copper.
The substrate bias was applied during the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process of copper in an effort to change the adsorption behaviors of the reactant. Copper films were deposited on TiN and SiO2 from Cu(hfac)(tmvs) with the substrate bias and without one. The surface morphology, the thickness, the sheet resistance and the purity of the films were investigated. When the negative substrate bias of -30 V was applied to the substrate, the deposition rate of copper increased both on TiN and SiO2. No change was observed in the chemical composition of the copper film deposited with substrate bias in comparison with that of the copper film deposited with no bias. It was calculated that Cu(hfac) has the dipole moment whose direction is from copper to hfac. Under the d. c.electric field, dipole tends to align along the poling direction. Resulting from the overlapping population (OP) value analysis, the improvement of deposition rate under negative substrate bias was explained due to the adsorption of copper atom in Cu(hfac) species directly onto the substrate by the electric field applied between the substrate and the gas showerhead.
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