Public concern about the welfare of farm animals has resulted in an increasing body of legislation regulating livestock production systems. In 2003, the UK implemented two new EU Directives on Pig Welfare (Directives 2001/93/EC and 2001/99/EC), and issued revised Welfare Codes for Pigs. New Council of Europe Recommendations are also at the consultation stage. The welfare issues highlighted for current consideration within the pig sector include space allowance and floor type, environmental enrichment, tail docking, weaning age and the use of the farrowing crate. With present scientific and practical knowledge, not all of these issues have a simple resolution. From an industry perspective, the major welfare issue is the level of endemic disease and, in particular, the dramatic influence of PMWS. There are also concerns regarding potential conflicts between the different policy objectives of animal welfare, environmental protection, food safety, staff health and safety, and financial sustainability that will need to be resolved.