To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
At GE Research, we are combining “physics” with artificial intelligence and machine learning to advance manufacturing design, processing, and inspection, turning innovative technologies into real products and solutions across our industrial portfolio. This article provides a snapshot of how this physical plus digital transformation is evolving at GE.
Objective: Detection of cognitive impairment suggestive of risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) progression is crucial to the prevention of incipient dementia. This study was performed to determine if performance on a novel object discrimination task improved identification of earlier deficits in older adults at risk for AD. Method: In total, 135 participants from the 1Florida Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center [cognitively normal (CN), Pre-mild cognitive impairment (PreMCI), amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), and dementia] completed a test of object discrimination and traditional memory measures in the context of a larger neuropsychological and clinical evaluation. Results: The Object Recognition and Discrimination Task (ORDT) revealed significant differences between the PreMCI, aMCI, and dementia groups versus CN individuals. Moreover, relative risk of being classified as PreMCI rather than CN increased as an inverse function of ORDT score. Discussion: Overall, the obtained results suggest that a novel object discrimination task improves the detection of very early AD-related cognitive impairment, increasing the window for therapeutic intervention. (JINS, 2019, 25, 688–698)
Inflammation and immune activation have been implicated in the pathogenesis of severe mental disorders and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Despite high level of comorbidity, many studies of the immune system in severe mental disorders have not systematically taken cardiometabolic risk factors into account.
We investigated if inflammatory markers were increased in schizophrenia (SCZ) and affective (AFF) disorders independently of comorbid CVD risk factors. Cardiometabolic risk factors (blood lipids, body mass index and glucose) and CVD-related inflammatory markers CXCL16, soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R), soluble CD14 (sCD14), macrophage inhibitory factor and activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) were measured in n = 992 patients (SCZ, AFF), and n = 647 healthy controls. We analyzed the inflammatory markers before and after controlling for comorbid cardiometabolic risk factors, and tested for association with psychotropic medication and symptom levels.
CXCL16 (p = 0.03) and sIL-2R (p = 7.8 × 10−5) were higher, while sCD14 (p = 0.05) were lower in patients compared to controls after controlling for confounders, with significant differences in SCZ for CXCL16 (p = 0.04) and sIL-2R (p = 1.1 × 10−5). After adjustment for cardiometabolic risk factors higher levels of sIL-2R (p = 0.001) and lower sCD14 (p = 0.002) remained, also in SCZ (sIL-2R, p = 3.0 × 10−4 and sCD14, p = 0.01). The adjustment revealed lower ALCAM levels (p = 0.03) in patients. We found no significant associations with psychotropic medication or symptom levels.
The results indicate that inflammation, in particular enhanced T cell activation and impaired monocyte activation, are associated with severe mental disorders independent of comorbid cardiometabolic risk factors. This suggests a role of novel pathophysiological mechanisms in severe mental disorders, particularly SCZ.
In this article, we describe the results of the second phase of a randomized controlled trial of Minding the Baby (MTB), an interdisciplinary reflective parenting intervention for infants and their families. Young first-time mothers living in underserved, poor, urban communities received intensive home visiting services from a nurse and social worker team for 27 months, from pregnancy to the child's second birthday. Results indicate that MTB mothers' levels of reflective functioning was more likely to increase over the course of the intervention than were those of control group mothers. Likewise, infants in the MTB group were significantly more likely to be securely attached, and significantly less likely to be disorganized, than infants in the control group. We discuss our findings in terms of their contribution to understanding the impacts and import of intensive intervention with vulnerable families during the earliest stages of parenthood in preventing the intergenerational transmission of disrupted relationships and insecure attachment.
Facing a bottleneck in the growth of aquaculture, and a gap in the supply and demand of the highly beneficial n-3 long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA), sustainable alternatives to traditional marine-based feeds are required. Therefore, in the present trial, a novel oil obtained from a genetically engineered oilseed crop, Camelina sativa, that supplied over 25 % n-3 LC-PUFA was tested as a sole dietary-added lipid source in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) feed. Three groups of fish were fed three experimental diets for 12 weeks with the same basal composition and containing 20 % added oil supplied by either a blend of fish oil and rapeseed oil (1:3) (COM) reflecting current commercial formulations, wild-type Camelina oil (WCO) or the novel transgenic Camelina oil (TCO). There were no negative effects on the growth, survival rate or health of the fish. The whole fish and flesh n-3 LC-PUFA levels were highest in fish fed TCO, with levels more than 2-fold higher compared with those of fish fed the COM and WCO diets, respectively. Diet TCO had no negative impacts on the evaluated immune and physiological parameters of head kidney monocytes. The transcriptomic responses of liver and mid-intestine showed only mild effects on metabolism genes. Overall, the results clearly indicated that the oil from transgenic Camelina was highly efficient in supplying n-3 LC-PUFA providing levels double that obtained with a current commercial standard, and similar to those a decade ago before substantial dietary fishmeal and oil replacement.
To assess antimicrobial prescriber knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding antimicrobial stewardship (AS) and associated barriers to optimal prescribing.
A convenience sample of 2,900 US antimicrobial prescribers at 5 acute-care hospitals within a hospital network.
The following characteristics were assessed with an anonymous, online survey in February 2015: attitudes and practices related to antimicrobial resistance, AS programs, and institutional AS resources; antimicrobial prescribing and AS knowledge; and practices and confidence related to antimicrobial prescribing.
In total, 402 respondents completed the survey. Knowledge gaps were identified through case-based questions. Some respondents sometimes selected overly broad therapy for the susceptibilities given (29%) and some “usually” or “always” preferred using the most broad-spectrum empiric antimicrobials possible (32%). Nearly all (99%) reported reviewing antimicrobial appropriateness at 48–72 hours, but only 55% reported “always” doing so. Furthermore, 45% of respondents felt that they had not received adequate training regarding antimicrobial prescribing. Some respondents lacked confidence selecting empiric therapy using antibiograms (30%), interpreting susceptibility results (24%), de-escalating therapy (18%), and determining duration of therapy (31%). Postprescription review and feedback (PPRF) was the most commonly cited AS intervention (79%) with potential to improve patient care.
Barriers to appropriate antimicrobial selection and de-escalation of antimicrobial therapy were identified among front-line prescribers in acute-care hospitals. Prescribers desired more AS-related education and identified PPRF as the most helpful AS intervention to improve patient care. Educational interventions should be preceded by and tailored to local assessment of educational needs.
Leishmaniases is a tropical disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania for which the current treatment is expensive, besides increasing reports of parasite resistance. This study investigated the anti-Leishmania amazonensis activity of the essential oil from Aloysia gratissima (AgEO) and guaiol, the major sesquiterpene constituent in the oil. Our results showed that AgEO killed promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes at an IC50 of 25 and 0·16 µg mL−1, respectively, while guaiol killed amastigotes at an IC50 of 0·01 µg mL−1. Both AgEO and guaiol were safe for macrophages up to 100 µg mL−1, as evaluated by the dehydrogenase activity, membrane integrity and phagocytic capacity. AgEO and guaiol did not induce nitrite oxide (NO) in resting macrophages and inhibited the production of NO in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. The ultrastructural analysis suggested that AgEO and guaiol act directly on parasites, affecting promastigotes kinetoplast, mitochondrial matrix and plasma membrane. Together, these results pointed out that AgEO and guaiol could be promising candidates to develop anti-Leishmania drugs.
The replacement of fish oil (FO) with vegetable oil (VO) in feed formulations reduces the availability of n-3 long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) to marine fish such as gilthead seabream. The aim of this study was to examine compositional and physiological responses to a dietary gradient of n-3 LC-PUFA. Six iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous diets (D1–D6) were fed to seabream, with the added oil being a blend of FO and VO to achieve a dietary gradient of n-3 LC-PUFA. Fish were sampled after 4 months feeding, to determine biochemical composition, tissue fatty acid concentrations and lipid metabolic gene expression. The results indicated a disturbance to lipid metabolism, with fat in the liver increased and fat deposits in the viscera reduced. Tissue fatty acid profiles were altered towards the fatty acid compositions of the diets. There was evidence of endogenous modification of dietary PUFA in the liver which correlated with the expression of fatty acid desaturase 2 (fads2). Expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (srebp1), fads2 and fatty acid synthase increased in the liver, whereas PPARα1 pathways appeared to be supressed by dietary VO in a concentration-dependent manner. The effects in lipogenic genes appear to become measurable in D1–D3, which agrees with the weight gain data suggesting that disturbances to energy metabolism and lipogenesis may be related to performance differences. These findings suggested that suppression of β-oxidation and stimulation of srebp1-mediated lipogenesis may play a role in contributing toward steatosis in fish fed n-3 LC-PUFA deficient diets.
To investigate whether pre-gestational obesity interferes with the duration of breast-feeding.
A cross-sectional study was carried out with a population-based probabilistic sample. The dependent variables were exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) and breast-feeding (BF), as defined by the WHO. The classification of pre-gestational nutritional status was based on the pre-gestational BMI category.
A sample of 418 mother–infant pairs from the state of Alagoas, Brazil.
The median duration of EBF was 1·9 months (60d), while that of BF was 8·2 months (250d). According to multiple linear regression analysis, the factors that negatively and independently affected the duration of EBF were pre-gestational BMI≥30·0 kg/m2 (−51·9d, 95 % CI −80·4, −23·4), maternal schooling≤9 years (−30·8d, 95 % CI −54·7, −6·9), no prior lactation experience (−29·0d, 95 % CI −45·6, −11·5) and infant pacifier use (−41·4d; 95 % CI 54·5, −28·2). For BF, a higher weaning rate was observed during the first days after birth among children of pre-gestational obese mothers.
The results suggest that higher pre-gestational BMI is associated with shorter duration of EBF and BF. Prenatal care provides a privileged opportunity to promote nutritional education, better nutritional status of pregnant woman, and greater success with EBF up to 6 months of age and with longer BF.
In recent years, surprise discoveries of pulsed emission from the Crab and Vela pulsars above 100 GeV have drawn renewed attention to this largely unexplored region of the energy range. In this paper, we discuss example light curves due to curvature emission, with good resolution in the different energy bands. Continued light curve modelling may help to discriminate between different emission mechanisms, as well as constrain the location where emission is produced within the pulsar magnetosphere, including regions beyond the light cylinder.
Several cognitive tools have been developed aiming to diagnose dementia. The cognitive battery Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination – Revised (ACE-R) has been used to detect cognitive impairment; however, there are few studies including samples with low education. The aim of the study was to provide ACE-R norms for seniors within a lower education, including illiterates. An additional aim was to examine the accuracy of the ACE-R to detect dementia and cognitive impairment no dementia (CIND).
Data originated from an epidemiological study conducted in the municipality of Tremembé, Brazil. The Brazilian version of ACE-R was applied as part of the cognitive assessment in all participants. Of the 630 participants, 385 were classified as cognitively normal (CN) and were included in the normative data set, 110 individuals were diagnosed with dementia, and 135 were classified as having CIND.
ACE-R norms were provided with the sample stratified into age and education bands. ACE-R total scores varied significantly according to age, education, and sex. To distinguish CN from dementia, a cut-off of 64 points was established (sensitivity 91%, specificity 76%) and to differentiate CN from CIND the best cut-off was 69 points (sensitivity 73%, specificity 65%). Cut-off scores varied according to the educational level.
This study offers normative and accuracy parameters for seniors with lower education and it should expand the use of the ACE-R for this population segment.
STARZ Spartacus offers a rousing contribution to our understanding of how specific threads of classical reception are constantly being rewoven to engage with contemporary issues, ideas, and concerns. As the publicity materials for the new series gamely promised, STARZ Spartacus would deliver a heady yet relevant mixture of politics, sex, and violence: “Ancient Rome is a place where the stakes couldn't be higher. The Republic's most elite citizens are thirsty for power, and they think nothing of using the gruesome entertainment of the gladiators’ arena to get what they want. Their ambition, treachery, and corruption are intimately tied to blood and death – and the fate of a gladiator.” The clear proposition was that Spartacus would cross the boundaries of time and culture from the ancient to the modern world in order to contend with issues of social status, power, and gender: “Rome burns with romance and adventure as today's actors bring epic times to life.”
The first season of the series, Spartacus: Blood and Sand (2010), unfurls in thirteen episodes, as it tells of the capture and enslavement of Spartacus in Thrace and his subsequent training as a gladiator at the provincial ludus of Quintus Lentulus Batiatus on the outskirts of Capua. Next comes Spartacus: Gods of the Arena (2011), a six-episode miniseries prequel to the first season, which fills in the back-story about the rise of the ruthless lanista Batiatus in the ultra-competitive local Campanian gladiator business. Over the course of nineteen powerful and unforgettable episodes, these two initial seasons of Spartacus focus on both the domestic physical setting and the shifting psychological contours of the House of Batiatus, as the household grows ever richer, more decadent, and more corrupt, and ultimately collapses. This chapter offers an exploration of the naked ambition and relentless social striving of Batiatus and his devoted wife, Lucretia, in the first two seasons of the series, and how the narrative premise of their intensely determined desire for upward mobility is woven into this particular incarnation of the Spartacus reception strand.
SPARTACUS AND CLASS
With its persistent emphasis on the rebel slaves and gladiators who rise up in resistance against the elite commanders of the invincible Roman military, the Spartacus reception tradition has often drawn extraordinary attention to the lives and experiences of the lower classes living in late Republican Rome.
The acclaimed and highly successful television series Spartacus, airing on the premium cable network STARZ, attracted a large fan base around the world, starting with its initial season Spartacus: Blood and Sand (2010). The first season was followed by the prequel season Spartacus: Gods of the Arena (2011), the second season Spartacus: Vengeance (2012), and the third and final season Spartacus: War of the Damned (2013), which narrates the last stand of the revolution organized by the Thracian slave, gladiator, and rebel leader Spartacus. This new reception of the centuries-old icon of Spartacus, both reimagined and distinctively idealized for a new millennium, draws from many of its predecessors on the big and small screen, most significantly Stanley Kubrick's 1960 film Spartacus, just as it pays visual and narrative homage to other incarnations and appropriations of ancient warrior and revenge-seeking figures, such as those depicted in Gladiator (2000) or 300 (2007); but STARZ Spartacus also evokes the thematic tropes of the critically lauded HBO series Rome (2005–7), on which it draws extensively for its portrayal of ancient Roman politics, society, women, and sexuality. Viewers of the new Spartacus are invited to appreciate the extreme sexualization of both the male and female characters, the nexus of complicated relationships formed among slaves or between slaves and masters, the surreal and gory representation of warfare, and the bloody, CGI-enhanced violence of the gladiatorial shows in the arena. To be sure, this is an utterly new and reimagined Spartacus, as the hero of the slave revolt is recast for a contemporary twenty-first-century audience. Modern spectators are invited to reimagine the Spartacus legend and connect with antiquity in novel and manifold ways. Moreover, the series vigorously follows the earlier Spartacus reception thread by highlighting the topic of slavery, a perennially favorite theme in the media that has recently surged as a “hot” topic for current onscreen entertainment: the fight for freedom continues to fascinate. The sociopolitical and economic context here is key to understanding the reception of the Spartacus story: in light of the global economic crisis, it can be argued that freedom is indeed acquiring a “post-political” dimension.
Screening Antiquity is a new series of cutting-edge academic monographs and edited volumes that present exciting and original research on the reception of the ancient world in film and television. It provides an important synergy of the latest international scholarly ideas about the onscreen conception of antiquity in popular culture and is the only book series to focus exclusively on screened representations of the ancient world.
The interactions between cinema, television, and historical representation is a growing field of scholarship and student engagement; many Classics and Ancient History departments in universities worldwide teach cinematic representations of the past as part of their programmes in Reception Studies. Scholars are now questioning how historical films and television series reflect the societies in which they were made, and speculate on how attitudes towards the past have been moulded in the popular imagination by their depiction in the movies. Screening Antiquity explores how these constructions came about and offers scope to analyse how and why the ancient past is filtered through onscreen representations in specific ways. The series highlights exciting and original publications that explore the representation of antiquity onscreen, and that employ modern theoretical and cultural perspectives to examine screened antiquity, including: stars and star text, directors and auteurs, cinematography, design and art direction, marketing, fans, and the online presence of the ancient world.
The series aims to present original research focused exclusively on the reception of the ancient world in film and television. In itself this is an exciting and original approach. There is no other book series that engages head-on with both big screen and small screen recreations of the past, yet their integral interactivity is clear to see: film popularity has a major impact on television productions and for its part, television regularly influences cinema (including film spin-offs of popular television series). This is the first academic series to identify and encourage the holistic interactivity of these two major media institutions, and the first to promote interdisciplinary research in all the fields of Cinema Studies, Media Studies, Classics, and Ancient History.
Screening Antiquity explores the various facets of onscreen creations of the past, exploring the theme from multiple angles.
To examine a library-based approach to addressing food insecurity through a child and adult summer meal programme. The study examines: (i) risk of household food insecurity among participants; (ii) perspectives on the library meal programme; and (iii) barriers to utilizing other community food resources.
Quantitative surveys with adult participants and qualitative semi-structured interviews with a sub-sample of adult participants.
Ten libraries using public and private funding to serve meals to children and adults for six to eight weeks in low-income Silicon Valley communities (California, USA) during summer 2015.
Adult survey participants (≥18 years) were recruited to obtain maximum capture, while a sub-sample of interview participants was recruited through maximum variation purposeful sampling.
Survey participants (n 161) were largely Latino (71 %) and Asian (23 %). Forty-one per cent of participants screened positive for risk of food insecurity in the past 12 months. A sub-sample of programme participants engaged in qualitative interviews (n 67). Interviewees reported appreciating the library’s child enrichment programmes, resources, and open and welcoming atmosphere. Provision of adult meals was described as building community among library patrons, neighbours and staff. Participants emphasized lack of awareness, misinformation about programmes, structural barriers (i.e. transportation), immigration fears and stigma as barriers to utilizing community food resources.
Food insecurity remains high in our study population. Public libraries are ideal locations for community-based meal programmes due to their welcoming and stigma-free environment. Libraries are well positioned to link individuals to other social services given their reputation as trusted community organizations.
The inclusion of a spinel structure in the layered-layered composite cathode material is currently explored to enhance the cycling stability and electrochemical properties of lithium ion batteries. Li2MnO3 based composite cathodes are one of the most widely investigated positive electrodes due to their high discharge capacity and rate capability. In our studies, we have synthesized the cobalt-free layered-layered-spinel composite cathode material, 0.5Li2MnO3-0.25LiMn2O4-0.25LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2 (LLNMO), via the sol-gel method. The structure of the composition was characterized using XRD and Raman Spectroscopy in which peaks corresponding to the layered and spinel structures were identified. The morphology along with the elemental analysis were studied with SEM/EDX. The SEM images exhibited agglomerates with particle size in the nano range and the EDX analysis confirmed the presence of manganese, nickel and oxygen in the structure. The electrochemical performance was analyzed by charge/discharge studies (CD) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The composite cathode material showed high capacity retention and good cycle stability with a coulombic efficiency of 98%. The discussed results demonstrated that LLNMO is a promising cathode material for the next generation of Li-ion batteries.