To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The Fukushima Daiichi and Daini Nuclear Power Plant workers experienced multiple stressors as both victims and onsite workers after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and subsequent nuclear accidents. Previous studies found that disaster-related exposures, including discrimination/slurs, were associated with their mental health. Their long-term impact has yet to be investigated.
A total of 968 plant workers (Daiichi, n = 571; Daini, n = 397) completed self-written questionnaires 2–3 months (time 1) and 14–15 months (time 2) after the disaster (response rate 55.0%). Sociodemographics, disaster-related experiences, and peritraumatic distress were assessed at time 1. At time 1 and time 2, general psychological distress (GPD) and post-traumatic stress response (PTSR) were measured, respectively, using the K6 scale and Impact of Event Scale Revised. We examined multivariate covariates of time 2 GPD and PTSR, adjusting for autocorrelations in the hierarchical multiple regression analyses.
Higher GPD at time 2 was predicted by higher GPD at time 1 (β = 0.491, p < 0.001) and discrimination/slurs experiences at time 1 (β = 0.065, p = 0.025, adjusted R2 = 0.24). Higher PTSR at time 2 was predicted with higher PTSR at time 1 (β = 0.548, p < 0.001), higher age (β = 0.085, p = 0.005), and discrimination/slurs experiences at time 1 (β = 0.079, p = 0.003, adjusted R2 = 0.36).
Higher GPD at time 2 was predicted by higher GPD and discrimination/slurs experience at time 1. Higher PTSR at time 2 was predicted by higher PTSR, higher age, and discrimination/slurs experience at time 1.
Introduction: In order to achieve the best possible outcomes for patients requiring resuscitation (PRRs) in the emergency department (ED), health care providers (HCPs) must provide an efficient, multi-disciplinary and coordinated response. A quality improvement (QI) project was undertaken to improve HCP response to PRRs at two tertiary care hospital EDs in Toronto. Methods: We conducted a before-and-after mixed-method survey to evaluate the perception of the adequacy of HCP response and clarity of HCP role when responding to PRRs. The results were compared using the Chi-square test. Qualitative responses to the first survey were also used to inform the development of the QI project. Through interviews of key stakeholders and with continuous input from front-line ED HCPs, a multi-disciplinary team modified the ED resuscitation protocol. This included standardized pre-hospital communication form with paramedics, ED-wide overhead announcement of ‘Code Resus’, dedicated HCPs assigned to respond to PRRs, and specific duties assigned to each responder. Change initiatives were reinforced through education and posters in the ED. Six months after implementation, a second survey was conducted to evaluate the sustained effects of the intervention. Results: Baseline measures indicated that 16 of 52 (30.8%) nurses surveyed believed their role was often or always apparent to themselves and others when they attended to a PRR (on a 5-point rating scale). This proportion increased to 35 of 55 (63.6%) nurses in the post-implementation survey (p < 0.001). Regarding adequacy of the number of HCPs responding to PRRs, 17 of 39 (43.6%) physicians and 23 of 53 (43.4%) nurses surveyed thought the appropriate number of HCPs responded to PRRs; the remainder thought that there were too few or too many HCPs. In the post-implementation survey, 34 of 41 (82.9%) physicians (p < 0.001) and 36 of 56 (64.3%) nurses (p = 0.029) surveyed felt that the appropriate number of HCPs attended to PRRs. Conclusion: Using a quality improvement approach, we identified and quantified perceived deficiencies in HCP response to PRRs in the ED. Through feedback-based modifications of the ED resuscitation protocol and by engaging HCP stakeholders, change initiatives were implemented to improve HCP response. As a result, this project achieved significant and sustained improvements in HCPs’ perceived response to PRRs.
Using the IRAM 30 m telescope, we perform a molecular line survey of the 3 and 2 mm wavelength ranges towards 5 selected positions in the Galactic center region, sampling shocked regions, ultraviolet (UV) and X-ray pervaded regions, and positions with rich organic chemistry. These surveys have the potential to be used as chemical templates for different types of activity, such as photodissociated regions (PDRs), shocks and X-ray dominated regions (XDRs). Complementary, molecular surveys done towards extragalactic nuclei, that are also dominated by these physical activities, were carried by our group.
High integrity SiO2/Al2O3 gate stack has been demonstrated for GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) transistors. The SiO2 film formed on GaN by the microwave-excited plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MW-PECVD) exhibits good properties compared that by the LP (Low Pressure)-CVD. Then, by incorporating the advantages of both of SiO2 with a high insulating and Al2O3 with good interface characteristics, the SiO2/Al2O3 gate stack structure has been employed in GaN MOS devices. The structure shows a low interface state density between gate insulator and GaN, a high breakdown field, and a large charge-to-breakdown by applying 3-nm Al2O3. The SiO2/Al2O3 gate stack has also been applied to AlGaN/GaN hybrid MOS heterojunction field-effect transistor (HFET) and the HFET shows excellent properties with the threshold voltage of 4.2 V and the maximum field-effect mobility of 192 cm2/Vs.
The Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) is composed of
many Filamentary Discharges (FDs), and it can be applied to ozone
generation, gaseous pollution control, etc. In our laboratory, we
investigated efficient cleaning methods of diesel exhaust gas by DBD. From
the results of numerical simulation of chemical reactions, a homogeneous DBD
was expected to improve the efficiency of pollution control and also the
ozone yield. Recently, we found that a DBD device using alumina as barrier
material can generate an Atmospheric Pressure Townsend Discharge (APTD) in
air. In this research, we setup two ozonizers with different discharge modes
of FD and APTD, and compared the ozone yield. The experimental results
showed that the ozone yield was higher by the FD mode than by the APTD mode
in lower Specific Input Energy (SIE) region. However in the region that the
SIE is larger than 420J/L, the APTD mode showed higher ozone yield than FD
The crystal structure of thermoelectric rhenium silicide with an ordered arrangement of vacancies is investigated by utilizing spherical aberration (Cs) corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) combined with synchrotron X-ray diffraction and conventional transmission electron microscopy. By STEM Cs corrected imaging, we can clearly observe Si vacancies in rhenium silicide, which is impossible without Cs correction. In addition, significantly reduced contrast levels are noted in STEM images for particular Si sites near vacancies. From the STEM image simulation, the reduced contrast levels are concluded to be due to anomalously large local thermal vibration of these Si atoms. The crystal structure of rhenium silicide can be successfully refined by the synchrotron X-ray diffraction starting with the deduced structure model from the STEM images and the occurrence of large local thermal vibration can be qualitatively confirmed. Furthermore, we confirm the validity of the refined crystal structure of rhenium silicide by comparing experimental images with simulated image generating with the refined crystal structure parameters.
In their 2007 paper, Jarvis, Kaufmann, and Kimura defined the full orbifoldK-theory of an orbifold , analogous to the Chen-Ruan orbifold cohomology of in that it uses the obstruction bundle as a quantum correction to the multiplicative structure. We give an explicit algorithm for the computation of this orbifold invariant in the case when arises as an abelian symplectic quotient. To this end, we introduce the inertial K-theory associated to a T -action on a stably complex manifold M, where T is a compact abelian Lie group. Our methods are integral K-theoretic analogues of those used in the orbifold cohomology case by Goldin, Holm, and Knutson in 2005. We rely on the K-theoretic Kirwan surjectivity methods developed by Harada and Landweber. As a worked class of examples, we compute the full orbifold K-theory of weighted projective spaces that occur as a symplectic quotient of a complex affine space by a circle. Our computations hold over the integers, and in the particular case of these weighted projective spaces, we show that the associated invariant is torsion-free.
An experimental method is proposed for detecting the effects of positive natural selection on DNA polymorphisms. Since beneficial mutations are expected to increase in frequency faster than neutral mutations, variants which have reached high frequencies in a relatively short period could be linked to some beneficial mutation. D. melanogaster has a cosmopolitan polymorphic inversion -In(2L)t - whose age in some local populations has been estimated. Setting the age of In(2L)t as the upper limit for the age of variants, we searched for variants whose frequencies were possibly influenced by positive natural selection. We detected a single candidate whose frequency and distribution met the requirements imposed by our method.
A cationic peptide dendrier, dendritic poly(L-lysine), forms complexes with oligonucleotides and can deliver them to liver after intravenous injection. Here, we tried to deliver apolipoprotein B-specific siRNA for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and NFκB decoy for the hepatitis treatment. Significant therapeutic effects in those disease model mice were observed after intravenous injection of the oligonucleotides complexes with dendritic poly(L-lysine).
Newly developed interferon-gamma release assays have become commercially available to detect tuberculosis (TB) infection in adults. However, little is known about their performance in children. We compared test results between the QuantiFERON-TB® Gold test (QFT) and tuberculin skin test (TST) in young children living with pulmonary TB patients in Cambodia. Of 195 children tested with both QFT and TST, the TST-positive rate of 24% was significantly higher than the QFT-positive rate of 17%. The agreement between the test results was considerable (κ-coefficient 0·63). Positive rates increased from 6% to 32% for QFT and from 15% to 43% for TST, according to the sputum smear grades of the index cases. The presence of Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) scars did not significantly affect the results of TST or QFT in a logistic regression analysis. In conclusion, QFT can be a substitute for TST in detecting latent TB infection in childhood contacts aged ⩽5 years, especially in those who may have a false-positive TST due to BCG vaccination or non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection.
Characterization by reciprocal space mapping of x-ray diffraction (XRD) intensity was carried out for epitaxial layers of GaN-based laser structures on two GaN substrates: GaN substrate and GaN template on sapphire substrate. The difference between these two substrates was shown clearly. The distribution of XRD intensity of the epitaxial layers on GaN substrate was smaller than that of the epitaxial layers on GaN template on sapphire substrate. In the lasers with the epitaxial structure on GaN substrate, the light output power was as high as 200 mW under continuous-wave operation at room temperature. Excellent noise characteristics with relative intensity noise of -132 dB/Hz were also obtained at a low light output power of 3 mW without any high-frequency modulation. These results support that GaN substrates are promising for realizing GaN-based lasers with high performance.
A single crystalline Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+8 which has columnar defects in its inside are observed by Lorentz microscopy using the newly developed 1-MV field emission electron microscope at the first time. The superconducting vortices are observed with higher contrast than ever. Simultaneous observation of vortices and columnar defect is succeeded in real time.
Two types of shape and contrast features of superconducting vortices in a Lorentz micrograph were obtained by the newly developed 1-MV field-emission transmission electron microscope on a Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+8(Bi-2212) thin specimen containing tilted columnar defects. The shape and contrast features could be consistently interpreted by the simulation that some vortices were pinned along tilted columnar defects and others were unpinned. The interesting property for temperature change of vortex core inside the material was also observed.
Hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H) films are prepared by hot-wire assisted plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, which controls the hydrogen radical density by filament temperatures, Tf, without changing other conditions. The effect of hydrogen radical on the properties of incorporated hydrogen into μc-Si:H films is studied using infrared absorption and gas effusion spectroscopies. The hydrogen concentration decreases with increasing Tf. The crystalline volume fraction, Xc, increases with Tf and shows a peak at Tf of 1850 °C. Integrated intensities of the modes near 2000 and 2100 cm-1 decrease with increasing Tf. Integrated intensity of the mode near 880 cm-1 shows almost same tendency of Xc. The effect of hydrogen radical on the properties of incorporated hydrogen into μc-Si:H films is discussed.