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The Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) is a self-report questionnaire that is used to identify probable cases of eating disorders. Norms are needed for interpretation of scores. The aim of this study is to establish norms for the EDE-Q among female university students attending a university primary health care service in Ireland and to present prevalence of key eating disorder behaviours.
The EDE-Q was administered to a consecutive sample of 200 female students aged 18–30 years attending a university primary health care service.
The mean global EDE-Q score was 1.51 (s.d.=1.28). There was a positive association between body mass index and the global EDE-Q score; 5.8% of the sample scored in the clinically significant range on the global EDE-Q score.
This study presents normative EDE-Q data for an Irish female university sample. These norms may inform clinicians and/or researchers in the evaluation of EDE-Q scores in Irish female university students
Suicide is a major global public health issue. Mental illness is a risk factor for suicide, but as many individuals with a diagnosed mental health problem do not experience suicidal ideation or attempt suicide, other individual and societal factors must be considered. Mental illness-related discrimination is one potential risk factor.
Using mixed methods, the influence of discrimination on suicidality amongst 194 individuals diagnosed with depression, bipolar or schizophrenia spectrum disorders was investigated. Qualitative interviews with a sub-sample of 58 individuals who reported a link between experience of discrimination and suicidality were analysed using framework analysis. Quantitative methods were used to examine the model derived from qualitative analyses.
Results indicate that the experience of discrimination led 38% of the overall sample of 194 participants, to suicidal feelings and 20% reported that it contributed to making a suicide attempt. The qualitative model derived from interviews with a sub-sample of 58 participants suggested that the experience of discrimination is experienced as a stressor that exceeds coping resources, leading to a negative self-image and a perception of decreased supportive networks/social structure. The anticipation of further negative events and treatment, and the perception of a lack of supportive networks led individuals in this study to feelings of hopelessness and suicidality. Quantitative analyses provided support for the model.
These data suggest that both psychological therapies aimed at improving coping skills and population-level anti-stigma interventions that reduce the occurrence of discrimination may provide some protection against suicide amongst individuals with mental health problems.
This study builds on existing research on the prevalence and consequences of mental illness discrimination by investigating and quantifying the relationships between experienced discrimination and costs of healthcare and leisure activities/social participation among secondary mental health service users in England.
We use data from the Mental Illness-Related Investigations on Discrimination (MIRIAD) study (n = 202) and a subsample of the Viewpoint study (n = 190). We examine experiences of discrimination due to mental illness in the domains of personal relationships, community activities, and health care, and how such experienced discrimination relates to patterns of service use and engagement in leisure activities.
Our findings show that the cost of health services used for individuals who reported previous experiences of discrimination in a healthcare setting was almost twice as high as for those who did not report any discrimination during the last 12 months (Relative Risk: 1.73; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.39, 2.17) and this was maintained after controlling for symptoms and functioning. Experienced discrimination in healthcare (Relative Risk: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.81, 0.84) or in relationships (Relative Risk: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.87, 0.91), however, was associated with lower participation in, and hence lower costs of, leisure activities. Individuals who reported any discrimination in a healthcare setting had, on average, £434 higher costs associated with health service use while reported discrimination in the community was associated with increased leisure costs of £32.
These findings make an important initial step towards understanding the magnitude of the costs of mental health-related discrimination.
To explore the role of psychiatric admission, diagnosis and reported unfair treatment in the relationship between ethnicity and mistrust of mental health services.
The Mental Illness-Related Investigations on Discrimination (MIRIAD) study was a cross-sectional study of 202 individuals using secondary mental health services in South London. Two structural equation models were estimated, one using Admission (whether admitted to hospital for psychiatric treatment in the past 5 years) and one using involuntary admission to hospital in the past 5 years.
Increased mistrust was directly associated with the latent variable ‘unfair treatment by mental health services and staff’ and with Black or mixed ethnicity in both models. Those with a diagnosis of schizophrenia spectrum (as compared to depression and bipolar disorder) had a lower average score on the latent variable, suggesting that on average they reported less unfair treatment. We found evidence of increased reporting of unfair treatment by those who had an admission in the past 5 years, had experienced involuntary admission, and for people of Black of mixed Black and White ethnicity.
Neither prevalence of schizophrenia spectrum nor rates of hospital admission explained the greater mistrust of mental health services found among people of Black and mixed Black and White ethnicity compared with White ethnicity. Rather, people of Black and mixed Black and white ethnicity may be more likely to experience unfair treatment, generating mistrust; furthermore, this group is more likely to express mistrust even after accounting for reporting of unfair treatment by mental health services and staff.
In England, people with a serious mental illness are offered a standardized care plan under the Care Programme Approach (CPA). A crisis plan is a mandatory part of this standard; however, the quality and in particular the level of individualisation of these crisis plans are unknown. In this context, the aim of this study was to assess the quality of crisis planning and the impact of exposure to a specialized crisis planning intervention.
The crisis plans of 424 participants were assessed, before and after exposure to the Joint Crisis Plan (JCP) intervention, for ‘individualisation’ (i.e., at least one item of specific and identifiable information about an individual). Associations of individualisation were investigated.
A total of 15% of crisis plans were individualised at baseline. There was little or no improvement following exposure to the JCP. Individualised crisis plans were not associated with a history of prior crises or incidences of harm to self and others.
Routine crisis planning for individuals with serious mental illness is not influenced by clinical risk profiles. ‘Top down’ implementation of the policy is unlikely to generate the best practice and compliance if clinicians do not perceive the clinical value in the process.
Implanted glassy carbon (GC; 50 keV, 1016 N+ cm-2) is reported to be 400 times more wear-resistant to 1 μm diamond polishing than unimplanted GC. A number of samples were implanted with 15N to produce the modified surface layer and to allow a very high sensitivity measurement of wear, using the 15N(p, α)12C nuclear reaction.
Optical interferometric wear measurements are also reported. Samples implanted with 1 MeV N to 1015 ions cm-2 indicated that the enhanced wear-resistance is correlated with the nuclear energy loss density within the ion range. Mechanisms likely to be responsible for the enhanced wear resistance are also discussed.
Significantly improved wear properties are described for glassy carbon following implantation with 2 MeV helium and 50 keV nitrogen to doses in the range 1015–1017 ions cm−2. Implanted material is up to 100 times more wear resistant to diamond abrasion than unimplanted material. Enhanced wear resistance is available at the surface with nitrogen but lies below the surface with helium, reflecting the difference in modified depth associated with implant energy and ion mass. Unusually for ion implantation, dose related surface compaction is observed for both nitrogen and helium. Changes in microstructure during implantation with particular regard to collision processes and amorphisation of the graphitic fraction of glassy carbon are discussed.
There is widespread belief in a ‘cycle’ of child sexual abuse, but little empirical evidence for this belief.
To identify perpetrators of such abuse who had been victims of paedophilia and/or incest, in order to: ascertain whether subjects who had been victims become perpetrators of such abuse; compare characteristics of those who had and had not been victims; and review psychodynamic ideas thought to underlie the behaviour of perpetrators.
Retrospective clinical case note review of 843 subjects attending a specialist forensic psychotherapy centre.
Among 747 males the risk of being a perpetrator was positively correlated with reported sexual abuse victim experiences. The overall rate of having been a victim was 35% for perpetrators and 11 % for non-perpetrators. Of the 96 females, 43% had been victims but only one was a perpetrator. A high percentage of male subjects abused in childhood by a female relative became perpetrators. Having been a victim was a strong predictor of becoming a perpetrator, as was an index of parental loss in childhood.
The data support the notion of a victim-to-victimiser cycle in a minority of male perpetrators but not among the female victims studied. Sexual abuse by a female in childhood may be a risk factor for a cycle of abuse in males.
A Short Time prior to the outbreak of World War I a group of scholars in St. Petersburg proposed plans to explore Alaska to rediscover the sites of the early Russian settlements. The outbreak of war, however, put an end to the effort, and it was not until ten years later that the subject of early Alaska was revived in America. About that time a report was received of the alleged founding by refugees from Novgorod, in approximately the year 1571, during the reign of Ivan the Terrible, of a colony in Alaska all trace of which had been lost.
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