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The stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) and total mercury concentrations (THg) of the three marine catfish species Aspistor luniscutis, Bagre bagre and Genidens genidens were evaluated to understand their trophic relationship in northern Rio de Janeiro state, south-eastern Brazil. The δ13C was similar among the three marine catfishes, whereas δ15N was similar in A. luniscutis and B. bagre and lower in G. genidens. THg was higher in G. genidens and lower in B. bagre. The greater assimilation of Sciaenidae fishes and squids by A. luniscutis and B. bagre resulted in smaller isotopic niche areas and trophic diversity but higher isotopic niche overlap, trophic redundancy and evenness. For G. genidens, the similar assimilation of all prey items resulted in the broadest isotopic niche among the marine catfishes. The higher mercury content in G. genidens is consistent with an increased important contribution of prey with a higher Hg burden. The bioaccumulation process was indicated by significant correlations of δ15N and THg with total length and total mass. Additionally, a significant correlation between THg and δ15N reflected the biomagnification process through the food web.
Several elicitors, stimulating induced resistance mechanisms, have potential in preventing or mitigating pathogen infections. Some of these compounds, triggering the production of jasmonic acid (JA), a precursor of herbivore-induced plant volatiles, could also play a central role in indirect resistance to pest species, by improving beneficial arthropod performance, and necrotrophic pathogens. In the current work, Trichoderma gamsii/T. asperellum and silica gel treatments – alone and in combination – were studied to evaluate the plant defence mechanism on grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) by laboratory and field trials. JA production level was measured before and after Plasmopara viticola infection on potted vines. JA production induced by silica gel was higher than that caused by Trichoderma before infection. In Trichoderma-treated plants, JA production increased after P. viticola inoculation. In vineyard field trials, Mymaridae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) showed higher captures in transparent sticky traps on silica gel-treated plants, in comparison with control. On the other hand, no significant attraction was detected for Ichneumonoidea and other Chalcidoidea in silica gel and T. gamsii/T. asperellum-treated plants. The potential effects of elicitors are discussed, in the frame of attract and reward strategy.
Jumping to conclusions (JTC), which is the proneness to require less information before forming beliefs or making a decision, has been related to formation and maintenance of delusions. Using data from the National Institute of Health Research Biomedical Research Centre Genetics and Psychosis (GAP) case–control study of first-episode psychosis (FEP), we set out to test whether the presence of JTC would predict poor clinical outcome at 4 years.
One-hundred and twenty-three FEP patients were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and the probabilistic reasoning ‘Beads’ Task at the time of recruitment. The sample was split into two groups based on the presence of JTC bias. Follow-up data over an average of 4 years were obtained concerning clinical course and outcomes (remission, intervention of police, use of involuntary treatment – the Mental Health Act (MHA) – and inpatient days).
FEP who presented JTC at baseline were more likely during the follow-up period to be detained under the MHA [adjusted OR 15.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.92–83.54, p = 0.001], require intervention by the police (adjusted OR 14.95, 95% CI 2.68–83.34, p = 0.002) and have longer admissions (adjusted IRR = 5.03, 95% CI 1.91–13.24, p = 0.001). These associations were not accounted for by socio-demographic variables, IQ and symptom dimensions.
JTC in FEP is associated with poorer outcome as indicated and defined by more compulsion police intervention and longer periods of admission. Our findings raise the question of whether the implementation of specific interventions to reduce JTC, such as Metacognition Training, may be a useful addition in early psychosis intervention programmes.
This paper presents the VESPA (Virtual European Solar and Planetary Access) activity, developed in the context of the Europlanet 2020 Horizon project, aimed at providing tools for analysis and visualization of planetary data provided by space missions. In particular, the activity is focused on minor bodies of the Solar System.The structure of the computation node, the algorithms developed for analysis of planetary surfaces and cometary comae and the tools for data visualization are presented.
A numerical database (Bernardini & Pirozzoli, Phys. Fluids, vol. 23, 2011, 085102) is analysed to investigate cross-statistics of wall-pressure fluctuations induced by supersonic turbulent boundary layers developing over a rigid smooth wall without a pressure gradient. The Mach number spans from 2 to 4 and a relatively large range of Reynolds numbers is considered. It is shown, for the first time, that the cross-statistics of wall-pressure fluctuations at such high Mach numbers is very similar to that usually observed in incompressible flow conditions. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that theoretical predictions provided by the well-known Corcos and Efimtsov models continue to apply.
The Marsh Seedeater Sporophila palustris is one of the most endangered and least known of the capuchino seedeaters. Breeding populations are patchy, occurring in north-east Argentina, southern Brazil, and Uruguay. We present data on the breeding biology of the species, and describe nests and eggs, behaviour (including courtship, nesting, incubation and parental care), breeding sites and food items. Marsh Seedeaters breed in well-preserved grasslands with wet soils and tall vegetation. In general, these habitats are used for extensive livestock ranching. Main threats are overgrazing, widespread use of fire, conversion of grasslands to pastures of exotic grasses and rice fields, afforestation, and illegal trapping. Most breeding sites are located in Important Bird Areas, but only one in Brazil and one in Argentina are protected. We propose a series of actions to promote the conservation of Marsh Seedeaters and other endangered birds that coexist in grassland habitats.
Hybrid silicon laser is a promising solution to enable high-performance light source on large-scale, silicon-based photonic integrated circuits (PICs). As a compact laser cavity design, hybrid microring lasers are attractive for their intrinsic advantages of small footprint, low power consumption and flexibility in wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), etc. Here we review recent progress in unidirectional microring lasers and device thermal management. Unidirectional emission is achieved by integrating a passive reflector that feeds laser emission back into laser cavity to introduce extra unidirectional gain. Up to 4X of device heating reduction is simulated by adding a metal thermal shunt to the laser to “short” heat to the silicon substrate through buried oxide layer (BOX) in the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate. Obvious device heating reduction is also observed in experiment.
Contrary to concerns that fructose may have adverse metabolic effects, there is evidence that small, ‘catalytic’ doses ( ≤ 10 g/meal) of fructose decrease the glycaemic response to high-glycaemic index meals in human subjects. To assess the longer-term effects of ‘catalytic’ doses of fructose, we undertook a meta-analysis of controlled feeding trials. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library. Analyses included all controlled feeding trials ≥ 7 d featuring ‘catalytic’ fructose doses ( ≤ 36 g/d) in isoenergetic exchange for other carbohydrates. Data were pooled by the generic inverse variance method using random-effects models and expressed as mean differences (MD) with 95 % CI. Heterogeneity was assessed by the Q statistic and quantified by I2. The Heyland Methodological Quality Score assessed study quality. A total of six feeding trials (n 118) met the eligibility criteria. ‘Catalytic’ doses of fructose significantly reduced HbA1c (MD − 0·40, 95 % CI − 0·72, − 0·08) and fasting glucose (MD − 0·25, 95 % CI − 0·44, − 0·07). This benefit was seen in the absence of adverse effects on fasting insulin, body weight, TAG or uric acid. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses showed evidence of effect modification under certain conditions. The small number of trials and their relatively short duration limit the strength of the conclusions. In conclusion, this small meta-analysis shows that ‘catalytic’ fructose doses ( ≤ 36 g/d) may improve glycaemic control without adverse effects on body weight, TAG, insulin and uric acid. There is a need for larger, longer ( ≥ 6 months) trials using ‘catalytic’ fructose to confirm these results.
Ion implantation process was used to fabricate ultra-thin conducting films in inert polymers and to tailor the surface electrical properties for strain gauge applications. To this aim, polycarbonate substrates were irradiated at room temperature with low energy Cu+ ions of 60 keV at 1 μA/cm2 and with doses ranging from 1×1016 to 1×1017 ions/cm2. XRD and TEM measurements on the nanocomposite surfaces demonstrated the spontaneous precipitation of Cu nanocrystals at 1×1016 ions/cm2 fluence. These nanocrystals were located at about 50 nm - 80 nm below the polymer surface in accordance with TRIM calculations. Optical absorption spectra exhibited a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) at 2 eV, in accordance with the formation of Cu nanoparticles. For doses of 5×1016 ions/cm2 the formation of a continuous nanocrystalline Cu subsurface film occurred and a well pronounced SPR peak was observed. Otherwise, for higher doses (1×1017 ions/cm2) a damaged and structurally disordered film was obtained and the SPR peak was smeared out. Electrical conductivity measurements clearly indicated a reduced electrical resistance for the samples implanted with a doses up to 5×1016 ions/cm2, whereas higher doses (1×1017 ions/cm2) resulted detrimental for the electrical properties, probably due to the radiation induced damage. The dependence of electrical resistance from surface load was evaluated during compression tests up to 3 MPa. A significant linear variation of the electrical resistance with the surface load was found and could be related to the changes in the spatial distribution of nanoparticles inside the copper film.
This study provides the first compilation on age and growth of some delphinids in south-eastern Brazil (18°25′S–25°45′S). A total of 154 delphinids were reported: 44 Atlantic spotted dolphin Stenella frontalis; 36 bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus; 26 ‘Brazilian’ common dolphin Delphinus sp.; 20 rough-toothed dolphin Steno bredanensis; 16 Fraser's dolphin Lagenodelphis hosei; 3 false killer whale Pseudorca crassidens; 3 unidentified Stenella sp.; 2 pantropical spotted dolphin Stenella attenuata; 2 short-finned pilot whale Globicephala macrorhynchus; 1 spinner dolphin Stenella longirostris; and 1 striped dolphin Stenella coeruleoalba. Age was estimated by counting the number of growth layer groups present in the dentine in 74.5% of the sample. The growth of 92 individuals of the first five species was determined by the Gompertz model to length-at-age data. Stenella frontalis—the oldest specimen was 23 y and the asymptotic length of 224.4 cm predicted by growth curve occurred at about 20 y; T. truncatus—the oldest specimen was 26 y and the asymptotic length of 301.3 cm predicted by growth curve occurred at about 20 y; Delphinus sp.—the oldest dolphin was 18 y and the asymptotic length of 215.9 cm predicted by growth curve occurred at about 5–6 y; S. bredanensis—the oldest specimen was 24 y and the asymptotic length of 258.1 cm predicted by growth curve occurred at about 10 y; L. hosei—the oldest specimen was 19 y and the asymptotic length of 231.2 cm predicted by growth curve occurred at about 7–8 y. Only age was estimated for the other species. The age-at-length data for S. frontalis, Delphinus sp., S. bredanensis and L. hosei were consistent, suggesting a good agreement with previous work on these species. For T. truncatus, the age at asymptotic length obtained in this study might be confirmed by increasing the sample size. The information currently presented will contribute to further life history research of delphinids on the western south Atlantic coast.
Practical design of high-voltage SiC Schottky rectifiers requires the understanding of the influence of the epitaxial dopant concentration on the reverse and forward characteristics. This work analyzes the correlation between the dopant concentration and the I-V characteristics of Schottky diodes for a critical concentration range where the leakage current variations are more evident. The details of how high temperatures affect the properties of junctions have been carefully described to obtain further improvement in the future by proper device optimization. Dopant concentration of about 1.2 × 1016 cm-3 gives the best results in reverse characteristics without great losses in forward currents.
The growth rate of 4H-SiC epitaxial layer has been increased by a factor 19 (up to 112 μm/h) with respect to the standard process with the introduction of HCl in the deposition chamber. The epitaxial layers grown with the addition of HCl have been characterized by electrical, optical and structural characterization methods. The effects of different deposition parameters on the epitaxial growth process have been described in detail. This process can be very promising for high power devices with a breakdown voltage of 10 kV.
Bacterio-rhodopsin purple membrane (PM) thin films have been prepared by selfassembling (SA) technique. Morphological properties of the layers were inspected by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Scanning Force Microscopy (SFM) highlighting the presence of densely packed PM films. Reflectance Uv-vis spectra on these films revealed the typical bR absorption at 570 nm. By using a tungsten lamp illuminations (250-350 mW) chopped at 0.5Hz, photoelectric responses were detected. Differential (light-on and light-off) photocurrent signals of up to 1 μA/cm2 were obtained upon light exposure.
Five ruminallyfistulatedAngus steers (360 (s.e. 15·4) kg) were givenfood to maintain body weight constant: maize silage (TO) at 0·6 kg dry matter (DM) per 100 kg body weight twice a day. After a 15-day adaptation period they were infused continuously (I) for 96 h, with a solution of NaH14CO3 at a rate of 7 to 8 micro Curies (μCi) per h. On the last 2 days of infusion 30 g (Tl) and 60 g (T2) urea, respectively, were placed in the rumen at the end of the morning meal. Spot samples of urine (250 ml) were taken before and 5 h after the morning meal and after at least 24 h of infusion. Thereafter, animals continued with TO for one additional week, in which they were prepared with catheters inserted in salivary ducts and infused for 48 h, as previously described. Eighteen pairs of spot samples of urine and saliva were takenfrom three of thefive steers (369 (s.e. 20·7) kg), over a period of 5 h, after at least 24 h infusion (six per animal). Rate of carbon dioxide (CO2) production was estimated as the ratio USA (specific activity of CO2)from which energy expenditure was calculated (22 kj/l CO2). Silage composition, in situ degradability and ruminal ammonia and pH were measured. In situ degradability in thefirst 6 h was 200 g/kg and ruminal ammonia was in the range of 20·6 to 39·6 mg/l. Ammonia increased rapidly to 394·2 (T1) and 673·9 mg/l (T2) 1 h after addition of urea into the rumen but in 6 h in situ degradability was unchanged. Ruminal ammonia decreased linearly at rates (mgll per h) of89·3 in Tl (R2 = 0·57, s.d. = 21·5) and 151·6 in T2 (R2 = 0·81, s.d. = 23·3). Animal energy expenditure rates were not affected (P > 0·05) by treatment (TO = 15·6, Tl = 15·6 and T2 = 15·8 kj/h per M075). There was no difference (P > 0·05) in CO2 production rate (mllh per kg M0·75) determined from the SA of CO2 from urine (604) or saliva (630) samples. It was concluded that the energy cost associated with detoxification of the excess of ruminal ammonia was of minor importance in terms of total animal energy expenditure and that estimations ofC02 ratesfromsamples ofurine or saliva are comparable.
X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and optical studies have been performed on P(EO)n –NaI–TCNQ (n = 1, 10) systems, obtained by means of a solid state reaction technique. The electron spectroscopy, the absorption in the ultraviolet visible near infrared range, and the infrared transmission findings allow us to conclude that the interaction among the polymer, the iodide, and the electron acceptor molecule results in the formation of the ion-radical salt Na–TCNQ and in the oxidation of I− to the metallic state. The presence within the examined specimens of crystalline and amorphous phases has been confirmed by the results of Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) measurements. The optical, electronic, and thermal properties of the P(EO)n–NaI–TCNQ mixtures have then been correlated to the results of preliminary ac electrical transport investigations.
The energy expenditure of freely grazing cattle was investigated in the National Institute of Agricultural Technology and Agricultural Science College of Balcarce, Argentina (37° 45'S, 58° 18'W), by the CO2 entry rate technique. Two experiments were carried out in the autumn in March 1994 (experiment 1) and in April 1995 (experiment 2) with animals prepared with catheters in the parotid gland (collection of saliva) and into the peritonea for infusion of a solution of 14C. Six Angus steers (259 (s.e. 11) kg) were used in experiment 1 and seven (298 (s.e. 36) kg) in experiment 2. In experiment 1 animals grazed ryegrass pastures for 5·5 h in two periods of 1·5 h in the morning and of 4 h in the afternoon and in experiment 2 animals grazed oat pasture in one period of 1 h in the morning. Twenty hours before and during the experiments a solution ofNaH14CO3 was infused at a rate of 9·4 (experiment 1) and 8·1 (experiment 2) μiCi/h for 48 h with portable peristaltic pumps carried by each animal. Saliva samples were collected at least after the first 20 h of infusion. The first sample was collected in the corral just before grazing and two samples were collected in each grazing period. Also, in experiment 1 three samples were taken during resting (noon, 1 h after grazing and the next morning). In addition, bite frequency, pasture availability, plant height, in vitro digestibility and crude protein were measured. Carbon dioxide production was calculated as the ratio between the rate of infusion of 14C (μCi/h) and the specific activity of CO2 (μCi/l CO2) in saliva samples. Bite frequency was 59 and 28 bites per min on the respective pasture of ryegrass (148 g dry matter (DM) per m2 and 10·5 cm height) and oat (228 g DM per m2 and 27 cm height). Energy expenditure (EE, kJ/h per kg M0·75) in corrals was 14·9 (experiment 1) and 14·3 (experiment 2), increasing to 22·6 (proportionately 0·52) when grazing at 59 bites per min and to 16·6 (0·16) when grazing was at 28 bites per min. One hour after grazing at 59 bites per min (experiment 1) the EE was as high as during grazing, and in the next morning (after 5·5 h) of grazing remained at 19·7 kJ/h per kg M0·75 (0·32). No differences in energy expenditure were found between periods of grazing in experiment 1. It was concluded that the increase in energy expenditure of cattle due to the activity of grazing depends on the rate of biting. Grazing for 10 h at a moderate rate may boost EE proportionately by only 0·06, however grazing at the highest rates could easily add proportionately 0·20.
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